How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

380 terms

Civics and Law Midterm Exam

STUDY
PLAY
immigrants
Political machines bribed ...for their votes in exchange for jobs.
Political machines
...bribed immigrant for their votes in exchange for jobs.
unusually shaped voting districts
Creation of ... designed to favor a particular party or candidate is known as Gerrymandering.
Gerrymandering
Creation of unusually shaped voting districts designed to favor a particular party or candidate is known as...
Issue Saliency
Political scientists and professional pollsters have discovered that people tend to vote if a political party's policy agenda or an election involves issues they consider relevant and important to their daily lives, a phenomenon known as
election involves issues they consider relevant and important to their daily lives,
Political scientists and professional pollsters have discovered that people tend to vote if a political party's policy agenda or ... a phenomenon known as Issue Saliency.
The Federal Election Commission
...(FEC) mandates that any contribution of more than $5,000 be reported within 48 hours of its receipt.
contribution of more than 5,000 be reported within 48 hours of its receipt.
The Federal Election Commission (FEC) mandates that any ..
The Iowa Caucuses
... the New Hampshire Primary, and Super Tuesday are key elements of the contemporary presidential nominating process.
the New Hampshire Primary
The Iowa Caucuses... and Super Tuesday are key elements of the contemporary presidential nominating process.
Super Tuesday
The Iowa Caucuses, the New Hampshire Primary, and ... are key elements of the contemporary presidential nominating process.
the contemporary presidential nominating process.
The Iowa Caucuses, the New Hampshire Primary, and Super Tuesday are key elements of
The McCain-Feingold Act
...closed many loopholes in campaign finance laws, greatly restricting the use of 'soft money'.
soft money
The McCain-Feingold Act closed many loopholes in campaign finance laws, greatly restricting the use of
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
shaped the meaning of 'implied powers' by ruling that Congress was within its constitutional authority to establish a national bank.
implied powers
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) shaped the meaning of ... by ruling that Congress was within its constitutional authority to establish a national bank.
The Republican Party
... emerged in the 1850s, in part as a response to the issue of slavery.
1850s
The Republican Party emerged in the... in part as a response to the issue of slavery.
the issue of slavery
The Republican Party emerged in the 1850s, in part as a response to
The Federalist Papers
...were in written to present arguments favor of ratifying the Constitution.
favor of ratifying the Constitution
The Federalist Papers were in written to present arguments in
Concurrent powers.
The power to tax, to borrow money, and to define crimes and punish criminals are all examples of
define crimes and punish criminals
The power to tax, to borrow money, and to ... are all examples of Concurrent powers.
habeas corpus.
This principle ensures that citizens of the United States cannot be held in custody indefinitely
citizens of the United States
This principle ensures that ...cannot be held in custody indefinitely habeas corpus.
"right to rebel"
The idea of a ...influenced American patriots and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by John Lockes.
John Locke
The idea of a "right to rebel" influenced American patriots and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by
American patriots
The idea of a "right to rebel" influenced ... and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by John Lockes
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
In ... the Supreme Court ruled that a person accused of a crime must be advised of their Fifth Amendment rights.
a person accused of a crime must be advised of their Fifth Amendment rights.
In Miranda v. Arizona (1966) the Supreme Court ruled that ...
Thomas Hobbes
... endorsed a view of human nature that life was "short, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" and that, given these circumstances, people required a strong absolute ruler.
view of human nature
Thomas Hobbes endorsed a ... that life was "short, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" and that, given these circumstances, people required a strong absolute ruler.
Devolution
The scaling back of the size and the activities of the federal government which began under the Clinton Administration is known as
Clinton Administration
The scaling back of the size and the activities of the federal government which began under the ... is known as Devolution.
Leave No Child Behind Act [2001]
One of the primary criticisms leveled against the ... is that it is an example of an unfunded mandate.
unfunded mandate.
One of the primary criticisms leveled against the Leave No Child Behind Act [2001] is that it is an example of an
Thomas Paine's
...influence on early American politics can be found in Common Sense.
Common Sense
Thomas Paine's influence on early American politics can be found in
Marbury v. Madison.
This Supreme Court case established the principle of judicial review
judicial review
This Supreme Court case established the principle of ... Marbury v. Madison.
Senate
The ... has a constitutionally sanctioned ability to confirm executive branch appointments and ratify treaties.
confirm executive branch appointments and ratify treaties.
The Senate has a constitutionally sanctioned ability to
filibuster
A is a mechanism by which a senator can literally 'talk a bill to death' by forcing the Senate to end further discussions on a bill.
talk a bill to death
A filibuster is a mechanism by which a senator can literally ...by forcing the Senate to end further discussions on a bill.
Magna Carta
One of the earliest examples of limits being placed on a government, in this case the English monarchy, occurred in the thirteenth century with the signing of the
limits being placed on a government
One of the earliest examples of ... in this case the English monarchy, occurred in the thirteenth century with the signing of the Magna Carta.
Constitution popular sovereignty
This constitutional principle establishes that all power rests with the people, and that the people have given the government its power, via consent, through the
all power rests with the people
This constitutional principle establishes that ...and that the people have given the government its power, via consent, through the Constitution popular sovereignty.
Federalist Party
The first political party system in the United States included the ... and the Democratic-Republican Party.
Democratic-Republican Party.
The first political party system in the United States included the Federalist Party and the
FALSE STATEMENTS
All of the following are current requirements for House members and Senators EXCEPT election for members of the House; selection by state legislature for senators.
to ensure banks deal fairly with consumers.
What is the obligation of the Federal Reserve?
To lower taxes to promote spending, put tariffs on imports to promote domestic buying, to raise or lower interest rates, to implement monetary policy
obligation of the Federal Reserve
To lower taxes to promote spending, put tariffs on imports to promote domestic buying, to raise or lower interest rates, to implement monetary policy, to ensure banks deal fairly with consumers.
oligarchy
A government in which power is shared among an exclusive group is known as a/n:
A monarchy
What is the Divine Right of Rule? -... This means that someone is born with the right to rule, they can not just become a ruler, they have to be born with the right to do so.
Divine Right of Rule
A monarchy, This means that someone is born with the right to rule, they can not just become a ruler, they have to be born with the right to do so.
promotes majority rule without violating minority rights,
What is "The traditional Theory of Democracy"?- ... maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.
The traditional Theory of Democracy
promotes majority rule without violating minority rights, maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.
