How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

1,525 terms

Garcia_cui

Garcia study
STUDY
PLAY
left
If something leaves something else, a part or effect of it stays after it has gone or been used.
His shoes left muddy marks on the floor.
There's some food left over from the party.
[+ two objects] If I give you £10 that won't leave me enough cash to pay the bill.
[+ obj + adj ] Far from improving things the new law has left many people worse off (= they are now in a worse situation) than before.
eg: Dakis Voultsis is a businessman. He agrees with Suzanna Steiner.
He says the government should have been left to do its work. But, he says, now that early elections are set for January 25, Greeks will have to decide whom to vote for.
surprise
to find, catch or attack someone when they are not expecting it.
The robbers had just opened the safe when they were surprised by the police.
[+ -ing verb] His mother surprised him helping himself to her gin.
eg:This resistance did not stop government efforts to get the Black Hills for the miners. The War Department sent General George Crook to punish the Indians and force them back to their reservation. Crook led a large force into Sioux country. He surprised an Indian village, capturing hundreds of horses.
Paradox
A statement that at first seems to be absurd or self-contradictory but which may in fact turn out to be true.
badger
To pester, nag, annoy persistently
voracious
Desiring or consuming great quantities
stoic
A person who can endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining.
vigilant
always being careful to notice things, especially possible danger
incipient
just beginning;beginning to come being or to become apparent
loath
to be unwilling to do something
confession
when you admit that you have done something wrong or illegal.
I've got a bit of a confession to make - I've lost that book you lent me.
I can't ask for help. It feels like a confession of failure.
Confession is the first stage of coming to terms with what you've done.
He made a full confession to the police.
eg: We'll also be giving a writing prompt on our blog, Confessions of an English Learner. Hope you enjoy reading and listening to this story!
attorney
Brings legal action on behalf of the state; heads the state's legal office
ominous
giving the impression that something bad or unpleasant is going to happen; threatening; inauspicious.
"there were ominous dark clouds gathering overhead"
credit
1.used to show that you think a person deserves a lot of praise for something that they have done.
2. [C or U] money in your bank account.
I was relieved to see from my statement that my account was in credit.
eg: One time, Swanson's bicycle was not returned on time. He was happy with Spinlister's response.
"They were so good about it, they gave me a credit, and they were very helpful, like immediate responses. Part of that might be the size; they're still pretty small, I believe, and you get a lot more personal attention with that."
3.to pay money into a bank account.
They credited my account with $20 after I pointed out the mistake.
brutal
cruel, violent and completely without feelings
repudiate
to refuse to accept something or someone as true, good or reasonable
elite
the richest, most powerful, best educated or best trained group in a society. eg :in addition to the evolving Chinese economy, social factors are driving people to buy more of these products than ever before. Fabinyi claims the luxurious banquet culture among the country's elite is a large reason why the high-end market for seafood like live reef fish, sea cucumbers and shark fins is thriving.
welfare
help given, especially by the state or an organization, to people who need it, especially because they do not have enough money
motto
a short sentence or phrase that expresses a belief or purpose
millennium
a period of 1000 years, or the time when a period of 1000 years ends
encyclopedia
a book or set of books containing many articles arranged in alphabetical order which deal either with the whole of human knowledge or with a particular part of it
atrocity
when someone does something extremely violent and shocking;atrocious
probe
to try to discover information that other people do not want you to know, by asking questions carefully and not directly
tribunal
a special court or group of people who are officially chosen, especially by the government, to examine (legal) problems of a particular type;
panel
a small group of people chosen to give advice, make a decision, or publicly discuss their opinions as entertainment
defector
a person who leaves his or her own country or group to join an opposing one.
eg:She was one of many Communist Party defectors.
eg:Some North Koreans who fled to the South say they are sad about that. Park Gun-ha is a North Korean defector. Like most other men in the North, he served in his country's military. He says the soldiers in the graveyard should be returned home.
testimony
(an example of) spoken or written statements that something is true, especially those given in a court of law;to be clear proof of something
starvation
the state of having no food for a long period, often causing death
minority
any small group in society that is different from the rest because of their race, religion or political beliefs, or a person who belongs to such a group
genocide
the murder of a whole group of people, especially a whole nation, race or religious group
slander
a false spoken statement about someone which damages their reputation, or the making of such a statement
historic figure
historic figure
condo
a condominium
eligible
having the necessary qualities or satisfying the necessary conditions.
Are you eligible for early retirement/maternity leave?
You might be eligible for a grant.
Only people over 18 are eligible to vote.
eg:
This year, like last year, the U.S. government is refusing to consider people from 19 countries for a visa. That is because more than 50,000 people from each of those nations have come to the United States legally in the past five years. Included on the list are Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and Vietnam.

