Founder of "Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy" (REBT). Chain: A, B, C, D, E.
-Behavior results from a personal belief about an event, not for the event itself.
-Behavior is a chain of events: A (external event), B (belief about the event), C (emotion that results from B).
-Primary cause of Neurosis is the repetitive irrational belief that one should excel in all aspects and be loved by everyone.
-Irrational beliefs are characterized by dogmatic demands (must and should), that results in low frustration tolerance, and negative evaluations about the self.
-During Therapy more events are added to the chain: D (therapist attempt to alter irrational beliefs), and E (alternative thoughts and beliefs).
-Techniques include: Psycho-education, confrontation, persuasion, modeling, behavior rehearsal.
Cognitive Therapy: Focuses on the impact of cognitive schemas, cognitive distortions on emotions and behavior. It distinguishes from other therapies in that it depends on the collaborative relationship b/w the client and the therapist. This is referred as Collaborative Empiricism.
-Schemas: Develop early in life as a result of biological, developmental, and environmental factors. (Underlying cognitive Structures). Schemas can be Functional, Dysfunctional, Dormant, and Active > Core beliefs (Codify, categorize info, and interpret experiences) > Automatic Thoughts that are supported by cognitive distortions (arbitrary inference, overgeneralization, selective abstraction, personalization, polarized thinking, emotional reasoning).
-Each Disorder involves a different cognitive profile: Ex. Depression: Negative view of oneself, the world and the future. Core beliefs: I am Helpless.
-Treatment is time limited = average 15 sessions. It involves the following steps
1.establishment of rapport
2.socializing the client with the theory process
4.normalizing problems, and installing hope
7.Beginning of therapy: Use of Socratic dialogue (? Designed to help client reach logical conclusions).
hierarchy of defense mechanisms: categorization defenses form a continuum regarding to their psychoanalytical developmental level . Levels are:
• Level I - psychotic defenses (i.e. psychotic denial, delusional projection)
• Level II - immature defenses (i.e. fantasy, projection, passive aggression, acting out)
• Level III - neurotic defenses (i.e. intellectualization, reaction formation, dissociation, displacement, repression)
• Level IV - mature defenses (i.e. humor, sublimation, suppression, altruism, anticipation)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) published by American Psychiatric Association (1994) includes tentative diagnostic axis for defense mechanisms [this was largely base on this theory]
-aimed to simplify client's understanding of maladaptive behavior
EGO STATES→ child, parent, adult - one is always activated
STROKES→ recognition from others (How these take place-either negative or positive)
SCRIPTS→ a person's life plan, reflects pattern of giving strokes (developed early through interactions with parents)
LIFE POSITIONS→ 1) I'm OK, You're OK, 2) I'm OK, You're not OK
3) I'm not OK, You're OK, 4)I'm not OK, You're not OK -The first is the healthy one and all children begin with it.
TRANSACTIONS→ communications between the ego states:
1) COMPLEMENTARY→ communication met w/ approp. Response
2) CROSSED→ comm. meets response from inapprop ego state
3) ULTERIOR→ comm. coming from dual ego states
GAMES→ an orderly series of ulterior transactions that is repeated over time and results in bad feelings
GOAL→ integrate the 3 ego states, increase understanding of maladaptive interactions.
TECHNIQUES→ identify ego states, games, scripts
He viewed people as complex beings, capable of both tremendous good and immense evil. People have become alienated from the world, from other people, and, most of all, from themselves. On the dimensions of a concept of humanity, theory rates high on free choice, teleology, social influences, and uniqueness. On the issue of conscious or unconscious forces, his theory takes a middle position.