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Science 8 Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (85)
number of protons
shorthand for element name
average mass of all versions of an element, measured in AMU
organization & motion of a solid
tightly packed molecules, vibrating in place
organization & motion of a liquid
loose but close molecules, sliding over each other
organization & motion of a gas
spread out and zooming molecules
Phase Change: energy is added as a substance changes from a liquid to a gas
evaporation or boiling
Phase Change: energy is removed as a substance changes from a gas to a liquid
Phase Change: energy is added rapidly as a substance changes from a solid to a gas, skipping the liquid phase
Phase Change: energy is removed rapidly as a substance changes from a gas to a solid, skipping the liquid phase
Anything made of ATOMS, has MASS and VOLUME
how much STUFF (matter) is in an object.
how much SPACE an object takes up.
In the nucleus, you can find the: (which subatomic particles?)
protons and neutrons
Properties of Metals
Tiny particle that makes up everything (the basic building block of matter)
Outside the nucleus, you can find the: (which subatomic particles?)
What is the electrical charge of the subatomic particles?
Neutrons- NEUTRAL (no charge)
Metalloids have properties that are...
properties a bit like metals, and a bit like non-metals.
An element is....
a unique type of atom. (protons and properties)
Atomic mass, atomic number, chemical symbol, element name
information for each element that can be found on Periodic Table
unique to each element (atom); can be used to identify atom/element; number of protons
Metals location on the Periodic Table
elements found on the LEFT hand side of PT (except for hydrogen)
Non-metals location on Periodic Table
elements found on most of the right hand side of PT
Metalloids location on the Periodic Table
elements touching the staircase on PT
Why is the periodic table so awesome
It organizes elements into order by their number of protons (atomic number) and also groups them in areas by similar properties.
what most of the atom is between the nucleus and electrons
what is mixed/combined in a chemical reaction; everything to the left of the arrow
what is produced in a chemical reaction, everything to the right of the arrow
small number below and following element; tells you how many ATOMS of that element there are
large number in front of chemical symbol/formula; tells you how many MOLECULES of that substance there is
a property of a substance that does not change and can be used to identify the substance
boiling point, melting point, density, solubility, magnetism
Examples of characteristic properties
existing in or caused by nature; not made or caused by humankind
materials that don't occur in nature, but are made from natural resources that undergo a chemical change.
made of atoms; has mass AND volume
Made of a single type of atom; PURE
Made of two or more types of atoms chemically linked; all molecules are the same; PURE
Made of two or more types of atoms NOT chemically linked; different molecules; NOT PURE
Cannot be separated under normal lab conditions
chemically separated in a lab (mix with acid, burn, extreme heat, etc)
usually easily physically separated (filter out, pick out pieces, evaporate)
These atoms could be of:
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
These atoms could be of:
Mixture of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) & nitrogen (N2)
These atoms could be of:
Big idea for ECM
Atoms (elements) combine to form molecules (compounds). These combine to form mixtures. All together, they make up all matter in the universe.
Property of a substance that can be observed/measured without changing the substance.
Examples of physical properties
color, size, density, odor, texture, shape
Two or more atoms chemically bonded together. (can be the SAME type of atoms, OR different atoms)
Changes only the physical properties of matter; the final product is still the same matter. The chemical composition (molecules) of the substance are NOT affected.
Examples of physical changes
Phase changes, cutting paper, mowing grass
The molecules of a substance are broken down and rearranged causing a change in chemical properties and, occasionally, a change in energy
Examples of chemical changes
Rusting/tarnishing; bubbles forming when alka seltzer and water are mixed; burning paper
Evidence of a chemical change
Heat, bubbles, odor, color change, sound, light, energy change, new molecules form
Law of conservation of mass
Scientific law that states: matter cannot be created or destroyed in chemical reactions.
Reactants of a chemical equation (example)
Products of a chemical equation (example)
What the arrow in a chemical equation means
The chemical change by which plants use water, sunlight, and oxygen to produce glucose (food) for themselves to support growth and development
Digestion of food (releasing energy of calories)
The chemical change by which humans and other animals obtain the energy they need (through the food they eat) to support growth and survival
Big idea for physical/chemical changes
Careful observation of properties is needed to identify if a physical OR chemical change has occurred to matter.
Physical change taking place during digestion. Just a physical property (size) of the food is changing.
Release of acid and enzymes in digestive tract
Chemical change taking place during digestion. Molecules are being broken down and rearranged into energy and wastes.
Break down molecules into smaller things; absorb nutrients; ingest food
Functions of digestive system
the moon's path around Earth, the Earth's path around the Sun
About one month (~28 days)
The time it takes the moon to orbit Earth
Seeing different amounts of the moon's light each night, due to the moon's orbit around Earth
the action of Earth moving around the Sun
to spin around a central point
caused by direct sunlight and a longer photoperiod
caused by indirect sunlight and a shorter photoperiod
length of daylight hours
the Earth is "leaning" 23.5 degrees as it orbits the Sun
shape of Earth's orbit
NEARLY a circle (slightly oval)
an attractive force between two masses
two variables that affect strength of gravity
mass of the objects
distance between the objects
mass vs weight
amount of MATTER in an object vs. the pull of gravity on that object's matter
(mass does not change if you go to a different planet)
a simulation that uses adjusted measurements in order to make comparisons of a natural or human-made system
a waxing moon
A moon that is growing in its percentage illuminated
a waning moon
the phase of the Moon when a decreasing amount of the Moon's near side is sunlit
day and night
caused by the ROTATION of Earth
Period of time caused by the REVOLUTION of Earth around the Sun
Amount of time between a new moon and a full moon
an ellipse (but not much different from a circle)
the shape of Earth's orbit around the Sun
the collection of 8 planets and their moons in orbit around the Sun (held by Sun's gravity). Also- asteroids, meteoroids, and comets!
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