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walrus, sea lions, and seals (fin-footed mammals)


whales, dolphins, and porpoises (large marine mammals)


manatees and dugong (sea cows,fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals)


top turtle shell (shell covering the back of a turtle, tortoise, crab, etc.)


bottom (or ventral, portion) turtle shell

alligator egg manipulation

temperature (The sex of the offspring is determined by the temperature in the nest and is fixed within 7 to 21 days of the start of incubation. Incubation temperatures of 86 °F or lower produce a clutch of females; those of 93 °F or higher produce entirely males)


bear live young


lays eggs


eggs hatch inside, bear live young

(reptiles that) protect their nest (hatchlings)

alligator and crocodile

snakes grow

ecdysis (the complete outer layer of skin is shed in one layer)

Manatees cannot survive in water

below 60F (Prolonged exposure to water temperatures below 68F can bring about "cold stress syndrome" and death)

peter singer (animal activist)

believes that consequences determine moral right and wrong

tom Regan (animal activist)

argues that use of animal for human benefits is not justified

female deer species with antlers

reindeer (and Chinese water deer)

reindeer are also called

caribou (live in the artic and subartic regions)

(Whitetail) deers eat

various vegetation (herbivores, eating a large varieties of food; leaves, grass, bark, acorns, and other plant material.)

deer travel

between bedding and feeding areas

moose antlers

a new set of antlers grow in the spring ( take three to five months to fully develop.They initially have a layer of skin, called "velvet," which is shed once the antlers become fully grown. Immature bulls may not shed their antlers for the winter, but retain them until the following spring. In extremely rare circumstances a cow moose may grow antlers. This is usually attributed to a hormone imbalance.)

Wolf pack hierarchy

alpha pair, Mature subordinate animals, Omega wolves,Juveniles (consist of two parents and their offspring, although some packs may also contain a relative, such as a sibling, of one of the breeding wolves. In exceptional cases, an unrelated wolf may be adopted into a pack)

largest deer species

moose (aka elk)

dog origin

gray wolf (scientists believe they evolved from just a handful of gray wolves tamed by humans living in or near China less than 15,000 years ago. The earliest archaeological evidence of dog domestication dates back 12,000 years ago in Israel. Intensive breeding by humans over the last 500 years is responsible for the dramatic differences in appearance among modern dogs)

cat origin

studies suggests the progenitors of today's cats split from their wild counterparts more than 100,000 years ago, The earliest archaeological evidence of cat domestication dates back 9,500 years.

first us zoo

Philadelphia Zoo (London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo)

Tuberculosis (TB) quarantine (for primates)

31 days (quarantine, a minimum of three tuberculin skin tests are performed and positive animals are destroyed)

restraints for captive animals

physical barriers (plywood, plexiglas, blankets, also nets, snares, tongs, squeeze cages)

predator of bobwhite quail

hawk (coyote, armadillo, skunks, foxes)

how often can a quail re-nest


body cavities of snakes and reptiles


parasite disease of the fox

sarcoptic mange (sarcoptes scabiei mite)


newborn fox


adult female fox


adult male fox


group of foxes

zoo animals vaccine

given to healthy, susceptible animals

red fox population has increased due to

decreased wolf population

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