Hyperpluralists
...differ from pluralists in that: groups of people have power and heavily influence the government.
groups of people have power and heavily influence the government
Hyperpluralists
The Federalist papers 10 and 51
Hyperpluralist concerns about participation in the government process are grounded in concerns expressed in what documents?
public policy
The plan or approach that policy makers enact and implement in response to a particular problem or issue in society is known as?
remains a monarchy without a written constitution,
What is true about the contemporary government in Great Britain today? -
It ... but its government is strictly parliamentary, based on the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights.
based on the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights.
What is true about the contemporary government in Great Britain today?
It remains a monarchy without a written constitution, but its government is strictly parliamentary,
1650-1800s, development of democracy
The Enlightenment, or The Age of Reason, occurred during what time period?
The natural world is best understood through close observation and reason.
Many Enlightenment political philosophers based their theories on what belief?
constant state of conflict and insecurity
What was Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan view of human nature? -That people would be in a ... looking out only for themselves and their interests. The trade-off for these benefits would be surrendering some of their natural rights.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theories
- that government should act for the good of all people and that people have a social responsibility and civic duty to be involved in their governance. He further believed that living in a society provides people the security and freedom to develop new skills, which in turn strengthens the society and leads to growth.
government should act for the good of all people
What were Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theories?- that...and that people have a social responsibility and civic duty to be involved in their governance. He further believed that living in a society provides people the security and freedom to develop new skills, which in turn strengthens the society and leads to growth.
The magna Carta, authority withheld consent.
During the early seventeenth century, the English Parliament used t his power to coerce the king to sign the Petition of Right:
the English Parliament
During the early seventeenth century, ...used t his power to coerce the king to sign the Petition of Right: The magna Carta, authority withheld consent.
English bill of rights
In the late seventeenth century, William and Mary had to agree to sign this document as a precondition for becoming the King and Queen of England. What was the document?
oligarchies, dictatorship, monarchy, democracy.
What are the four types of Government that are found throughout our history?
it defined the first time England questioned the monarch's power and came up with a sort of democracy.
Why was the Magna Carta such a Landmark Document?
monarchs abusing their power was wrong
What did the Petition of Rights Refute, and identify the concepts of the English Bill Of Rights?- It was saying ... and the concepts of the English Bill of Right were Tyrants were limited with their power, the barons were given more power. parliament also had power.
studied philosophy at Oxford
Thomas Hobbes -was born on April 5,1588 -traveled to Europe a few times -published a book, Leviathan -met Galileo - and
traveled to Europe a few times
Thomas Hobbes -was born on April 5,1588...-published a book, Leviathan -met Galileo - and studied philosophy at Oxford
wrote The Two Treatises of Government
John Locke -Died October 28, 1704 -taught philosophy at Oxford -was friends with Sir Isaac Newton -lived in Holland -and
was friends with Sir Isaac Newton
John Locke -Died October 28, 1704 -taught philosophy at Oxford -... -lived in Holland -and wrote The Two Treatises of Government
the preamble
3 major parts of the Declaration of Independence - ... a reflection of what Thomas Paine said in Common Sense, and philosophies of John Locke.
a reflection of what Thomas Paine said in Common Sense,
3 major parts of the Declaration of Independence - the preamble, ... and philosophies of John Locke.
philosophies of John Locke.
3 major parts of the Declaration of Independence - the preamble, a reflection of what Thomas Paine said in Common Sense, and
he built his house Monticello
Five facts about Thomas Jefferson are, he wrote the Declaration of Independence, ... he was president of the United States from 1801-1809, He was born in Albermarle County, Virginia, and he had six children.
He was born in Albermarle County, Virginia
Five facts about Thomas Jefferson are, he wrote the Declaration of Independence, he built his house, Monticello, he was president of the United States from 1801-1809, ..., and he had six children.
Breaking from foreign dominion
What Paine says must happen before America can be happy -...is the what Thomas Paine says must happen before America can be happy.
selective incorporation
In Gitlow v New York, the Supreme Court established the doctrine of?
10
How many Amendments are in the Bill of Rights?
it gives the right to freedom of speech, religion, press, and assembly.
Why is the 1st Amendment considered to be the most important one?
Protections of criminal
The English Bill of Rights and the U.S. Bill of Rights included rights and protections relating to all the following:Right to petition the government, ...defendants, Freedom of Speech, Right to bear Arms
total of 27.
How many Amendments does the Constitution of the United States have?
when a nation has two governments that share the same constituents.
Federalism.
enumerated, implied, and inherent.
What are the 3 types of Delegated Powers?
Dual Federalism and Cooperative Federalism
What are the 2 Multiple layers of Federalism?
federal, concurrent, and the reserved (state) powers
What are the powers of government
to get rid of the elitism and expand the average person's political possibilities
Democratic Platform
defending the highly protected tariffs and the federal authority.
Whig Platform
Race,
factors that determine party identification:whichever party a person chooses or prefers. ... gender, income, religious views
religious views
whichever party a person chooses or prefers. Race, gender, income, ...
Race, Age, Gender, Education, and Socio-Economic status
5 demographic categories
six-person bipartisan
Federal Election Commission- The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is a ... created by the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974. It is where the FEC are responsible for the following the financial laws of campaigning and contributing to public funding for presidential campaigns.
Federal Election Campaign Act in 1974.
Federal Election Commission- The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is a six-person bipartisan created by the ... It is where the FEC are responsible for the following the financial laws of campaigning and contributing to public funding for presidential campaigns.
an unlimited amount of years (but representative are elected every two years, and senators are elected every six years.)
How many years can a member of Congress serve?
535
How many members of Congress are there?
435 Representatives, 100 senators
How many Representatives and Senators are there?
requirements to run for a spot in the House
to be at least 25 years old when seated, to have been a citizen of the United States for at least 7 years, to live in the state they are representing, and it is customary that they live in the district that they represent.
unlimited amount of terms (but they are elected every six years.)
