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ANS 415 Ch 3
Terms in this set (59)
What enzymes break down maltose? What does it break into?
Maltase; 2 glucose units
What enzyme breaks down dextrin? What does it break into?
Isomaltase; glucose + maltose
What two enzymes break down disaccharides?
sucrase and lactase
What enzyme breaks down sucrose? What is it broken down into?
Sucrase; glucose + fructose
What enzyme breaks down lactose? What is it broken down into?
Lactase; glucose + galactose
What are Fiber/pectin/oligosaccharides fermented into?
volatile fatty acids (VFA)
What are some examples of VFAs?
What is the fermentation efficiency of oligosaccharides?
What simple sugars get absorbed in the small intestine? How are they absorbed?
fructose - Facilitated diffusion
glucose and galactose - Active transport
Where does CHO absorption occur?
small intestine (jejunum & ileum)
What happens to glucose after it is absorbed?
1. It is used as an energy source
2. Excess is converted into glycogen
3. Excess is converted to fat
What are the 3 stages of glucose oxidation?
B. Reduction of Pyruvate
c. Krebs Cycle
What is happens during Phase A. (Gycolysis)?
one glucose (6 C) is converted into two pyruvate molecules (3 C)
Where does glycolysis occur?
How many reactions occur during glycolysis?
What are reactions 1-5 of glycolysis called? Why?
It is called the investment phase because ATP is used during this phase
What are reactions 6-10 of glycolysis called? Why?
It is called energy generation phase because ATP is produced.
What steps go glycolysis are irreversible?
Step 1, Step 3 and Step 10
What is the NET reaction of glycolysis?
Glucose → 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH
NADH will be oxidized in ________ through electron transport chain reaction yielding ___ ATP.
mitochondria; 3 ATP
After the NADH are oxidized, what is the net reaction of glycolysis?
Glucose → 2 pyruvate + 8 ATP
How much energy is in a single ATP?
What happens during stage B (reduction of pyruvate)?
Pyruvate enters mitochondria → reduced to acetyl CoA. It is an irreversible reaction
What is the next reaction after stage B of glucose oxidation?
Glucose → 2 acetyl CoA + 2 ATP + 4 NADH + 2 CO2
( after NADH is oxidized: Glucose → 2 acetyl CoA + 14 ATP + 2 CO2)
What happens during stage C (Krebs cycle)?
Acetyl CoA is the fuel for this cycle of eight reactions.
What is the net reaction of the Krebs cycle?
Acetyl CoA → 2 CO2 + 3 NADH + 1 FADH + 1 ATP
What two conditions must there be for Acetyl CoA to go through the Krebs cycle?
1. Cells need energy
2. OAA (oxaloacetate) is available
How many ATPs are produced from the oxidation of each Acetyl CoA?
12 ATPs are produced after everything is broken down.
What is the net reaction of glycolysis?
Net = Glucose → 10 NADH + 2 FADH + 4 ATP + 6 CO2
What is the net ATP produced from the glycolysis?
Glucose → 6 CO2 +38 ATP
What happens when glucose is being oxidized under anaerobic conditions?
Under anaerobic conditions (no O2), pyruvate can't get converted into Acetyl-CoA. Pyruvate gets converted either into lactate/lactic acid (body cell) or ethanol (yeast).
What is the net reaction of energy under anaerobic conditions?
glucose→ 2 lactate + 2 ATP
What is the fate of lactate in red blood cells?
lactate leaves RBC to blood and
then to liver (where O2 is available; aerobic cell). In the liver, lactate is converted back into glucose through gluconeogenesis.
When is ethanol produced?
under anaerobic condition in active yeast.
What is the net reaction of ethanol formation?
glucose → 2 ethanol + 2 ATP + 2 CO2
Why is aerobic metabolism is more energetic efficient than anaerobic.
It yields more ATP.
What affects alcohol metabolism?
Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
What is the normal blood glucose level?
What happens to the extra blood glucose that is in the blood after meals?
It gets stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles
What is glycogenesis?
synthesis of glycogen from extra blood glucose
What is the cost of glycogenesis?
2 ATP/ unit of glucose
When does glycogenlysis occur? From where?
1. Blood glucose is low (breaks liver glycogen)
2. Exercise (breaks muscles glycogen)
What happens when glycogenlysis occurs in the liver?
Glucse-6-phosphatase enzyme converts glucose-6-phosphate into glucose
What is glycogenlysis?
glycogen is broken down
What happens when glycogenlysis occurs in the muscle?
Glucose-6-phosphate goes through glycolysis
When the muscles are an anaerobic state, what is produced? what happens to the product?
Lactate in muscles is then released into blood, then in to liver where its converted into glucose by Cori cycle.
What is glycogen synthesis and breakdown controlled by?
- Stimulate glycogen synthesis
- insulin release increase after eating
- Stimulate glycogen breakdown
- Glucagon release increases during fasting/exercise
- same effect as glucagon
Where does fatty acid conversion occur?
___________ is the carbon source (building unit) for fatty acids synthesis.
Whats the happens to the Acetyl CoA and it can't pass through the mitochondrion members to the cytosol?
Acetyl CoA gets converted into Citrate which then passes the mitochondria membrane into cytosol to be converted to a fatty acid
How much glucose does a human need every day?
How much glycogen is stored in the body?
~180 g (Liver: 60 g; Muscles: 120 g)
What is gluconeogenesis?
It is the making of glucose from non-CHO sources. Its function is to keep the blood glucose level. Its the reverse of glycolysis except for 3 steps (steps 1, 3, 10).
When does gluconeogenesis occur?
1. Fasting for more than 12-24 hrs
2. Eating low CHO diet
Where does gluconeogenesis occur?
cytoplasm of Liver (mostly) and Kidney (some) cells
What is the cost of reversing step 10?
2 ATPs per pyruvate (1 per step)
What is the energy cost of gluconeogenesis?
2 Pyruvate + 6 ATP + 2 NADH → glucose
What are the 3 glucose precursors?
1. Amino acids
Why can't fatty acids be used to make glucose?
There is no enzyme that an take Acetyl-CoA back to pyruvate. This step is irreversible. Acetyl-CoA's are made of fatty acids.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ANS 415 CH 1
ANS 415 Ch 4
ANS 415 CH 2
ANS 316 Test 1
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