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Abnormal Exam 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (63)
Be able to define what is and isn't "abnormal" according to psychology and why it is or isn't abnormal (ex. Is behavior outside-the-norm considered abnormal?
Abnormal behavior is behavior that is inconsistent with the individual's developmental, cultural, and social norms and creates emotional distress or interferes with daily functioning.
What role does the DSM-V play in this?
The DSM-V helps to assist in the diagnosis of diseases and disorders.
Some cultures have specific issues with certain disorders, know what issues plague us most here in the United States
anxiety and depression
Involved cutting holes in the skull
The "Father of Medicine"
Until the renaissance, what did people in the middle ages caused mental illness?
Demons and witches
Phillipe Pinel is known for:
believed mental illness was curable/moral treatment/treated people like humans.
Emil Kraeplin and Somatogenic View
mental illness had a biological/physical cause
Who introduced the psychogenic view/psychoanalysis? What were the three regions of the mind according to psychoanalysis? How does modern psychoanalysis differ?
Sigmund Freud, influence of the unconscious mind on abnormal behavior. Id, Ego, Superego. Focuses on ego-autonomy.
What does each region represent?
ID: pleasure principle, Ego: reality principle, Superego: moral principle
5 stages of psychosexual development
1) Oral Phase/Stage: Occurs during the first 1.5 years of life. The mouth is the center of gratification and pleasure (why babies put everything into their mouths)
2) Anal Phase/Stage: 1.5 to 3 years old, emphasizes toilet training and involves discipline and control issues
3) Phallic Phase/Stage: from 3-6 years old, psychosexual energy centers on the genital area and children may start to discover that touching or rubbing their genitals can create pleasure
4) Latency Phase/Stage: from 6-12 years old, a period of socialization for the child
5) Genital Phase/Stage: from 12-18, prepares the adolescent for mature adult sexuality. Anxiety and depression are caused by negative experiences
What happened in the "little Albert" experiment?
Little Albert showed that emotional responses such as fear could be learned through classical conditioning. Watson paired a white rat (neutral stimulus) with a loud noise (unconditioned stimulus). After a few trials, showing the white rat brought about fear. This fear also became generalized to other white fuzzy objects, such as fur coats and rabbits.
What is the biological model?
Abnormal behavior results from biological processes (particularly the brain)
How do neurotransmitters work?
Neurotransmitters fire signals across the synapse gap to transfer an impulse to another neuron fiber.
Neurotransmitter activity is the basis for brain activity (thinking, feeling, and motor activity) and is related to many physical and mental disorders.
Imaging tests such as CAT scan and MRI examine the structure of the brain to study abnormalities.
What is ego psychology?
Focuses on conscious motivations and emphasize ego autonomy, which is when the ego overcomes the id and superego to become a fully actualized person.
How does behaviorism and learning theory work, and what two major researchers pioneered the field?
Watson believed that only observable behavior and not inner thoughts or feelings were appropriate in psychology. (Behaviorism)-considered that all behavior as a result of learning.
The learning theory stresses the importance of external events in the onset of abnormal behavior. According to this theory, abnormal behavior is the result of maladaptive learning experiences. They state that biology interacts with the environment to influence behavior. Behaviorists focus on observable and measurable behavior. They feel significant experiences can occur at any point in life.
Ivan Pavlov (conditioning),
Bondura (Modeling) and John B. Watson
What is the cognitive model? Thinking, problem solving
Abnormal behavior results from distorted cognitive processes.
What is the sociocultural model?
Rule out the cultural aspects when talking about abnormal behaviour. Someone who grew up in a different country may behave differently. Does not necessarily define abnormality.
What is the biopsychosocial model?
This is a model which states that biological, psychological, and social factors are closely related in causing abnormal behavior. Also known as the combination of biological or psychological predisposition (known as diathesis) and the presence of environmental stressors create psychological disorders.
1. What are the two main parts of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System CNS and PNS
What is a neuron
a brain cell that transmit messages
What is a neurotransmitter?
a chemical message
Where are they released? (neurotransmitters)
into the synapse
What types are there? (neurotransmitters)
excitatory, which stimulates the release and inhibitory, which cut off the release
What are the parts of the brain?
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
Thalamus (relay station), Limbic System, and Cerebrum (balance, rational thinking, decision making, cognitive thinking, intelligence) pituitary gland control all the brain release growth hormone
Motor movement, visual and auditory processing.
controls essential functions such as heart rate
Body Chemistry affects behavior. True or False?
A chemical imbalance signals mental disorder. True or False?
How do messages travel in the brain?