How many years can a senator serve?
qualifications for a Senator?
a citizen of the United States for 9 years, be at least 30 years old, and live in the state they are representing.
democracy
A form of government, a system of selecting policymakers, and a way of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
dictatorship
A form of government in which one person controls all aspects of governing, the general population has little or no political participation, and their rights are restricted.
direct democracy
System or process that depends on the voice of the people (and not representatives), usually through referendums or initiatives, to make public policy decisions.
elite and class theory
A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
hyperpluralism
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism.
indirect democracy
A system, also called "representative democracy," in which the people elect representatives to run the government and express their sentiments.
linkage institutions
The channels or access points through which issues and people's policy preferences get on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, elections, political parties, and interest groups are the three main linkage institutions.
monarchy
Form of government in which one person has control, claiming power comes from "divine rights" passed from one generation of the royal class to the next.
oligarchy
Form of government, sometimes called "dictatorship of the party," in which power is shared among an exclusive group, and people have few rights and limited participation in government.
pluralist theory
A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
policy agenda
According to John Kingdon, "the list of subjects or problems to which government officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time."
policy-making institutions
The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The U.S. Constitution established three policymaking institutions: the Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth policymaking institution.
policy-making system
The process by which political problems are communicated by the voters and acted upon by government policymakers. The policymaking system begins with people's needs and expectations for governmental action. When people confront government officials with problems that they want solved, they are trying to influence the government's policy agenda. Also called "Policy-Making Cycle."
political socialization
According to Richard Dawson, "the process through which an individual acquires his [or her] particular political orientations--his [or her] knowledge, feelings, and evaluations regarding his [or her] political world."
public policy
A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.
representative monarchy
A form of government in which the monarch is more of a figurehead than a dictator, and the people have political and civil rights and can participate in parliamentary government.
republic
A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern. In contrast to a direct democracy, in which people themselves make laws, people in a republic select representatives who make the laws.
traditional democratic theory
A theory about how a democratic government makes its decisions. According to Robert Dahl, its cornerstones are equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, final control over the agenda, and inclusion.
The obligation of the Federal Reserve
To lower taxes to promote spending, put tariffs on imports to promote domestic buying, to raise or lower interest rates, to implement monetary policy, to ensure banks deal fairly with consumers.
oligarchy
A government in which power is shared among an exclusive group is known as a/n:
The Divine Right of Rule
A monarchy,This means that someone is born with the right to rule, they can not just become a ruler, they have to be born with the right to do so.
The traditional Theory of Democracy
promotes majority rule without violating minority rights, maintaining the willingness to compromise, and recognizing the worth and dignity of all people.
groups of people have power and heavily influence the government.
Hyperpluralists differ from pluralists in that
The Federalist papers 10 and 51
Hyperpluralist concerns about participation in the government process are grounded in concerns expressed in what documents?
Public policy
The plan or approach that policy makers enact and implement in response to a particular problem or issue in society is known as
It remains a monarchy without a written constitution, but its government is strictly parliamentary, based on the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights, and English Bill of Rights.
What is true about the contemporary government in Great Britain today?
1650-1800s, development of democracy
The Enlightenment, or The Age of Reason, occurred during what time period?
That the natural world is best understood through close observation and reason.
Many Enlightenment political philosophers based their theories on what belief?
Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan view of human nature.
That people would be in a constant state of conflict and insecurity, looking out only for themselves and their interests. The trade-off for these benefits would be surrendering some of their natural rights.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's theories
that government should act for the good of all people and that people have a social responsibility and civic duty to be involved in their governance. He further believed that living in a society provides people the security and freedom to develop new skills, which in turn strengthens the society and leads to growth.
John Locke
The idea of a "right to rebel" influenced American patriots and also found its way into the American Declaration of Independence. This concept was initially expressed by whom?
The Magna Carta, authority withheld consent.
During the early seventeenth century, the English Parliament used t his power to coerce the king to sign the Petition of Right:
English bill of rights
In the late seventeenth century, William and Mary had to agree to sign this document as a precondition for becoming the King and Queen of England. What was the document?
oligarchies, dictatorship, monarchy, democracy.
What are the four types of Government that are found throughout our history?
government, defined land representative, people
What are the four characteristics that a Nation State must have to exist?
public goods and transportation, political socialization, knowledge and understanding of government laws, protection,employment
What are the six basic and essential needs of the people?
Because it defined the first time England questioned the monarch's power and came up with a sort of democracy.
Why was the Magna Carta such a Landmark Document?
5 facts about Thomas Hobbes.
Thomas Hobbes -was born on April 5,1588 -traveled to Europe a few times -published a book, Leviathan -met Galileo - and studied philosophy at Oxford
5 facts about John Locke.
John Locke -Died October 28, 1704 -taught philosophy at Oxford -was friends with Sir Isaac Newton -lived in Holland -and wrote The Two Treatises of Government
Consent of the governed
when the people agree to whatever the government or congress has asked them.
Judicial interpretation
a way of thinking that explains how judges and all judiciary people should understand the law, especially important documents, legislative documents, constitutions, etc.
An unwritten constitution is
a constitution that is not written, but there is some sort of government.
Federalists
people that support federalism, which is 2 different levels of government that check and balance each other so that neither can have more power.
Anti-federalists
people that do not support federalism.
Equal Rights Amendment
is a amendment that gave equal rights to former slaves, it was based on the statement that all men are created equal.
Exclusionary rule
a rule that states if policemen don't tell the Miranda warning before talking to a suspect, it does not work as evidence in court.
Libel
is when someone writes or says something about another person that is not true and it messes up the person's reputation.
The right to privacy
stated in the Bill of Rights and it basically says that people have a right to privacy, and searches that don't have a probable cause are not allowed.
The Bill of Rights
a document that gives rights, including political rights to the people (of America).
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
Influenced colonist to become independent from Britain.Called out king George III said he didn't deserve American respect.Promoted idea of an American republic and freedom.Britain fought back, made the prohibitory act-closed colonial ports and considered rebellion against the crown as treason.
Jefferson's Declaration of Independence (the Preamble)
That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States."- Richard Henry leeHad a postponed vote.Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson were chosen to work on the Declaration3 parts- preamble, attacked king George 3rd for American rights, and failed attempts to petition king and colony independence.July 4th defied England and declared independenceInfluenced countries-France
Early State Constitutions
Made by each state-about brit. Government, respect for status, fairness, due process, with inclusions of individualism and control over excess government authority, some with bicameral legislature.
The Articles of Confederation
Made during revolutionary war- format for united government.Influenced by Iroquois confederacyEstablished "league of friendship and perpetual union" between statesDeal with common problemsLimited authorityVote from 9 statesCongress had no powerLed to civil unrest- shays rebellionWeakness
The Annapolis Convention
Conference to discuss ways to strengthen economyMet in Annapolis Maryland5/13 representatives from states showedCalled for another meeting in may of the next year- Philadelphia convention-made new document, US constitutionNY, NJ, DE, PN, VA
National primary
a proposed system for conducting the United States presidential primaries and caucuses, in which all of the primaries and caucuses would occur on the same day (not currently the case).
Proportional representation
representation of all parties in proportion to their popular vote
Conversion
a voluntary act by one person inconsistent with the ownership rights of another. It is a tort of strict liability. Its criminal counterpart is theft. ...
