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29 terms

Final Exam - Terms

STUDY
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Positivism
a scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation
Manifest Functions
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
Latent Functions
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
Androcentricity
approaching an issue from a male perspective only
Overgeneralization
this problem occurs when sociologists gather data only from men but then use that information to draw conclusions about all people
Gender Blindness
failing to consider gender at all
Culture Shock
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Anticipatory Socialization
learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
Ascribed Status
a social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life
Achieved Status
a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort
Master Status
a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life
Role Conflict
conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses
Role Strain
tension among the roles connected to a single status
Hate Crime
a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
Prejudice
a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
Discrimination
unequal treatment of various categories of people
Meritocracy
social stratification based on personal merit
Conspicuous Consumption
buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
Race
a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
Ethnicity
a shared cultural heritage
Stereotypes
a simplified description applied to every person in some category
Social Capital
the social knowledge and connections that enable people to accomplish their goals and extend their influence
Tracking
assigning students to different types of educational programs
Mainstreaming
including students with disabilities in the overall educational program
Chartering
giving public schools more freedom to try new policies and programs
Chronic illness
diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke, that usually cause deaths
Social Epidemiology
the study of how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population
Faith
belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
Religion
a social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred