If a tetraploid with 28 chromosomes: 4N=28 chromosomes. A hexaploid has how many chromosomes?
Hershey and Chase experiment offered evidence in support of DNA being genetic material. This made use of these radioactively labeled components:
Phosphorous (DNA) and sulfur (proteins)
Griffith's transforming element was DNA was the major conclusion of who's experiment?
Hershey and Chase
If the transforming element described by Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty had been RNAse sensitive, this would have indicated that ___ was the genetic material
RNA (RNAse destroys RNA)
The salivary glands of water gliders often contain cells with thousands of chromosomes. This condition is termed ____
Metacentric chromosomes are frequently formed from two acrocentric chromosomes by the process of _____
In two point mapping, the presence of both dominant alleles on one homolog is termed ____
coupled configuration (AA, repulsed Aa)
In chromosome location studies with fruit flies, females are normally selected as the heterozygous parent. This is because....
crossing over is inhibited in male fruit flies.
Any variation in chromosome number that does not involve whole sets of chromosomes is termed....
A theoretical measure of the number of independent genomic units that would be represented in or contribute to the next gene pool is termed...
effective population size
The most extreme form of inbreeding possible in sexually reproducing organisms is:
Improvement of humans through selective breeding was originally termed.... and used by Hitler
Hardy weinberg equilibrium cannot have a genotypic frequency of the heterozygotes greater that.....
If 2 gene loci are on nonhomologous chromosomes, alleles at these loci are expected to assort independently. T/F
Assume a species has a diploid chromosome number of 24. The term applied to an individual with 25 chromosomes should be triploid. T/F
Assume that an organism has a diploid chromosome # of 14. The term applied to an individual with 28 chromosomes would be tetraploid. T/F
Familial Down's syndrome can be caused by a translocation between chromosomes #1 and #14. T/F
False (that's trisomy 21)
An individual with Patau's syndrome would be called a monosomy. T/F
False (Trisomy. Monosomy not possible in Auto)
When considering the structure of DNA, we would say that the complementary strands are parallel. T/F
Hershey and Chase used labeled DNA and protein to determine that DNA is the genetic material in bacteria. T/F
A section of DNA with the sequence TTTTTTTT would be expected to be more thermally stable than a section with GGGGGGGG. T/F
False (G is most stable)
The alleles that we used in the Molecular Genotyping lab exercise were from repeated regions of DNA called microsatellites. On a CoT curve, these are called HR regions. T/F
The base content of a DNA sample is found to be: A=31%, G=31%, T=19%, C=19%. The DNA in this sample is single stranded. T/F
Considering the structure of double-stranded DNA, what kind of bonds hold one complementary strand to the other?
If a dsDNA molecule has 1,000 base pairs, how many turns of the spiral would you expect?
100 (10 bp/turn)
Which genome characteristics would likely be representative of an organism found inhabiting the hot springs that supply water to Roman spas in Bath, England?
% GC would be larger than % AT
If a dsDNA molecule has 12% adenine, how much Cytosine would be found? Who's rule is this?
Chain termination sequencing of DNA works because ______ are included in small amounts in each reaction tube
If a peptide occurs in one of your cells that is 50 aa long, what is the minimum number of nucleotides that would have been required for efficient translation?
154 (50 aa * 3 codons each= 150+3 stop codons + 1G=154)
A length of a double stranded DNA that is 2000 bp long would have how many nucleosome structures?
10 (dsDNA=150 bp, linker DNA=50 bp so 200 bp per nucleosome, 2000/200=10 nucleosomes)
DNA replication occurs in the 5' to 3' direction, that is, new nucleotides are added to the 3' end. T/F
A nucleosome is a structure associated with the nuclear membrane. It helps maintain a stable relationship between the extracellular matrix and the membrane itself. T/F
False (It helps condense DNA)
DNA replicates semiconservatively, meaning of the two daughter double-helixes, one is old and the other is new. T/F
False (DNA replicates semi-conservatively and conservative is old-old)
In contrast to euchromatin, heterochromatin contains more genes and is earlier replicating. T/F
False (heterochromatin contains no genes and is non-coding)
When one speaks of a 5' cap, one is describing the addition of a base, usually thymine, to the 5' end of a completed peptide. T/F
The genetic code is non-overlapping, meaning that, assuming "standard translation", a given base participates in the specification of one and only one amino acid. T/F
The primary structure of a protein is composed of the sequence of amino acids in that protein. T/F
Proteins are composed of strings of nucleotides connected together by 5'-3' phosphodiester bonds. T/F
Unambiguous refers to the fact that the third position of many codons can vary without changing the amino acid the code for. T/F
What name is given to the 3 bases in a mRNA which bind to the anticodon of tRNA to specify an amino acid placement in a protein?