New Deal Coalition
alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1968, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period
Frontloading
the tendency, which has become apparent in recent years, for states to move their primaries and caucuses forward, in an attempt to be among the first states holding a nominating contest.
federalism
is a system in which two or more governments share power over the same constituents. Ultimate political authority, or sovereignty, is shared between the governments. The national government is supreme and holds powers on certain issues, and the state governments have the same sovereignty over different issues. The workings of the federal system and how national, state, and local governments relate is described as intergovernmental relations.
anti-federalists
those opposed to ratifying the Constitution. They questioned the proposed power of the strong national government and pointed out the dangers of tyranny and threats to the rights and liberties that they had recently won from England. -Charles Beard
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
wrote the federalist papers.-as a political theory in defense of the Constitution and federalism.
Dual federalism
layer cake federalism-describes a certain form of federalism where the national government and state governments have distinct realms of authority that do not overlap and into which the other should not intrude. Some equality of the governments is implied, with the federal government acting as the means to link the states
Decentralized politics
are basically when the government gives the citizens of United States and/or their representative more input in the public decision making.
Unitary Government
occurs when one centralized body is the sole governing unit.- Britain
Confederations
loose central governments that are dominated by the stronger state governments
powers granted to the government by the constitution
There are three types of delegated powers: enumerated powers, implied powers, and inherent powers. Enumerated powers, sometimes called expressed powers, are given directly by the Constitution- ability to declare war maintain a military etc.Implied powers are those powers that are reasonably inferred by enumerated powers. The need for these implied powers is spelled out in the "necessary and proper" clause-Congress has the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States." This clause is often referred to as the "elastic clause, are powers that are intrinsically held by any national government of a sovereign state. Examples of inherent powers include the power to control immigration, the power to acquire territory, and the power to quell insurrections.
reserved powers
State government powers not given to the national government but which are not denied to the states,
Concurrent powers
Powers that are shared by both the national and state governments
Supremacy clause
states that there are three items that are the superlative law of the land: the Constitution, the laws of the national government which are not otherwise unconstitutional, and treaties, which can only be formed by the national government.
Cooperative federalism
evolved from the concept of dual federalism. Cooperative federalism is often described using a marble cake metaphor, where the layers of government are less distinct and share responsibilities and policies. In this model, citizens are considered more than inhabitants of a state within a nation, they are considered citizens of both the state and the national governments.
fiscal federalism
model of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal government system example States can choose to reject the regulations, but then they reject the funds as well
Types of grant-in-aids
categorical grants, formula grants, project grants, and block grants. Categorical grants are funds targeted for specific purposes such as roads, schools, and urban development. Formula grants give money according to a defined set of rules. For example, more urban development dollars go to states with higher urban populations. These grants stipulate eligibility and the amount recipients may receive. Project grants are competitive and can create economic opportunity for the states. project grants tend to be less dictatorial, giving states more discretion over how the funds are spent.
form of federal aid
revenue-sharing program. The government gave a pool of federal tax collections to the states as "shared" money with virtually no restrictions. These types of grants were well received by the states; however, they were partially responsible for the huge federal deficits in the 1970's and 1980's. The Reagan Administration ended the revenue-sharing program in 1987.
unfunded mandates
which varies depending on the type of grant (categorical, formula, project, or block). Sometimes the federal government requires the states to match the funds that it supplies to implement policies. This can lead to a large burden for state taxpayers. Many times, when Congress passes legislation without enough or any national funding to support them, they are deemed- No Child Left Behind Act
Devolution
scaling back of the size and activities of the national government, placing the burden of a wide range of domestic programs on state governments. One prime example of devolution has occurred in the area of welfare. Congress introduced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Act (AFDC) in 1935. This act guaranteed states funds to appropriate to poor families. AFDC was originally an entitlement program, but legislation of the 1990's changed this, making welfare a block grant and placing the costs and the administration of the program in the hands of the states.
Intergovernmental relations
about federalism and how it is split up between the different governments and how they can check and balance each other out.
privileges and immunities clause
clause prohibits the states treating citizens badly and talks about the rights of citizens.
extradition
when a criminal or a suspected criminal is taken from one government and given to another
Charles beard
wrote "An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution" and basically said that the government wrote the Constitution to keep the wealthy in power and that the founding fathers wanted it that way
Alexander Hamilton
wrote "The Federalist Papers" with John Jay and James Madison. He stated in one of the papers that the nation would always have the loyalty of the people because the state had the power civil and criminal justice.
James Madison
wrote "The Federalist Papers" with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton. In one of his articles, he talked about how the Constitution was unbiased. He was also the 4th president of the United States.
The Slaughterhouse cases
helped with the theory that each state was in charge of all the area within its borders.
Grant-in-aid
when the government gives states or certain people/places money to do certain things, like build a highway. However, the recipient has to go by the rules that the government provides like the speed limit. If they do not, they will most likely not receive more grants for similar projects.
Gibbons v Ogden (1824)
about the trading all over. It gave Congress the ability to control almost all of the trading activity between the different states.
National primary
is a system for the United States presidential primaries and the political parties (or caucuses) and all of them are happening on the same day.
Proportional representation
is when all of the parties are represented based on the proportion of their popular vote.
Conversion
is when someone takes something from another person without his or her approval.
The New Deal Coalition
was when interest groups and supporters voted for the Democrats for about 36 years and promoted the New Deal.
Frontloading
is when states put their caucuses and primaries forward so that they can be the first state to have nominating contests.
Democratic and Whig Platforms
The Democrat's Platform was to get rid of the elitism and expand the average person's political possibilities. The Whig's Platform was defending the highly protected tariffs and the federal authority
party identification
party a person chooses or prefers. Race, gender, income, religious views are some of the many factors that determine party identification.
differences between party realignment and dealignment
Party Realignment is where the minor party has a better political status than the major party does and usually ends up winning an important election. Party Dealignment is when there is no dominant party and they are all about equal.
political party
a group of people who work to influence policy agendas and hold government power by seeking to elect candidates to public office/ group of people who try to influence policy agendas and whose ultimate goal is to run the government by getting their favorite candidates elected.
The Federalist and Democratic-Republican Party
first political parties1796 to 1824. centered around Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
Democratic and Whig Party
second political party system, 1828 until 1856.
Federalist party
Alexander Hamilton, who led the Federalist Party
Democrat Party
Jacksonian era- Democrats were followers of General Andrew Jackson. changed from Democratic party to democratic-republican party
Democratic-Republican party
Thomas Jefferson, who led the Democratic-Republicans (originally called the Anti-Federalists).
Republican Party
consisted of many former Whigs and developed as a third party in the 1850's. Supported by farmers, laborers, and business owners, as well as newly freed African-Americans, the Republicans gathered enough support to elect Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860.
Whig Party
loose coalition that followed Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.
