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Psychology Exam One
Terms in this set (65)
What is psychology?
-The science of behavior and mental processes
-Internal, subjective experiences
-Introspection to reveal structure of human mind
-Examined the functions of behavioral and mental processes
-principles of psychology (1890)
-Psychology should be an objective science
-No reference to mental processes (no longer supported)
- Numerous influential and controversial theories
- Unconscious thought processes and emotional responses
-Traits and tendencies are inherent at birth and passed down through genes
-Traits and tendencies develop over time based on our experiences
Cross-Cultural and Gender Psychology
-Specific attitudes and behaviors of different cultures and genders can vary... but they often have the same underlying causes.
-Discover and promote strengths and virtues
-Help people and communities thrive
Three main levels of analysis
-biological, psychological, social-cultural
- "I knew it all along!"
-Example: A letter comes in the mail informing an individual that he was accepted into a college. When he tells his mother she says, "I really had a feeling that you were going to get in" (even though she had expressed doubts to his father earlier that week).
-We think we know more than we actually do or are better than we actually are.
-Example: American Idol- everyone thinks they are going to win the show while in reality only one person does.
Three reasons why we cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense
-Perceiving Order in Random Events
Perceiving Order in Random Events
-We are hardwired to notice trends and patterns so they stand out... even in truly random events.
-With 7 billion people on the earth... "1 in a trillion chance" events happen every 3 days.
The scientific attitude
Curiosity-Passion to explore and understand.
Skepticism-Require evidence for claims and ideas.
Humility-Awareness of our own vulnerability to error.
-Appraise the Source
-Discern Hidden Values
Theory: The Big Picture
-An idea that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
-Example: "All ADHD symptoms are a reaction to eating sugar."
Hypothesis: Informed Prediction
-A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
-"Testable" means we can make observations to find out if it is true
-Example: "If a child receives sugar, then the child will act more distracted, impulsive, and hyper."
Gathering Psychological Data
-Description- Systematic, objective observation of people
-Correlation- How closely two things vary together
-Experimentation- Manipulating one factor in a situation to determine its effect
-Case Study- Examining one individual or group in depth
-Naturalistic Observation- Observing natural behavior and trying not to change anything
-Survey- Gathering information on people's thoughts and behaviors through self-report rather than observation
Why Do Researchers Use a Sample?
-It is usually impossible to obtain information about every person within a population
-Example: if you want to find out something about men, you cannot interview every single man on earth
-Random sampling: every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in the sample
-Reveal statistical relationships
-Can be depicted through scatterplots
-Positive correlation- as one variable increases, the other increases
-Negative correlation- are one variable increases, the other decreases
-Correlation is NOT Causation
Find Causation with Experimentation
-Manipulation in an experiment allows us to predict real behavior
-Control over confounding variables
-Independent Variables (IV)- the variable we are manipulating
-Dependent Variables (DV)- the variable that may change when the IV is manipulated
-Confounding Variables- additional variables outside of the IV that might produce an effect on the DV
Measures of Central Tendency
-Mean- The average
-Median- The middle value
-Mode- The most common value
Measures of Variation
-Range- The spread of the scores
-Standard deviation- How much scores vary around the mean
-Statistical significance- How likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
-Important Note- Indicates the likelihood that the results will happen by chance
-Says nothing about the importance of the result
-Chromosomes- threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
-Genes- biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes, the threadlike coils of DNA.
-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)- complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
-There is a "book" of genetic code inside every cell in your body.
-46 chromosomes, 23 pairs
-46 chapters in this book... 23 from each of your biological parents
-Book = cell nucleus, where DNA is stored in cells
-Chapter = chromosome, big coiled piece of DNA in nucleus
-Word = gene, segment of DNA that creates proteins
-Letter = base pair, one "unit" of DNA
Twin and Adoption Studies
-Identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins in:
-Personality traits such as extraversion (sociability) and neuroticism (emotional instability)
-Behaviors/outcomes such as the rate of divorce
-Abilities such as overall intelligence test scores.
Twin and adoption studies
-Adopted children seem to be more similar to their genetic relatives than their environmental/nurture relatives
-However, parenting does have an influence on:
-Temperament- a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
-Apparent from first weeks of life and generally persists into adulthood
-Ex: shy 6-month-olds are still shy at 13 years of age
-Easy vs. Difficult vs. Slow-to-Warm Up babies
-Heritability- the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
-Ex: heritability for height is 90%... this means that genetic influence explains about 90% of the observed variation among people.
