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Chapter 2 Vocab

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anthropocentrism
a belief in humans as masters of the world with a unique set of rights and values
biocentrism
the belief that all creatures have rights and values
blind experiments
experiments in which results are unknown until the data is gathered and analyzed
controlled studies
comparisons made between experimental and control populations that are identical in every factor except the one variable being studied
deductive reasoning
deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles
double-blind design
an experiment in which neither the subject not those administering treatment and analyzing results now who is receiving the experimental or the control treatments until after the experiment is completed
ecofeminism
a pluralistic, nonhierarchial, relationship-oriented that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways
environmental ethics
a search for moral values and ethical principles in human relations with the natural world
environmental justice
combines civil rights with environmental protection to demand a safe, healthy, life-giving environment for everyone
environmental racism
inequitable distribution of environmental hazards based on race
hypothesis
a conditional explanation that can be verified or falsified
inductive reasoning
inferring general principles from specific examples
inherent value
an intrinsic or innate worth
instrumental value
value or worth of objects that satisfy the needs and wants of moral agents
LULUs
"Locally Unwanted Land Uses" such as toxic waste dumpes, incinerators, smelters, airports, freeways, and other sources of environmental, economic, or social degradation
moral agents
beings capable of acting morally or immorally and who can- and should -accept responsibility for their acts
moral extensionism
expansion of our understanding of inherent value or rights to persons, organisms, or things that might be considered worthy of value or rights under some ethical philosophies
moral subjects
beings who are not moral agents themselves but who have moral interests of their own and can be treated rightly or wrongly by others
morals
the distinction between right and wrong
nihilists
those who believe that the world is irrational and has no meaning or purpose
paradigms
overarching models of the world that guide our interpretation of events
parsimony
if two explanations appear equally plausible, choose the simpler one
relativists
those who believe moral principles are always dependent on the particular situation
reproducibility
making an observation or obtaining a particular result more than once
science
a process for producing knowledge
scientific theory
an explanation that has been supported by a large number of tests and majority of experts in a given field have reached a general consensus
significant numbers
meaningful numbers whose accuracy can be verified
stewardship
responsibility to care for or manage a particular place
toxic colonialism
the practice of targeting poor communities of color in the Third or Forth World for waste disposal and/or experimentation with risky technologies
universalists
those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging
utilitarians
those who believe that an action is right that produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people
values
the ultimate worth of actions or things