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50 terms

Healthy Diet

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nutrition
the science of foods and the substances the contain
food
derived from plant or animal sources. provides energy and nutrients. all humans have a right to an adequate supply of nutritious food.
nutrients
chemical substances obtained from foods and used by the body for growth, maintenence, and repair of tissue, energy, and desease pervention
food security
access at all times to a sufficient supple of safe, nutritious foods
food insecurity
limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods
food terrorism
food is a potential weapon of bioterrorism. toxic substances could be introduced into he food/water supply
adequacy
sufficient essential nutrients, fiber, and energy to maintain health
balance
providing foods in the right proportions to each other and body's needs
calorie control
management of energy intake
nutrient density
nutrients of food provides relative to the energy it provides. more nutients & fewer kcals= higher nutrient density
moderation
enough but not too much of a substance
variety
consuming many foods within/among food groups
nutrient dense food
foods with higher quantitiy of nutrients(nutrient density) relative to the energy(kcals) provided
empty calorie (kcal) foods
popular term used to denote foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins, and minerals
female healthy weight
100 ponds for first 5 feet, add 5 pounds to each additional inch
males healthy weight
106 pounds for the first 5 feet, add 6 pounds for each additional inch
Build a healthy base
let the pyramid guide food choices, choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains, choose a variety of fruits/ vegetables daily, keep foods safe to eat
choose sensibly
choose a diet low in saturated fat, an cholesterol and moderate in total fat, beverages/ food to mpderatre intake of sugars, choose and prpare foods with less salt, drink alcohol in moderation
mypyramid
a food guidance system that allows for and individualized approach to improving diet and lifestyle. the wedges represent recommended proportions of foods from each group to be consumed daily
grains
ear at least 3 oz. of whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice or pastas every day
vegetables
eat more dark-green veggies like broccoli and spinach. eat more orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes, and dry beans and peas
fruits
eat a variety, choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit, try not to drink fruit juces alot
milk
low-fat or fat-free when you choose milk, yogurt, and other milk products
meat and beans
choose low fat or lean meat and poultry, bake it, broil it, or grill it, vary your protein routein
energy recommendations
carbs: 58%
fat: <30%
protein: 12%
monosaccharides
simple sugar, glucose, fuctose, galactose
disaccarides
simple sugar, sucrose, lactose, maltose
polysaccarides
complex carb, starch and fiber
dietary fiber
indigestible carbohydrates
saturated fatty acid
fats that are animal in origin, and solid at room temperature
monosaturated
peanut oils/ butter, olive oil, canola oil
polysaturated
oils that are plants in origin and liquid at room temperature
agriculture
# 1 job in the US, meat,dairy, and egg industries are the biggest players in the ag economy
EAR (eatimated average requirement)
nutrient amount that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the people of a given age and gender group. 50% of people of an age/gender. not really used
RDA (recommended dietaryy allowance)
the average daily amount of nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy americans, living in america, and under the usual stress. 98% practically all healthy americans based on an average. most widely used
AI (adequate intake)
average intake of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion. rarely used
UL (tolerable Upper Level Intake level)
upper limit of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people
diet
the food and beverages a person eats, drinks, and/ or consumes
energy
the capacity to do work- food is chemical energy converted to mechanical, electrical or heat energy
six classes of nutrients
protein- 4kcal/g
carbs.- 4 kcal/g
lipids- 9kcal/g
vitamins-13 different
minerals-15 different
water-humans need 11-15 cups of water a day from foods and fluids
percent contribution
(part / whole) x 100
ingredients list
listed in descending order of predominance by weight
serving size
set by FDA/ Facilitates comparisons among foods
nutrition facts
total calories and calories from fat, total carbs, starch, sugar, and fiber, trans fat required on label
net carb
have to have a food with at least 5 g of fiber per serving. the subtract the number of carbs from fiber= net carbs
nutrient claims
must meet FDA defnitions, ex: low cholecterol, high fiber, sugar free
health claims
FDA's "A" list of health claims can be used on food labels, they provide and establish connection between a nutrient and a disease or health condition
organic food
crops/livestock living according to US department of agriculture standards
irradiated food
x-rays, gamma rays, electrom beams are used to kill insects, bacteria, molds or other microorganisms. retain no radioactive particles, cam become contaminated once the package is open
functional food
provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions. modify it to make it seem healthier ex: low fat foods