Progressive Party
third party that formed in the early 1900's,
Third Party
begin as single-issue parties that oppose or promote a certain social, economic, or political topic. For example, the Republican Party formed in the 1850's as a third party in opposition to slavery. Similarly, in 2000, Ralph Nader formed the Green Party that focused on environmental issues. can also splinter out of major parties, forming party offshoots. Act as spoilers. Electoral contenders other than the two major parties. Although third parties can influence elections, they rarely win. Examples include the Populist Party, the Green Party, and the American Independent Party.
political institutions
limit the power and influence of third parties in America.
functions of political parties
local, state, and national politics. One function is to create a rally point or "home" for diverse groups that share similar economic, social, or political concerns. If there is dissention among factions, political party representatives work to find compromise and build coalitions. The more people they can bring together, the more likely it is that their candidates will be elected. generate excitement about an election. The parties organize rallies, parades, conventions, and speeches to capture voters' attention and educate them about candidates' backgrounds and campaign platforms. simplify the voting process for the electorate.
partisanship
officeholders base their decisions on the party's interests.
National level
One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national chairperson is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually hand-picked by the presidential nominee.One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national committee is composed of representatives from the states and territories. The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
Local level
A committee within a political party, it is centered on state districts or precincts. These committees have a chairperson and work toward getting people to vote by sponsoring registration drives, recruiting new party members, and finding local candidates.
Primary election
Election held to select the candidates for an upcoming general election.
political machines
A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
different members
rank-and-file, party regulars, party activists, and party purists1. Political party members whose main participation in politics is usually voting in primary and general elections. These members tend to vote straight party tickets in elections and follow the leads of local party officials.2.Political party members who typically work at polls, take lesser party roles, contribute money to campaigns, and vote along party lines. These members tend to compromise on important issues, and they are mostly concerned with winning elections.3.Political party members who are deeply concerned about party functions and highly involved in the electoral process. These members donate funds, demand a voice in party agendas, and have a strong belief in their party's ideology.4.Political party members with the higest level of political involvement. These members put issues ahead of winning elections, withhold support from candidates who do not share their stance on issues, and are usually very active in special interest groups. If purists feel like a party ignores their concerns, they often break away and form a third party.
ideologue
individual with strong philosophical or ideological leanings. Generally unwilling to budge to compromise or work with others with differing views.
political ideology
A coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies.
divided government
Situation in which the Congress and the presidency are controlled by opposing political parties. Also called "divided-party government."
critical election
An electoral "earthquake" whereby new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era
demography
the study of the characteristics of the human population, such as age, race, and gender
salient
Having meaningful, day-to-day significance in one's life. This term applies to political issues on which people are most likely to vote. Also called "issue saliency."
voter intensity
gauges the likelihood that people will vote and otherwise participate in elections. It is measured by how strongly people feel about their role as the electorate, whether they feel a personal stake in the policy agenda, and their degree of political socialization.
consensus
Occurs when the nation has a high level of agreement on policy issues, and people do not feel the obligation or necessity to participate in political activities.
external efficacy
Refers to whether people believe their political efforts make a difference in policy decisions.
internal efficacy
Refers to how well people understand the political system and whether they participate in political activities.
polarization
Occurs when the nation disagrees on issues and the policy agenda. During times of polarization, people are usually compelled to "weigh in" by contributing to campaigns, voting, and discussing the issues.
political efficacy
The belief that one's political participation really matters--that one's vote can actually make a difference.
Olson's law of large groups
states that the bigger the group is, the more "free-riders" there will be.
Public interest
is the well being of the people.
Collective goods
refer to many different ideas, but it generally means trying to find some specific "good" (anything) that benefits most everybody in the community.
The right-to-work law
less than half of the states enforce this law, but it basically states that it is forbidden for employers to make joining a work union a requirement and that employees are able to choose for themselves if they want to join that union.
Retrospective voting
is a decision on an issued based off of prior performance
Civic duty
is the obligations and responsibilities of citizens.
The mandate theory of elections
basically states that the winning candidate will carry out all the things they promised to the public while they were campaigning, like the things on their platforms and their politics of course.
Sub governments
are interest groups that take care of all things presidential election.
Initiative
is when any registered voter could get a petition signed to get support to come up with or change any law.
A class action lawsuit
is a lawsuit filed by a class of people who have all be wronged or affected by a certain situation.
The large increase in money spent on media (particularly advertising)
One major factor driving up the cost of elections
true facts
a. There is little evidence that advertising has a significant effect on voters' opinions of the candidates
(b.) Advertising does increase a candidate's name an image recog(b.) Advertising does increase a candidate's name an image recognitionnition(c. )The need to compete in an increasingly high-tech world significantly increases candidate's campaign costsd. Candidates also work to receive free media coverage by attending high profile events in the community
The high-spending incumbents
Although money does not always directly translate into a great probability of election some studies do suggest that spending large sums of money during a campaign can, in fact, significantly and positively increase the changes of election for which candidate?
The Federal Election Commission (FEC)
mandates that any contribution of more than $5,000 be reported within 48 hours.
interest group
An organization of individuals with similar policy goals who enter the political process to influence legislation that affects the organization's interests.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
When a corporation, union, or some other interest group becomes directly involved in the electoral process by funding campaigns, providing testimony for campaigns, and recruiting members to volunteer for particular candidates, called electioneering, they become a Political Action Committee (PAC). The main purpose of a PAC is to raise and distribute funds to advocate the political goals of its members.
supreme court ruled that it is unconstitutional for congress to limit the amount of money an individual may spend supporting a candidate if the money spent is made independent of the campaign (overturned)
What did Buckley v. Valeo (1976), the U.S. Supreme Court rule?
Main reasons for lower incumbency rates for Senators compared to members of the house
because they report to diverse constituents across an entire state, while House representatives report to a more uniform, and usually much smaller, district. The difference in constituent diversity and size opens up a larger base for opposition to a Senate incumbent. In addition, senators who run every six years have less contact with the voter making the Senate incumbent seat harder to maintain.
free publicity and advertising, also a chance to show presidency
What are some of the advantages enjoyed by incumbents in a congressional elections? (First, since many Americans know that incumbency often leads to re-election, it tends to stifle election competition. A second reason incumbents hold an advantage is that they have an almost two-to-one advantage in raising money over new candidates. Incumbents typically have an easier time gaining the financial support of Political Action Committees (PACs) and interest groups since these organizations can review voting records to verify support for their cause. Another advantage incumbents have is that they often get free publicity. A few of the ways incumbents gain press coverage include holding press conferences, making speeches in Congress, introducing bills, and taking trips—junkets—to their districts. Incumbents can also use their franking privileges to inundate voters with mailings prior to the elections. These mail pieces can come in the form of a "newsletter" or "information letter," and while they may not necessarily ask for voter support, they can point out the positive actions the member of Congress is taking for the constituent. Credit claiming is also helpful at campaign time. Incumbents can stress their policy making record and emphasize their stands on new policy issues. They can also demonstrate how they have helped their constituents by introducing bills, voting for legislation, and bringing pork-barrel legislation—federal projects, grants, and contracts—to their districts. A final way in which incumbents hold an advantage over new candidates is that they may use casework, or the direct consideration of a constituent's problem, when trying to gain re-election.)
