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a belief in humans as masters of the world with a unique set of rights and values


the belief that all creatures have rights and values

blind experiments

experiments in which results are unknown until the data is gathered and analyzed

controlled studies

comparisons made between experimental and control populations that are identical in every factor except the one variable being studied

deductive reasoning

deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles

double-blind design

an experiment in which neither the subject not those administering treatment and analyzing results now who is receiving the experimental or the control treatments until after the experiment is completed


a pluralistic, nonhierarchial, relationship-oriented that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways

environmental ethics

a search for moral values and ethical principles in human relations with the natural world

environmental justice

combines civil rights with environmental protection to demand a safe, healthy, life-giving environment for everyone

environmental racism

inequitable distribution of environmental hazards based on race


a conditional explanation that can be verified or falsified

inductive reasoning

inferring general principles from specific examples

inherent value

an intrinsic or innate worth

instrumental value

value or worth of objects that satisfy the needs and wants of moral agents


"Locally Unwanted Land Uses" such as toxic waste dumpes, incinerators, smelters, airports, freeways, and other sources of environmental, economic, or social degradation

moral agents

beings capable of acting morally or immorally and who can- and should -accept responsibility for their acts

moral extensionism

expansion of our understanding of inherent value or rights to persons, organisms, or things that might be considered worthy of value or rights under some ethical philosophies

moral subjects

beings who are not moral agents themselves but who have moral interests of their own and can be treated rightly or wrongly by others


the distinction between right and wrong


those who believe that the world is irrational and has no meaning or purpose


overarching models of the world that guide our interpretation of events


if two explanations appear equally plausible, choose the simpler one


those who believe moral principles are always dependent on the particular situation


making an observation or obtaining a particular result more than once


a process for producing knowledge

scientific theory

an explanation that has been supported by a large number of tests and majority of experts in a given field have reached a general consensus

significant numbers

meaningful numbers whose accuracy can be verified


responsibility to care for or manage a particular place

toxic colonialism

the practice of targeting poor communities of color in the Third or Forth World for waste disposal and/or experimentation with risky technologies


those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging


those who believe that an action is right that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people


the ultimate worth of actions or things

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