By electrical impulses from neurons through axons
s a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma.
a long slender nerve fiber that conducts electrical signals to a nerve synapse. Sent chemical messages.
What are dominant genes? Recessive?
Dominant genes are copies of genes that are always expressed, or used to make traits, over other alleles, while recessive genes are copies of genes copies of genes that are not expressed if a dominant allele is around.
What are behavioral genetics?
The study of the relationship between genetics and environment in determining individual differences in behavior
What is another name for identical twins?
Identical twins in schizophrenia studies do not show shared disorders. True or False?
What are case studies/single-case designs? How do they work?
11. What are case studies/single-case designs? How do they work? Case studies are detailed descriptions of a single person that may help to understand a particularly rare behavior. Case studies can focus on the assessment and description of abnormal behavior or its treatment.Case studies allow the examination of rare phenomena.These are experimental studies conducted at the individual level with a single person. The research begins by establishing a baseline, measuring the behavior that needs to be changed. Next, a treatment is applied, and the target behavior is again measured. If the behavior has decreased, then treatment continues as is or ends, and if there is not a decrease the treatment is reworked.
What is a Correlation Study?
A correlational study determines whether or not two variables are correlated. This means to study whether an increase or decrease in one variable corresponds to an increase or decrease in the other variable.
What does "correlation does not mean causation" really mean?
It is important to know that correlation does not necessarily mean causation. They simply state a relationship between variables. For example, poverty and crime are correlated, but poverty does not cause crime.
What is epidemiology?
Study of things at a populate level. Eg. Diseases and viruses. Focuses on disease patterns in populations and factors influencing these patterns. It focuses on the occurrence of psychological disorders by time, place, and person
What is Clinical Assessment
Clinical assessment involves gathering information or data about a person and his/her environment in order to make decisions about the nature, status, and treatment of psychological problems. Usually begins with a set of referral questions in response to a request for help. This request usually comes from the person, their family or friends, a teacher, or other health care professionals.
a physical or mental feature which is regarded as indicating a condition of disease, particularly such a feature that is apparent to the patient.
medical care given to a patient for an illness or injury
the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate
the quality of being logically or factually sound; soundness or cogency
the likely course of a disease or ailment
What are the two main types of interview? What are their uses/where and when are they used?
Structured and unstructured are the two main types of interviews. In this type of interview, the clinician asks each patient the same standard set of questions, with the goal being establishing a diagnosis. Kind of like a job interview, each applicant gets basically the same questions. Initial interviews are usually unstructured, which allows the clinician to get to know the patient or client and help determine what other assessment techniques are required. Questions asked by the clinicians about the patient's difficulties are usually open-ended allowing the patient to provide information as they decide. Unstructured interviews are flexible
this is one of the best known objective personality tests, is composed of 566 true or false statements which the test taker must answer. It provides a profile showing various clinical scales indicating mental illnesses such as depression, schizophrenia, and mania
Rorschach Inkblot Test
a projective test that can be used for personality evaluation. This test is composed of 10 inkblot cards to which a person associates an image, stating what they see to the psychologist.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):
personality, The second projective test commonly used which is composed of cards with pictures on them and the test taker is to make up a "story" stating what is happening and how the persons in the image feel.
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (AKA The Bender-Gestalt):
A simple screening test often used to detect general brain damage and neurological impairment. This test comprises a number of geometrical figures that the test taker is to draw.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale:
an intelligence test best used for children 2-13 years old
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV):
an IQ test used to assess adults
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V):
an IQ test commonly used to assess children
How is IQ calculated?
IQ is calculated by dividing your "mental age" (the result on the test) by your physical age and then multiplying by 100. Hence, the average score should be 100 as most people are appropriately intelligent for their ages. You don't need to know this for the exam, but it's an interesting little fact that might help you going forward.
What is behavioral assessment?
Used to identify antecedents and consequences of behavior
What is psychophysiological assessment?
Measuring brain structure, function, and nervous system activity
What is biofeedback?
Uses electronic devices to help people control body functions
What does "DSM" stand for, and what is the current edition?
5th edition, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual
What is comorbidity?
Refers to the presence of more than one disorder
How can culture affect a diagnosis?
Culture bound syndromes occur uniquely in certain ethnic or racial groups. Some symptoms are universally applicable, but others may not be.
What is a diagnostic system, and what are its drawbacks?
A diagnostic system is what is used to determine whether or not somebody can accurately be diagnosed with a disorder. It's drawbacks are that two patients with the same diagnosis don't necessarily respond to the same treatments. Also depending on the age, people can describe their symptoms differently, but still be diagnosed with the same disorder.
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