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a scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation

Manifest Functions

the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern

Latent Functions

the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern


approaching an issue from a male perspective only


this problem occurs when sociologists gather data only from men but then use that information to draw conclusions about all people

Gender Blindness

failing to consider gender at all

Culture Shock

personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life

Anticipatory Socialization

learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

Ascribed Status

a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life

Achieved Status

a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort

Master Status

a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life

Role Conflict

conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses

Role Strain

tension among the roles connected to a single status

Hate Crime

a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias


a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people


unequal treatment of various categories of people


social stratification based on personal merit

Conspicuous Consumption

buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position


a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important


a shared cultural heritage


a simplified description applied to every person in some category

Social Capital

the social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence


assigning students to different types of educational programs


including students with disabilities in the overall educational program


giving public schools more freedom to try new policies and programs

Chronic illness

diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke, that usually cause deaths

Social Epidemiology

the study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population


belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence


a social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred

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