37 %
What percentage of people vote in midterm or off year elections?
How and why current size of HOR (House of Representatives) is 435 members
In 1929, Congress decided that there were an adequate number of members in the House of Representatives and fixed its size at 435 members. These 435 seats are then apportioned among the states every ten years, depending on the population of each state. Representatives are elected every two years and can serve an unlimited number of terms.
Current requirements for House members
House members -They have to be 25 or older when they are seated, must have been a US citizen for 7 years, and must be an inhabitant of the state they are elected from. It is customary they live in the district they represent.
Marginal districts.
Close elections, often necessitating great party involvement, most often occur in what kind of district?
Elements of current electoral system
A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, The Electoral College, providing for the selection of the president by electors from each state. Although the Electoral College vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner-take-all rule gives power to big states.
Why Iowa caucuses, New Hampshire Primary and Super Tuesday are essential for presidential nominating process
The Iowa Caucus and the New Hampshire Primary are two of the most important components of the presidential election process. Many states hold primaries or caucuses on the second Tuesday of March, called Super Tuesday. This day often produces a clear favorite and will eliminate several candidates. On Super Tuesday, candidates must establish a presence in several states simultaneously, which requires large amounts of campaign funding. After Super Tuesday a majority of unsuccessful candidates are likely to withdraw from the race and endorse the frontrunner.
Factors that can threaten fortunes of incumbent president and electoral challenger
The presence of a popular third-party candidate is a major concern to both incumbents and challengers. Although a third-party candidate has never won the presidency, they have swayed enough single-issue voters to jeopardize the mainstream candidate's victory in key states.
They will create a plank which is an extension of the platform (of the party's core beliefs, is intended to appease members on the party fringe)
In what way does a political party sometimes appease member of the party 'fringe'?
They have to do everything that the president does
What are some of the responsibilities of the acting president?
When electing the president they choose candidates based on their salience. (Has to do with split ticket voting.)
What is the phenomenon wherein people frequently pay the most attention to the things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predisposition?
difference between an interest group and a political Action Committee (PAC)
An interest group is an organization of individuals with similar policy goals who enter the political process to influence legislation that affects the organization's interests
soft money
Political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level (buttons, pamphlets, yard signs, etc.)
platform
The set of beliefs and tenets a party values and intends to emphasize during a campaign. The goal of a platform is to create consensus and unity among different factions of the party.
A proposed piece of legislation (it has not been passed)
What is a bill?
they assign bills to committees based on the content of the bills (they are also 2nd in line to fill the presidency if the office becomes vacant)
What power does the Speaker of the House have?
Executive, Legislative and judicial
What are the three Branches of our Government?
25 years old (when seated), citizenship for at least 7 years, and an inhabitant of the state they are representing.
What are the qualifications of the House of Representatives?
Iron triangle
a committee made up of congressional committees, subcommittees, and corresponding bureaucratic agencies and interest groups that are affected by the laws considered by the committees. They form these triangles because all of the groups are affected by something and together they can dominate on a political level (they work together to get benefits for one or more things that they have in common).
filibuster
when one or more Senators want to "talk a bill to death" this is done so that they can prevent other Senators from voting. Basically, they talk forever about the bill, and they do not have to sit down until they are finished talking (which could be a very long time).
The House Rules Committee
a part of the House of Representatives, they decide the rules for the debate of each bill, and they are the most powerful group in the house.
Committee Chairs
very influential people that are the head of a committee. They strongly influence the congressional agenda with things such as subcommittees, staff, and schedule.
Position taking
when members of the congress take positions on certain issues and things so that they have a better chance of being re-elected.
Instructed Delegate
a legislator that represents the voters, they vote based on what the voters want, even if they do not agree with it.
Bicameral Legislature
when you have two houses (chambers) that make up the legislature.
Seniority system
a system that gives the oldest members of congress a preference when significant jobs- such as the committee chairperson are chosen.
Legislative Oversight
when congress monitors and evaluates the executive branch to make sure that they are doing things right (i.e. following through by carrying out the laws that congress has passed).
Baker versus Carr (1962)
when the court ruled that one man means one vote, it also gave the federal courts jurisdiction over the apportionment of the states to make sure that every citizen's vote was given an equal amount.
Senatorial Courtesy
when the president submits a name or names of a potential senator(s) to the state where that person works.
Roll-Call Vote
when the roll of the congress members is taken, and when their name is called, they answer either yea or nay and it is recorded.
Congress
Legislative branch and representative branch of the U.S. government that is comprised of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
House of Representatives
One of the two houses of Congress, it is comprised of 435 representatives elected according to each state's population.
Senate
One of the two houses of Congress, it is comprised of two representatives from each state.
Apportionment
Method of dividing seats of the House of Representatives according to the population of each state.
Reapportionment
The reallocation of seats in the House of Representatives every ten years based on a state's overall population in proportion to other states.
Gerrymander
The redrawing of a political district to favor a particular candidate or kind of candidate, especially an incumbent or a member of a particular political party, or for racial purposes.
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
Majority Leader
The floor leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
Minority Leader
The floor leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate.
Whips
Assistants to the majority or minority leader in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Whips are charged with making sure members vote with the party on key issues.
Standing Committees
Subject matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in specialized policy areas.
Joint Committees
Congressional committees that draw members from both the House and the Senate. They meet to discuss specific policy areas.
Select Committees
Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose, such as investigating a governmental situation or crisis.
Seventeenth Amendment
Passed by Congress May 13, 1912 and ratified April 8, 1913, this amendment modified Article I, section 3 of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. senators. Prior to its passage, senators were not chosen by the popular vote but directly by state legislatures.
Cloture
A strategy used in the Senate to avoid a filibuster by limiting the length of debate on a bill. To invoke cloture, 60 Senators must vote for it.
Public Bills
A bill that affects all citizens and encompasses issues such as taxes and how government money is spent.
Private Bills
A bill that affects small groups, individuals, or places. Examples include money owed to citizens or for acts that impact a limited number of people
Resolution
Legislative act passed by the House and Senate to state opinions on matters, change the procedures of their individual bodies, and address issues within the houses. Resolutions are not laws, and the president does not need to sign them.
