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Terms in this set (87)
an individual member of a species
group of the same species that live in the same area
various species of organisms living and working together in a particular area
A biological community of interacting organisms (living) and their environment (non-living)
a major group of ecosystems with the same climate and similar communities
the areas of Earth where living things exist (land, water, and air)
living organisms found on Earth
non-living factors that influence life (water, sunlight, wind, etc.)
What is the main source of energy on Earth?
a series of steps that trace the flow of energy from one organism to another.
many food chains intertwined within each other in an ecosystem.
Each step in a food chain or food web
(autotrophs) organisms that can produce their own food through photosynthesis
(heterotrophs) organisms that must consume other organisms to use energy
Ten Percent Rule
about 10% of energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next
organisms that eat only plants.
organisms that eat only animals
organisms that eat both plants and animals
organisms that break down dead organic matter
eat dead organisms (plant or animal) rather than live prey
water turns to water vapor (liquid to gas)
Transpiration (or Evapotranspiration)
water vapor escapes from pores (stomata) in plants
water vapor turns to water (gas to liquid)
rain, snow, etc. released from clouds
precipitation that gets carried to an area that water collects
precipitation that soaks into the ground
An area of land that drains into a particular body water.
What watershed do we live in?
Conestoga River Watershed
What watershed does the Susquehanna Watershed sit inside?
Chesapeake Bay Watershed
a scale that represents the health of an environment using the amount of certain organisms present (macroinvertebrates in a stream)
Point Source Pollution
comes from a specific source (you can point to where it's coming from)
comes from many different sources and is moved by runoff
water washing off hot parking lots can increase temperature of streams (killing fish)
Gradual destruction of land due to water wearing away the soil.
Algal Blooms are caused by
Excess nutrients from fertilizers carried by runoff
planting gardens on the roof of a building to reduce rainwater running off the roof
pavement that allows rain water to infiltrate through the soil below
pavement that does not allow rain water to infiltrate the soil below
gardens planted in depressions in the land where rain would pool otherwise
houses built close together to allow for conservation of open spaces
man-made ponds used to manage stormwater runoff
man-made vegetated dips in the land that reduce runoff and aid infiltration
large barrels that collect rainwater for later use (watering lawns, gardens, etc.)
the study of organisms and their interaction with other living things and their environment
an area of land that is covered by water for at least part of the year
Water doesn't move, is always flooded; acidic and nutrient poor with carnivorous plants (forest in a pond)
water moves, is always flooded; nutrient rich (forest in a river)
Not always flooded, few trees, two types (saltwater and freshwater)
area where fresh water meets saltwater (brackish water); delicate ecosystem
the variety of life in an area
refers to the various types of organisms within an ecosystem, community, or biome
refers to the variation of genes between individuals in a species
A change (physical trait or behavior) that helps organisms or species become better suited to their environment
The process by which organisms evolve
physical features of an organism to help it survive
things an organism does to survive
hiding or disguising self
toxic substances that can cause illness or death
pretending to be something else
surprise attack by predator
Tolerance for Extremes
features and behaviors that aid survival in extreme conditions
Driest biome, hot during the day and cold at night, poor soil, plants and animals are sparse. Adaptations include nocturnality and burrowing
Wet and dry seasons, warm or hot, fertile soil, grasses (few or no trees). Adaptations include grazing and burrowing
Coniferous Forest (Taiga)
Adequate water, cool with harsh winters, poor soil, plants are mostly conifers. Adaptations include migration or hibernation during the winter
Adequate water, 4 distinct seasons, fertile soil, plants are mostly deciduous. Adaptations include migration and hibernation during the winter, and food storage.
Very wet, rains almost everyday, always warm, poor soil because nutrients is lost through runoff, most biodiverse place on the planet. Adaptations include camouflage, life in trees, and oily coatings on plants.
Very dry, considered the coldest place on the planet, soil is permanently frozen (permafrost), plants include lichens and mosses. Adaptations include migration, hibernation, and thick fur.
the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that a particular environment can support
Conditions that control the growth and total population of a species in an ecosystem
The unique ecological role (job) an organism plays within its community
a species in an ecosystem on which most other species depend
In a predator-prey relationship the predator population trend __________ __________________ the prey.
A relationship in which a predator (an animal that captures other animals for food) feeds on its prey (organism being attacked and eaten)
Organisms of the same or different species attempt to use the same resource in the same place at the same time
A relationship between organisms that live together
(+, +) When both organisms benefit
(+, ᴓ) When one species benefits, the other is neither helped nor harmed
(+, -) When one species benefits at the expense of the health of the other
A species whose numbers are so small that the species is at risk of extinction
Change in weather patterns that remain for a long period of time
The Greenhouse Effect
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
when CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH
Integrated Pest Management
strategies that reduce the amount of chemicals used to kill pests
the process of change in an ecosystem over time
Occurs on bare, rocky land (from glacier movement or a volcanic eruption
the first species to populate an area (usually lichens)
Occurs on soil after disturbances such as fire, drought, flood, etc.