When considering the initiation of transcription, one often finds consensus sequences located in the region of the DNA where RNA pol binds. Which are the common consensus sequences?
One form of posttranslational modification of a protein includes:
removal or modification of terminal aa.
The secondary structure of a protein includes the following elements:
alpha helix and beta pleated sheet
The lagging strand produced during DNA replication is caused by the....
5' to 3' polarity restriction of DNA polymerase
THe name of the protein structure that appears at the G2/M boundary and assists in the final condensation of chromosomes is called
Old parental strand of DNA and one new strand in each of the sister chromatids composes....
Linkage and crossing over are......., linkage keeps genes......, crossing over ........ genes up.
opposite, together, mixes
Crossing over take place in ..... and is the exchange of genetic material between......
Prophase 1 of meiosis, non-sister chromatids
Arrangement in which the wild type alleles are found on one chromosome and mutant alleles are found on the other chromosomes is called.....or....configuration.
The arrangement in which each chromosome contains one wild type and one mutant allele is called.....or .....configuration
Between genes of different chromosomes, arises from independent assortment in anaphase 1 of meiosis.
You can tell genes are linked if there are more......progeny than...... progeny
The degree to which one crossover interferes with additional crossovers in the same region is called......
number of observed double crossovers/number expected double crossovers .........the equation for the____
coefficient of coincidence
When interference is complete and no double crossover is observed, the coefficient of coincidence is __ and the interference is ___
Chromosome where the centromere is in the middle and so the chromosome has two arms of equal length
centromere is displaced toward one end, creating a long arm and a short arm (in humans, short arm is p and long arm is q)
centromere is near one end, producing a long arm and a knob or satellite on the other end
Chromosome rearrangements, aneuploids, and polyploids are the three types of ......
Type of duplication mutation where duplicated region is immediately adjacent to the original segment called a .....
Type of duplication mutation where duplicated segment is located some distance from the original segment, either on the same chromosome or a different one, the chromosome rearrangement is called a ____
The expression of a recessive mutation. An indication that one of the homologous chromosomes has a deletion
When a single copy of a gene is not sufficient to produce a wild type phenotype, it is said to be a ..........
If a gene's position is altered by an inversion, it may be expressed at an inappropriate time or in inappropriate tissues. This is referred to as the....
Chromatid that has 2 centromeres, produced when crossing over takes place within a paracentric inversion.
The 2 centromeres of the dicentric chromatid are frequently pulled........in mitosis or meiosis, breaking the chromosome
lacks a centromere, produced when crossing over takes place within a paracentric inversion
In anaphase one, the centromeres are pulled toward opposite poles and the two homologous chromosomes separate. This stretches the dicentric chromatid cross the center of the nucleus, forming a .....
entails the movement of genetic material between non homologous chromosomes within the same chromosome
Genetic material moves from one chromosome to another without any reciprocal exchange
genetic disease characterized by numerous fibrous tumors of the skin and nervous tissue, results from an autosomal dominant mutation.
The long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes become joined to a common centromere through translocation, generating a metacentric chromosome with two long arms and another chromosome with two very short arms
Chromosomes of cells grown in culture sometimes develop constrictions or gaps at particular locations called______, because they are prone to breakage under certain conditions
Disorder occurs from site on X chromosome, associated with mental retardation. It has been shown to result from a increase in the number of repeats of a CGG trinucleotide
Fragile X syndome
Ends of genes are ___ rich. These regions allow the formation of hairpin loops which contribute to:___
GC, termination of transcription
When something is said to be highly conserved, this means that it is similar between all life forms found on the planet. T/F
The 5'-3' polarity restriction of DNA polymerase during DNA replication produces the ____
The region of DNA that comprises what is traditionally called a gene is known as the ____
The c-value paradox suggests that higher organisms have ____ DNA than they need to encode all essential genes
The model hypothesized to explain the condensation of DNA into chromosomes is termed the ____ model
Specific DNA sequences shared by genes to which proteins bind to coordinate gene activity is termed...
DNA of eukaryotes is organized into repeating interaction with protein octomers forming structures called nucleosomes. nucleosomes are composed of which class of molecules are called:
Each codon is thought to be unique for one and only one amino acid. The term associated with this property of genetic code is....
Metaphase chromosomes normally contain two general domains(bands) which relate to the degree condensation. These two regions are:
Chromosomal regions which represent evolutionary vestiges of duplicated copies of genes that have underdone sufficient mutations to render them untranscribable are called.....