Joint Resolutions
Legislative acts used to address incidental or short-term matters. Once passed by both houses of Congress, a joint resolution becomes law, so the president needs to sign it.
Concurrent Resolutions
A statement of the "sense" or opinion of the Congress passed by both the House and the Senate. Not binding as a matter of law.
Rules Committee
A committee in the House of Representatives that assigns a calendar date for bills, makes rules limiting how long bills can be debated, how many amendments can be made, and other housekeeping aspects. This Committee can also decide not to assign rules for a bill, which ends the bill's journey through the legislative process.
Committee of the Whole
A special situation in which members of the House of Representatives act as one large committee instead of acting as the House itself. This situation speeds the legislative process because only 100 members need to be present, and the Committee has fewer rules. The Committee cannot pass a bill, so after the House is again session, 218 members must be present to vote.
Conference Committee
Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out differences and bring back a single bill.
The groups in the journey of passing a bill.
1. House Clerk assigns number and title2. Speaker of House Assigns bill to certain committees3. Goes through the house committee (most bills get stopped here)4. Sub Committee (hold hearings, adds amendments, etc. the bill either goes back to full committee or ends)5. Rules Committee (assigns rules or ends the bills)6. House Floor - Committee of the whole or puts the bill to a vote-several ways to vote- voice, division/standing, teller, roll-call votes.7. Goes to senate in smae form - instead of speaker goes not maj. and min. leaders and no rules committee.
(1) he can sign it,(2) he can veto it, (3)he can let it become a bill without signing it, or (4)he can pocket veto it
What are the President's options with the bill?
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to determine whether acts of Congress--and by implication, the executive branch--are in accord with the U.S. Constitution. Judicial review is a basic principle of the Constitutional system and was established by Chief Justice John Marshall in the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison in 1803.
Pork-barrel Legislation
The mighty list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions in the district of a member of Congress. Also called "pork-barrel legislation."
bill
A proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the House of Representatives or the Senate can formally submit a bill for consideration.
filibuster
A filibuster occurs when opponents of a proposed piece of legislation debate the topic as long as possible to prevent the Senate from voting on the bill.
Requirements for president
35 years old, must be born in the United States, must live in the United States for 14 years.
President pro tempore
Acting president of the United States Senate in the absence of the vice president who is the constitutionally authorized president of the body.
25th amendment
Passed in 1951, this amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if both the vice president and the president's cabinet determine that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
22nd amendment
Passed in 1951, this constitutional amendment limits presidents to two terms of office.
Commander-in-Chief, Chief Legislator, Chief Executive, Chief Diplomat, and Head of State
Five roles of president
affect voter behavior in the western United States
Media coverage and announcements of early election results in the eastern United States can... This "time-zone" effect is one the results of exit polls.
prepared speeches and remarks.
Given the increasing power of the media and multiple ways in which the public receives, and considers, communication from the president, modern presidents generally confine their press conferences to
100 days
Early in a new president's administration, public approval ratings typically run high, in part because of the prestige of a successful electoral campaign and in part because many in the public are hopeful of new policies and approach to governance. However, this 'honeymoon' period does not last long. Indeed, many presidents have found that this period lasts approximately
clemency, reprieve, and pardon
The most common way in which a current president can be involved directly with judicial matters is through the use of
clemency
The president's power to grant reprieves and pardons for federal offenses, excluding impeachment.
reprieve
Postponing the execution of a sentence for a crime. Article II, Section 2, Clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution gives Presidents the power to grant reprieves except in impeachment cases.
pardon
Discharge from punishment and legal penalties for a crime. Article II, Section 2, Clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution gives Presidents the power to grant pardons except in impeachment cases.
the president's chief of staff.
According to political scientists, the pyramid or hierarchical model of presidential management relies heavily upon
ad hoc structure.
One of the clear indicators that corporate managerial styles have influenced recent presidencies is the increasing use of committees, task forces, and special advisors to develop and to implement policy. Both Bill Clinton and George W. Bush have employed this approach to presidential leadership and management known as the
examples of a president's failure as Crisis Manager.
President Herbert Hoover's response to the 1929 Stock Market crash (and ensuing economic depression) and President Jimmy Carter's response to the 1979 Iran hostage situation are both
crisis manager
the president handles national crises, such as the Oklahoma City bombing during Bill Clinton's presidency and the September 11, 2001, attacks during George W. Bush's presidency.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB.)
Although the president must develop and deliver a budget to Congress by the first Monday in February, the technical aspects of the budget are actually produced by
relatively set with little deviation from year to year
Despite the highly politicized nature of the budget-making process, the federal budget is .... For example, the largest federal expenditures consistently occur in the area of entitlement spending.
commander-in-chief.
One of the president's constitutionally defined roles is that of ... In this capacity, President Lyndon B. Johnson won congressional approval in 1964 to undertake increased military action in Vietnam. Several years later, in a reaction against what was perceived as 'excessive' presidential power, Congress passed a law limiting the president's ability to undertake military operations. This law was "The War Powers Act".
25th amendment
Under the terms and conditions outlined in the....a president of a vice-president with a majority of the cabinet may initiate the process by which a president is deemed temporarily or permanently incapacitates.
House ofRepresentatives
only the ... can impeach the president
The Speaker of the House is the next in line to assume the presidency if neither the president nor the vice-president can serve
The Speaker of the House is the next in line to assume the presidency if neither the president nor the vice-president can serve
If no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral votes, the House of Representatives selects the president
If no presidential candidate receives a majority of the electoral votes, the House of Representatives selects the president
Only two presidents have been impeached in United States history and neither was removed from office as a result of the process.
regarding the presidency:
Richard Neustadt
According to many political scientists, the president has several powers not outlined in the Constitution but vital to the success of any particular presidency. According to political scientist and historian ....the president's most real and vital power is persuade.
persuasion
According to many political scientists, the president has several powers not outlined in the Constitution but vital to the success of any particular presidency. According to political scientist and historian Richard Neustadt, the president's most real and vital power is
only serving two terms,
George Washington established the precedent of a president ...a tradition that continued well into the twentieth century when it was broken by Franklin Roosevelt.
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington established the precedent of a president only serving two terms, a tradition that continued well into the twentieth century when it was broken by
the Presidential succession Act.
The dawn of the atomic age in 1945 led to concerns that the president and the vice-president might not survive an attack, leaving the nation essentially 'leaderless.' In response, Congress passed
Two ways president can be elected
by either getting most of the electoral votes (in the electoral college) or by succession.
Roosevelt,Coolidge,Truman, Johnson,Ford
Vice Presidents who have become Presidents through succession?
Speaker of the house
Who becomes President if the Vice President is unable to assume the role?