Sean Cooper says the same countries have been on the "not eligible" list for years.

"Well, it changes from time to time. But actually, many of these countries that are included on the list that are not eligible for the diversity visa program this year -- and weren't last year as well -- are from traditionally large sources of immigration to the United States. So for some of them, it's not likely that they're going to fluctuate again and become less than 50,000 over the last five years. For others, it might be. And each year what the law requires is that we review 'Alright how many people emigrated?' and if they fall into that they would then join the 'eligible' list."
clash
to fight or argue
vow
to make a determined decision or promise to do something
rally
a public meeting of a large group of people, especially supporters of a particular opinion
subject
1.bring (a person or country) under one's control or jurisdiction, typically by using force;cause or force to undergo (a particular experience of form of treatment).
2.a person who lives in or who has the right to live in a particular country, especially a country with a king or queen.
He is a British subject.
eg:He also arrested two British subjects. The two men were tried by a military court. They were found guilty of spying and giving guns to the Indians. Both were executed.

President Monroe called a cabinet meeting as soon as he learned of Jackson's actions. All the ministers, except Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, believed that Jackson had gone too far. But they decided not to denounce him in public.

Secretary Adams prepared messages to Britain and Spain about the incidents. His message to Britain carefully stated the activities of the two British subjects in Florida and explained why they were executed. Britain agreed not to take any action.
rumoured
describes a fact that people are talking about, which might be true or invented
rampant
(of something bad) getting worse quickly and in an uncontrolled way
raid
a short sudden attack, usually by a small group of people.
eg:The raid on Harpers Ferry increased the bitterness of the national dispute over slavery. Members of the Democratic Party called the raid a plot by the Republican Party. Republican leaders denied the charge. They said the raid was the work of one man -- one madman. Still, they said, John Brown had acted for good reason: to end slavery in America.
evict
to force someone to leave somewhere
jeopardy
in danger of being damaged or destroyed; eg: The lives of thousands of birds are in _ as a result of the oil spillage. eg: A U.S. businessman who was held captive by his Chinese employees for nearly a week has been allowed to leave a suburban Beijing factory after the two sides settled a wage dispute.
Chip Starnes, the co-owner of Specialty Medical Supplies, said his company has agreed to give severance packages to about 100 workers who had trapped him in the factory since Friday.
The workers demanded the severance packages after a series of recent lay-offs at the factory led them to believe their own jobs were also in jeopardy, despite Starnes' insistence this was not the case.
impeach
to make a formal statement saying that a public official is guilty of a serious offence in connection with their job, especially in the US.
eg:The great impeachment trial began on March fifth, 1868. The President refused to attend. But his lawyers were there to defend him.
One by one, the Senators swore an oath to be just. They promised to make a fair and honest decision on the guilt or innocence of Andrew Johnson.
subsidy
money given as part of the cost of something, to help or encourage it to happen
prone
likely to suffer from an illness or show a particular negative characteristic
euphemism
a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word
mundane
very ordinary and therefore not interesting
condolence
sympathy and sadness for the family or close friends of a person who has recently died, or an expression of this, especially in written form
incongruous
unusual or different from what is around or from what is generally happening
glamorous
attractive in an exciting and special way
sanction
an official order, such as the stopping of trade, which is taken against a country in order to make it obey international law
encampment
a group of tents or temporary shelters put in one place.
eg: Earlier this month, California police cleared what was said to be the largest homeless encampment in the United States. About 200 homeless people were living at the camp in San Jose, California. Officials said police officers and city workers acted because the area was unclean.
swarm
When insects swarm, they come together in a large group.
convulse
(cause to) shake violently with sudden uncontrolled movements
munitions
military weapons such as guns and bombs
stockpile
a large amount of food, goods or weapons which are kept ready for future use,eg: They have a _ of weapons and ammunition that will last several months.
penalty
a punishment, or the usual punishment, for doing something that is against a law
condemn
to criticize something or someone strongly, usually for moral reasons
reiterate
to say something again, once or several times
irate
very angry
mired
to be involved in a difficult situation, especially for a long period of time;
eg: The subsidy program has been _ in allegations of corruption and faced growing losses, becoming a target of a Bangkok-based protest movement bent on ousting Yingluck and the caretaker government she has led since December.
bent on
determined to do or have something
eg: The subsidy program has been mired in allegations of corruption and faced growing losses, becoming a target of a Bangkok-based protest movement __ ousting Yingluck and the caretaker government she has led since December.
on the back of
While many rice farmers are expected to remain loyal to Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra, who swept to power in 2011 __ rural votes generated in part by the subsidies, a slump in prices that could be blamed on her leadership would erode her support base and be another blow for her embattled government.
campaign
a planned group of especially political, business or military activities which are intended to achieve a particular aim.
The protests were part of their campaign against the proposed building development in the area.
This is the latest act of terrorism in a long-standing and bloody campaign of violence.
The endless public appearances are an inevitable part of an election campaign.
She's the campaign organizer for the Labour Party.
The government have just launched (= begun) their annual Christmas campaign to stop drunken driving.
a controversial new advertising campaign.
eg:
On national issues, President Kennedy supported efforts to guarantee a better life for African-Americans. One man who pushed for changes was his younger brother, Robert. Robert Kennedy was attorney general and head of the Justice Department at that time.

