29 terms

Ch 27: The Rise of Animal Diversity

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Ediacaran
time period on the geological time scale when complex life forms were developing, approx 560 mya
Choanocytes
In sponges, "collar" cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water
Amoebocytes
Found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reproduction, and transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells
Porifera
the phylum of sponges
Cnidaria
Phylum that represents one of the first groups of true animals. Includes hydrozoa, jellyfish, and sea anemones
Eumatozoa
Clade comprising of all major animal group except sponges; Have true tissues.
Cambrian
A burst of evolutionary origins when most of the major body plans of animals appeared in a relatively brief time in geologic history; recorded in the fossil record about 545 to 525 million years ago.
Bilateria
Clade whose members have complete digestive tracts and a two-sided form
Ectoderm
outermost germ layer; produces sense organs, nerves, and outer layer of skin
Endoderm
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
Mesoderm
middle germ layer; develops into muscles, and much of the circulatory, reproductive, and excretory systems
Metazoa
Clade that includes all animals
Mollusca
Snails and their relatives such as clams, squids, octopuses
Nematoda
Phylum of roundworms
Arthropoda
the phylum to which jointed-legged invertebrates belong, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans
Porifera
the phylum of sponges
Chordata
The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates.
Hox
A gene that controls the development of body plans in all animals.
Cyclostomata
Jawless vertebrates (hagfishes and lampreys)
Gnathostomata
Jawed vertebrates
Chondrichthyes
Clade within gnathostomata that includes jawed vertebrates such as sharks and rays
Osteichthyes
Class within gnathostomata that include the ray-finned fishes and lobe-fins
Lobe-fins
Lineage of bony fishes that gave rise to tetrapods
Tetrapods
Vertebrate animals having four feet, legs or leglike appendages
Amniotes
Member of a clade of tetrapods that have an amniotic egg containing specialized membranes that protect the embryo such as reptiles, birds, and mammals
Monotremes
Egg laying mammals
Homonin
Humans and their extinct relatives
Homonid
Humans, other Greater Apes, and their extinct ancestors
Homo habilis
First known member of the "homo" genus