"treason, bribery, or high crimes and misdemeanors"
Grounds for impeachment
Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton
two Presidents have been Impeached? (but not removed from office)
president's salary and benefits
The president's salary in 2004 was $400,000 they received a $50,000 expense allowance, admission to a Boeing 747 and a helicopter, secret service protection for them and their family members, complete health care, and they also get a pension.
powers cic has
As Commander in Chief, the president's powers include: being in charge of the military through the DoD (Department of Defense) and having power over military leaders to make sure the national security goals are met. The president is in charge of the military even if he has to share that power with Congress.
the white house staff
The Chief in Staff, the political advisors, policy offices, and support services.
A strong economy, foreign travel and handling a crisis well
contribute to a high Presidential approval rate
Weakness in the economy, a recession, drops in the stock market, and rising unemployment
contribute to a low Presidential approval rate.
Press secretary's job
to deal with the press, they conduct the information given and inform the press of the president's actions and views.`
budget surplus
when the government's available funds are more than they spend in a fiscal year.
budget deficit
when the amount that the government spends exceeds the amount of money that they have available in a fiscal year.
presidential coattail
The situation occurring when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president. Recent studies show that few races are won this way.
executive agreement
Agreement made between the President of the United States and the leader of another country or countries. It has the same effect as a treaty but does not need to be ratified by the Senate.
Pyramid Model
A White House management model based on a strict military-like chain of command; it emphasizes a powerful Chief of Staff who runs the White House staff and acts as a clearinghouse for information and access to the president. This model was used by Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan.
Hub and Spoke Model
A White House management model featuring a circular structure, in which the president has a dominant role in everyday White House actitivies and directly controls the administration. This model was used by Presidents Franklin Roosevelt and John Kennedy.
Circular Structure
White House management model in which staff and advisors report directly to the Oval Office. Presidents Carter and Clinton tried using this structure but eventually changed to structures that expanded the Chief of Staff's authority.
Ad Hoc Structure
A White House management model that combines leadership and management practices that the CEO of a large corporation might use. This model was used by Presidents Clinton and George W. Bush.
approval polls
Private polling organizations regularly conduct these polls in which they try to gauge the public's response to the president's policies and proposals.
exit polls
Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict, with speed and precision, the electoral winners.
honeymoon
Period shortly after an election, especially a presidential election, during which the winning candidate enjoys a surge in public and political support.
mandate theory
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and policies. The mandate theory does not apply when the Electoral College has elected a president, but he did not receive a majority of the popular vote.
polls
Gathering information at random or by quota about Americans' opinions of candidates and presidents. The first poll occurred when a man named Gallup took a poll in 1932.
press conferences
The press secretary is responsible for orchestrating press conferences where the president or other government officials may read a statement and take questions from the media. Sometimes press conferences are scripted affairs, other times they may be more informal.
press secretary
The person on the White House staff who most often deals directly with the press, serving as a conduit of information and keeping the press informed of the president's views and actions
trial balloons
An intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing political reaction.
schedule for U.S. Budget
1. Spring: After delivery of the budget to Congress for the upcoming fiscal 2. Summer: The OMB takes these guidelines to the bureaucracy (the administrative departments of the agencies). With these guidelines in mind, each agency prepares a detailed estimate of its spending needs for the fiscal year in question.year that begins in October, the OMB and president begin to review government projects and establish budget guidelines for the different agencies for the fiscal year beginning some 15 months later.3. Fall: The agencies return their budget estimates to the OMB. Often they are asked to defend their requests in budget hearings. The OMB makes budget recommendations to the president who reviews these recommendations and makes decisions concerning any changes he wants made. The OMB returns the affected budget proposals to the agencies for revision.4. Winter: The OMB prepares the budget, which runs thousands of pages in length. The president reviews the budget and revises it if he feels this is necessary.5. First Monday in February: The president delivers his budget to Congress.6. Mid-February: The Congressional Budget Office (the congressional counterpart to the OMB) submits its budget report to committees for consideration. The Congressional budgetary process is exceedingly complex. Essentially, the House and the Senate have budget committees that study the president's budget proposal, make changes where they feel it is necessary, and then submit a budget resolution that proposes spending ceilings for different areas such as health, defense, and education.7. April 15: Congress completes action on resolutions on the budget.8. May 15: The House considers appropriation bills for the budget. Appropriations bills are pieces of legislation that actually enable the government to disburse money to the different agencies and departments. When each committee approves its proposed appropriation, Congress passes the proposed budget and returns it to the president for his signature.9. June 30: Action on appropriation bills completed.10. October 1: The new budget takes effect.
appropriation bills
Pieces of legislation that enable the government to disburse specific dollar amounts to the different agencies and departments.
continuance
A temporary spending bill which funds government programs (in the manner in which they had been funded during the previous fiscal year) until funds are appropriated for them.
lobbyist
Generally an individual whose full-time work is representing a particular interest group and who has a vested interest in the activities of the government and how it allocates resources.
national debt
All the money borrowed by the federal government over the years and that is still outstanding.
non-defense discretionary spending
Items in the annual budget that are non-military in nature and are available for Congress to adjust. Examples would be education, highways and transportation items, foreign aid, and national parks. These items would also exclude entitlements, such as Social Security, Medicare, veterans' benefits, and government pensions.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
The second largest and most influential office of the executive branch. The OMB performs both managerial and budgetary functions, and although the president is its boss, the director and staff have considerable independence in the budgetary process.
resolution
Legislative act passed by the House and Senate to state opinions on matters, change the procedures of their individual bodies, and address issues within the houses. Resolutions are not laws, and the president does not need to sign them.
National Security Council
a council located in the executive branch that helps advise the president on military, foreign, and national security.
pocket veto
when the president "pockets" or puts away the bill and refuses to sign and/or veto it. This happens when there are less than 10 days remaining during a legislative session when this amount of time is up the bill dies.
Expenditures
the money that corporations, PACS (Political Action Committees) or labor unions spend to help a certain political party or specific candidate but they are doing this independently.
Legislative veto
when congress has the ability to overpower most presidential actions after they have happened (such as passing a bill even if the president previously vetoed it).
watergate
a word that more or less sums up many political scandals in the 1970s. The term originated during the time of Nixon's Watergate Scandal.
war powers resolution
law that was passed in 1973 that states a president can only send troops abroad with the approval of the Congress unless the U.S. is under attack or serious threat.
Council of economic advisors
is a group of three members in the executive branch who advise the president on economic policy.
impeachment
when an elected official is formally charged with doing something unlawful.
reconciliation
legislative process that allows the Senate to discuss a potentially contentious bill pertaining to the budget while limiting the amount of time they are allowed to spend debating.