The Justice Department took legal action against Southern states that violated the voting rights acts of 1957 and 1960. The administration also supported a voter registration campaign among African-Americans. The campaign helped them to record their names with election officials so they could vote.
As attorney general, Robert Kennedy repeatedly called on National Guard troops to protect black citizens from crowds of angry white citizens. Incidents took place when blacks tried to register to vote and when they tried to attend white schools.
President Kennedy said the situation was causing a moral crisis in America. He decided it was time to propose a new civil rights law. The measure would guarantee equal treatment for blacks in public places and in jobs. It would speed the work of ending racial separation in schools.

Kennedy wanted the new legislation badly. But Congress delayed action. It did not pass a broad civil rights bill until 1964, after his presidency.
eg: in 1957, Communist rebels -- Vietcong -- began a campaign of terrorism in South Vietnam. They were supported by the government of North Vietnam and later by North Vietnamese troops. Their goal was to overthrow the anti-Communist government in the South.
toll
The amount of loss or destruction caused by a disaster
eg: Local officials said 39 people were killed, bringing the three-day __ to at least 69 fatalities.
wane
to become weaker in strength or influence
eg: Protests against Thailand's caretaker government show no sign of waning now that judges have ruled authorities cannot use force to disperse them.
Occupy Central leaders admitted Tuesday that support from Hong Kong's people is waning. But Wednesday, pro-democracy supporters continued to rally for support.
convoy
a group of vehicles or ships which travel together, especially for protection.
bungle
to do something wrong, in a careless or stupid way
nemesis
Someone's nemesis is a person or thing that is very difficult for them to defeat.
turmoil
a state of confusion, uncertainty or disorder
sceptical
doubting that something is true or useful
eg: Although a civil court has now ruled authorities cannot use force to disperse demonstrators, many protestors are sceptical they will be unmolested.
spike
impale on or pierce with a sharp point.
eg: On Friday morning, PM 2.5 readings in most of Beijing's observatory stations spiked more than 300 micrograms per cubic metre, far above the 25 micrograms considered safe by the World Health Organisation.
municipality
a city or town with its own local government, or the local government itself
eg: Beijing has been under heavy smog since noon on Thursday. The municipality's office for severe air pollution emergency issued a yellow alert that day,
broker
to arrange something such as a deal, agreement, etc. between two or more groups or countries
eg: Talks between government and opposition representatives were brokered by the foreign ministers of Germany, France, and Poland.
outrage
(especially of an unfair action or statement) to cause someone to feel very angry, shocked or upset
eg: The White House said Thursday it was "outraged by the images of Ukrainian security forces firing automatic weapons on their own people."
fatality
a death caused by an accident or by violence, or someone who has died in either of these ways
sniper
someone who shoots at people from a place where they cannot be seen
chaos
a state of total confusion with no order. eg:The head of Russia's lower house of parliament, the Duma, Alexei Pushkov, says Russia has never and will never interfere directly in Ukrainian affairs.
Pushkov told a news conference in Moscow that the European Union, the United States and former Ukrainian opposition parties should be held responsible for the current chaos.
Fighting between Ukrainian security forces and pro-Russia militants in eastern Ukraine has left at least five militants dead, with Russian President Vladimir Putin calling it a "crime" and threatening "consequences."
Ukraine's Interior Ministry said Thursday that its forces, together with army units, had killed five pro-Russia militants and destroyed three of their checkpoints in the eastern city of Slovyansk.
erupt
1. When a volcano erupts, it explodes and flames and rocks come out of it;
2.Anti-government protests erupted in November, after Yanukovych backed away from a trade deal with the European Union in favor of closer ties with Russia.
charge
to move forward quickly and violently, especially towards something that has caused difficulty or anger;
eg: When the bell sounded, K.O. Mullins responded with alacrity. He sprang from his stool and charged across the ring, showing disdain for the champion's strength. Although this belligerent attitude impressed the referee, it failed to intimidate the champ. That intrepid battler laid the hapless Mullins low with an adroit feint and an uppercut.
agitator
someone who tries to make people join in protests and political activity
deliberately
intentionally,
I'm sure he says these things deliberately to annoy me.
The official says the plane was likely deliberately targeted by someone who may have mistaken it for a military transport plane.
essay
a short piece of writing on a particular subject, especially one done by students as part of the work for a course
affection
a feeling of liking for a person or place
eg: According to psychologists,some antagonism between siblings is natural as each child seekd parental affection and approval
prescribe
(of a doctor) to say what medical treatment someone should have
eg: If you are bitten by a snake,you should try to note its appearance so that the correct antidote can be prescribed based on what species of snake bit you.
neglect
to give not enough care or attention to people or things that are your responsibility
surgeon
a doctor who is specially trained to perform medical operations
exploit
a striking or notable deed; feat; spirited or heroic act: the exploits of Alexander the Great.
priest
a person, usually a man, who has been trained to perform religious duties in the Christian Church, especially the Roman Catholic Church, or a person with particular duties in some other religions
good faith
in good faith, If something is done in good faith, it is done sincerely and honestly
chagrin
disappointment or anger, especially when caused by a failure or mistake
scam
an illegal plan for making money
perpetrate
