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AP Government: Chapter 2 - The Constitution

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Unalienable
a human right based on nature or God
Articles of Confederation
a weak Constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary war
Constitutional Convention
meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new Constitution
Virginia Plan
proposal to create a strong national government
New Jersey Plan
proposal to create a weak national government
Great Connecticut Compromise
plan to have a popularly elected House based on State population and a state selected Senate, with two members for each State
Republic
a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
Judicial Review
the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
Federalism
government authority shared by National and State governments
Separation of Powers
constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government
Faction
a group with a distinct political interest
Federalists
those who favor a stronger National government
Anti-Federalists
those who favor a weaker National government
Coalition
an alliance of factions
Writ of Habeas Corpus
an order to produce an arrested person before a judge
Bill of Attainder
a law that declares a person or group of people, without a trial, to be convicted of a crime
Ex Post Facto Law
a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed
3/5ths Rule
in determining representation, each state was to have in the House, "three-fifths of all other persons" (slaves) are to be added to the "whole number of free persons".
Line-item Veto
an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature