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12 doubly-named pairs of nerves equivalent to the spinal nerves in that they feed directly into the brain from the PNS
when classifying cranial nerves into functional groups, how does proprioreception factor in?
ignore it because all of them are involved in it to some extent
nerves associated with the parasympathetic cranial ANS
oculomotor (3), facial (7), glosspharyngeal (9), and vagus (10)
oculomotor nerve's involvement in cranial portion of parasympathetic
ciliary muscles and iris diaphragm of eyes
facial nerve's involvement in cranial portion of parasympathetic
lacrimal, nasal, and salivary glands
sacral portion's involvement in parasympathetic
collon, rectum, anus, bladder, gonads, erectile tissue
there are ___ types of ganglia in the sympathetic ANS:
2: paravertebral ganglia, prevertebral ganglia
prevertebral ganglia: definition
3 located further from the vertebral column; aka collateral ganglia
prevertebral ganglia: names and how they came up with the names
celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric; come from name of the artery they sit on
there are ___ possibilities for neural arrangement of ganglia:
3: preganglionic axon enters the paravertebral ganglion and synapses immediately with postganglion, which carries to effector; preganglionic axon enters first paravertebral ganglion but goes up or down to a different post ganglion to synapse; preganglionic enters the nearest paravertebral ganglion then goes out to the effector and synapses closer to there
distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia
head, thoracic viscera, abdominal viscera, pelvic viscera, body wall and limbs
distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: head
output to structures associated with the head (intrinsic eye muscles, lacrimal and salivary glands, etc.)
distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: abdominal viscera
output to organs of abdomen (stomach, intestines, kidneys, etc.)
distribution of sympathetic ANS ganglia: body wall and limbs
output to blood vessels, arrector pili, sweat glands
some specific actions of the sympathetic ANS
dilate pupils, bronchioles, and blood vessels; increase heart rate and blood flow to skeletal muscle; decrease peristalsis and glandular secretion
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