to commit a crime, or a violent or harmful act:In Britain, half of all violent crime is perpetrated by people who have been drinking alcohol.
forge
If one person or institution forges an agreement or relationship with another, they create it with a lot of hard work, hoping that it will be strong or lasting.
The Prime Minister is determined to forge a good relationship with America's new leader...
The programme aims to forge links between higher education and small businesses...
The Community was trying to forge a common foreign and security policy.
preserve
to keep something as it is, especially in order to prevent it from decaying or being damaged or destroyed; to conserve;
eg:to preserve the environment;
eg: Font and formatting (like bold and the red color) preserved. When you paste in
jeopardize
to put something such as a plan or system in danger of being harmed or damaged.eg:She knew that by failing her exams she could jeopardize her whole future.
eminence
the state of being famous, respected or important. eg:his eminence as a film director
walk sb through sth
to slowly and carefully explain something to someone or show someone how to do something: She walked me through the six-page document. He'll walk you through the procedure.
align
to put two or more things a straight line:
When you've aligned the notch on the gun with the target, fire!
soothe
to make someone feel calm or less worried. eg: to soothe a crying baby
intense
extreme and forceful or (of a feeling) very strong. eg: intense cold/heat/hatred; an intense flavour/colour
provision
supplies of food and other necessary things;eg: provisions for the journey
make provision for sth : to make arrangements to deal with something, often financial arrangements eg: He hasn't made any provision for his retirement yet.
financial instrument
a financial asset that can be bought or sold, such as a bond, share, or other security (= an investment that can be traded) eg: Hedge accounting attempts to reduce the volatility created by the repeated adjustment of a financial instrument's value, known as marking to market. This reduced volatility is done by combining the instrument and the hedge as one entry, which offsets the opposing movements.
instrument
an object, such as a piano, guitar or drum, which is played to produce musical sounds.eg:Which instrument do you play?
volatile
likely to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry.eg: Food and fuel prices are very volatile in a war situation; He had a rather volatile temper and can't have been easy to live with.
exclusively
only; eg: This offer is available exclusively to our established customers.
be predicated on sth
If an idea or argument is predicated on something, it depends on the existence or truth of this thing.eg: The sales forecast is predicated on the assumption that the economy will grow by four per cent.
reciprocal
A reciprocal action or arrangement involves two people or groups of people who behave in the same way or agree to help each other and give each other advantages. eg: The point of hedging a position is to reduce the volatility of the overall portfolio. Hedge accounting has the same effect except that it's used on financial statements. For example, when accounting for complex financial instruments, such as derivatives, the value is adjusted by marking to market; this creates large swings in the profit and loss account. Hedge accounting treats the reciprocal hedge and the derivative as one entry so that the large swings are balanced out.
swing
to move easily and without interruption backwards and forwards or from one side to the other, especially from a fixed point, or to cause something or someone to do this. eg: His mood swings between elation and despair.
fatality
a death caused by an accident or by violence, or someone who has died in either of these ways; eg: Britain has thousands of road fatalities (= deaths on roads) every year.
hype
when something is advertised and discussed in newspapers, on television, etc. all the time in order to attract everyone's interest
; eg:Thursday marks the first time that Xiaomi had revealed the number of phones it sold, in response to criticism that its popularity here might be more gimmick than real as it did not reveal Singapore sales numbers previously.
Some netizens had said that the Chinese firm might have been hyping up its sales here by releasing very small batches of phones, which can then sell out quickly.
eg: Council on Foreign Relations analyst Economy says U.S. media often portray China with a lot of hype, emphasizing its status as the largest foreign holder of U.S. debt.
"The media also have a tendency to frame U.S.-China economic issues as competitive," she says. "So (they ask,) 'who is winning the clean energy race?', or 'whose infrastructure is better?'"
gimmick
something which is not serious or of real value that is used to attract people's attention or interest temporarily, especially to make them buy something;
forge
to form or make, especially by concentrated effort: to forge a friendship through mutual trust. eg:The chief of the French air force was honoured by Singapore on Thursday for his role in helping to forge relations between the air forces of both countries.
proficient
skilled and experienced; eg: She's proficient in two languages.
desperately
extremely or very much. eg:She always seems to be desperately busy!
commission
to formally choose someone to do a special piece of work. eg:According to a review commissioned by the Center for Auto Safety, a consumer group, there were 303 crash fatalities in which air bags did not inflate tied to two recalled car models.
speculation
when you guess possible answers to a question without having enough information to be certain
Rumours that they are about to marry have been dismissed as pure speculation.
Speculation about his future plans is rife.
[+ that] The Prime Minister's speech fuelled/prompted speculation that an election will be held later in the year.
eg:
So the numbers, while worrying (air bags should ideally work all of the time), may not be directly tied to the ignition switch issue that this recall specifically addresses—only to the models that were recalled. A spokesperson for GM said that "without rigorous analysis, it is pure speculation to attempt to draw any meaningful conclusions."
eg:"We ask that the privacy of Michael's family continue to be respected, and that speculations about his state of health are avoided."