In addition to highly repetitive and unique DNA sequence, a third category of DNA sequences exists. It is called...
moderately repetitive DNA
The histone called ___ binds DNA to the nucleosome and is critical for the formation of the ____
A genetic trait is hypothesized to exhibit a simple dominant/recessive mode of inheritance. If 2 heterozygotes are crossed and 100 progeny produced, what expected numbers would you use to conduct a chi-squared test of this hypothesis?
75 dominant, 25 recessive
Black pelage of guinea pigs is a dominant trait, white is recessive phenotype. When two heterozygous black guinea pigs are crossed, what fraction of the black F2 offspring are expected to be heterozygous?
Of the couples attending PTA night at a local school, 12 couples report that they have 2 kids. How many of these couples would you predict to have two daughters?
Assume that curly wind and brown eye are both autosomal recessive alleles in fruit flies. If two heterozygous wild-type flies with both of these traits are mated, which of Mendel's principles would you use to predict the phenotypic ratios in the offspring?
segregation, independent assortment
As you learned in lab, Modes of inheritance have "signatures" that can help you identify them. For example, one signature for the classic dominant/recessive mode would be: a phenotype disappears in the F1 and re-appears in the F2 in a 3:1 ratio. T/F
One phenotype is never true breeding and when crossed yields a 2:1 ratio is a signature for......
Plumage color in mallard ducks is dependent upon a single locus with 3 alleles. The alleles form a dominance series with R (restricted)-->M (mallard)-->D (dusky). What genotypic ratio would you expect from a RM x RD cross? What phenotypic ratio would you expect here?
The theory that new organs and tissues form completely new (de novo) each generation is termed:
An individual with the genotype AabbCCDd could produce how many different types of gametes if meiosis were completed a large number of times?
Humans have 46 chromosomes in each somatic cell. How many autosomes does a child receive from her father?
In pocket gophers, gray coat color is produced by a recessive lethal allele. At a separate locus, green eye color is found to be dominant over brown. If two heterozygous gray, green eyed gophers are crossed, the final phenotypic ratio for the living progeny would be...
If two shepherd's purse plants are crossed and the phenotypic ratio in the progeny is found to be 15:1, the genotypes of the parents must have been
AaBb x AaBb
A decrease in the number of heterozygotes with a related increase in the number of homozygotes in a population is characteristic of ___
The test used to determine if observed data agree with expectations, for example in linkage studies, is called ....
Chromosome abberations that can occur from the exchange of DNA between two nonhomologous chromosomes are termed:
Classical Eugenics faced many problems, one of which was the most of the traits of interest were controlled by many genes. The genetic terms for these are.... traits.
Any change in the gene pool, such as a change in gene frequencies, over time can be termed .....
Most chromosome abberations arise de novo but some occur repeatedly in family lineages. One example is ..... syndrome
The linkage arrangement in dihybrid in which the two dominant alleles are on one chromosome and their corresponding recessive alleles are on the homologous chromosome are termed....
Assume a cross is made between AaBn and aabb plants and all of the offspring are either AaBb or aabb. These results are most consistent with the following circumstance:
When an organism gains or loses one or more chromosomes but not a complete haploid set, the condition is known as....
In humans, the genetic basis for determining the sex "male" is accomplished by the presence of a portion of the ___ chromosomes
Klinefelter's syndrom in humans, which leads to underdeveloped testes and sterility is caused by this chromosomal condition:...chromosomes and ....
The condition known as William's syndrome in humans results in heart problems due to a defect in the elastin gene located on chromosome 7. The genetic cause of this syndrome is an ________
While the most frequent form of Down's syndrome is caused by a random error, Down's syndrome occasionally runs in families. The cause of this form of familial Down's is : a ____ between chromosomes __ and ___
translocation, 21, 14
What term is given to the genetic information carried by all reproductive members of a population?
Environmental factors typically have the strongest influence on the inheritance of _____
Nondisjunction of the sex chromosome during meiosis I normally results in sperm with odd numbers of chromosomes. If these sperm fertilize normal haploid eggs, you could expect to observe offspring that were:
If color is controlled by additive alleles where A and B each contribute 1 dose of color, how many phenotypes would you expect from the cross AaBb x Aabb
Mutant genes, which when normal are involved in promoting the cell cycle are known as.....
Ends of genes are GC rich. These regions allow the formation of hairpin loops which contribute to....
termination of transcription
The amino acid that initiates a new peptide chain is brought to the ribosome by a charged tRNA. What amino acid does that tRNA carry?
The region of DNA that comprises what is traditionally called a gene is known as the...
For an organism with a diploid number of 46 chromosomes, the per cell number of centromeres at metaphase of mitosis is....
The fundamental Mendelian process which involves the separation of contrasting genetic elements at the same locus would be called...
What is the name given to the three bases in a messenger RNA which bind to the anticodon of tRNA to specify the amino acid in a polypeptide chain?