Early Experiences Modify Our Brain
-Learning and enrichment affect our brain... the more experiences we have, the more our brain grows.
-Our brain prunes unnecessary information and unused synapses
-Use It or Lose It!
Parental vs. Peer Influence
-Parents have more influence on-
Education and career path
Interaction style with authority figures
-Peers have more influence on-
Learning cooperation skills
Learning the path to popularity
Choice of music and other creation
Choice of clothing and other cultural choices
Good and bad habits
-Culture- the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people
-Transmitted from one generation to the next
-Cultures have different norms for acceptable, expected behavior
-Culture shock- when we don't understand what is expected or accepted in another culture
Culture and the Self
-Individualism- giving priority to one's own goals and defining identity via personal attributes
-Individualists switch jobs, leave extended families, migrate to new places
-Collectivism- giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity through the group
-Deep, more stable attachments
Sex- the biologically influenced characteristics by which people define males and females
-Gender- the socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women
-The product of:
Our biological dispositions
Our developmental experiences
Our current situation
The Nature of Gender: Our Biological Sex
-Sex Chromosomes- genetic gender differences
-X chromosome- sex chromosome found in both men and women
-Y chromosome- sex chromosome found only in males
-Sex hormones- physiological gender differences
-Testosterone- additional amount in males
-Estrogen- secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
-Prenatal Month 4-5: Sex hormones in fetal brain support female or male wiring.
The Nurture of Gender: Our Culture and Experiences
-Gender roles- behaviors a culture expects for males and females
-Times have changed from that of the past!
-50% of employed Americans are women
-54% of college grads are women
How Do We Learn Gender?
-Social learning theory- children learn gender identity by observing and imitating others gender-linked behaviors
-Gender identity- our sense of being male or female
-Gender typing- the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
1) A scientist is conducting an experiment to test the theory that a vitamin could extend a person's life expectancy. What is the IV and the DV?
2) In an experiment examining the effect of fatigue on short term memory, there are two groups 'fatigued' and 'non-fatigued'. The fatigued group ran for 10 minutes without stopping prior to being tested. Both groups are given a list of words to recall immediately after reading the list. What is the IV and the DV?
3) To study the effects on lighting on mood, Dr. Cooper had students fill out questionnaires in brightly lit or dimly lit rooms. In this study, what was the independent variable?
The first psychological laboratory was founded in Germany in 1879 by:
Today, psychology is defined as the:
Science of behavior and mental processes
Which subfield is most directly concerned with studying human behavior in the workplace?
Which of the following BEST describes the hindsight bias?
Events seem more predictable after they have occurred.
An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought is called:
The scientific attitude of skepticism is based on the belief that:
Ideas need to be tested against observable evidence
Lisa eagerly opened an online trading account, believing that her market savvy would allow her to pick stocks that would make her a rich day trader. This belief best illustrates:
Which of the following research methods does NOT belong with the others?
This scatterplot depicts which of the following correlations:
Perfect positive correlation
The factor that is being manipulated in an experiment is called the _____________ variable.
A psychologist studies the play behavior of young children by watching groups during recess at school. Which type of research is being used?
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Each cell of the human body has a total of
Adoption studies show that the personalities of adopted children:
Bear more similarities to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents
________ is the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
similarities and differences
_____ are 4 times more likely to die by suicide or develop alcohol dependence.
_____ enter puberty sooner and live about 5 years longer.
_____ are more like to have a childhood diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, color-blindness, or ADHD.
_____ are more at risk for antisocial personality disorder.
_____ carry 70 percent more fat, 20 percent less muscle, and are 5 inches shorter.
_____ have twice the risk of developing depression and 10x the risk of developing an eating disorder.
Come up with 1-2 examples (from your personal experiences, social media, current events, etc.) that exemplify how our culture impacts children's perceptions of gender.
Ex: "Boys don't play with dolls."
Ex: "Girls can't do math."
Rod has always felt pressure to be the driver when traveling in a car with Sue because he learned that his was expected of men. Rod's feelings illustrate the influence of:
Gender refers to:
The socially influenced characteristics by which people define men and women
The hormone testosterone:
Stimulates growth of the male sex organ
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