A spokesman for the university hospital in Lausanne, confirmed that the 45-year-old German, a seven-times world champion, had been discharged earlier in the day.

No details were given on Schumacher's condition.
fortnight
a period of two weeks
harmonize
to add harmonies to a tune
demystify
to make something easier to understand. eg: What I need is a book that will demystify the workings of a car engine for me. eg: Demystifying SAP's Ramp-Up process
slash
to very much reduce something, such as money or jobs. eg:Over the past 20 years, China has slashed its tuberculosis rate by more than 50 percent by broadly applying the World Health Organization's strategy for TB elimination. Experts say the outcome is proof tuberculosis can be vanquished through an aggressive treatment program.
vanquish
to defeat an opponent, especially in war. eg:Napoleon was vanquished at the battle of Waterloo in 1815.
regimen
any set of rules about food and exercise that someone follows, especially in order to improve their health. eg:fter his heart attack the doctor put him on a strict regimen. eg:Treatment for tuberculosis requires patients to take a number of drugs daily for six to nine months. Adherence to the regimen is difficult, and often uneven.But with DOTS, health care workers visit patients in their homes every day, making sure they swallow each dose of the prescribed pills.
prevalent
prevalence,existing very commonly or happening often; eg:These diseases are more prevalent among young children. eg:the prevalence of smoking amongst teenagers
overwhelming
difficult to fight against;very great or very large; eg: She felt an overwhelming urge/desire/need to tell someone about what had happened. eg: Authorities in southern China said a station where parents are able to anonymously leave their unwanted children has been forced to close because of an overwhelming number of abandoned babies.
eg:Despite overwhelming evidence, Russia denies it has such forces in Ukraine.
annex
to take possession of an area of land or a country, usually by force or without permission; eg: Analyst Laurenti says there have been several annexations since the U.N. was established in 1945 that have lingered unrecognized by the international community, and Crimea is likely to be added to the list.
a building joined to or associated with a main building, providing additional space or accommodations.
[As Islamist militia groups in Libya say] An Islamist militia group in Libya says it's taken control of the residential annex of the vacated U.S. embassy in Tripoli, that is, a month after American diplomats fled to escape the violent clashes between rival militias in the Libyan capital.
News agencies reported on Sunday that the Dawn of Libya, an umbrella group for Islamist militias, said it had been in control of the U.S. compound for about a week, seizing it from a rival militia after weeks of fighting for control of Tripoli and its international airport.
refrain
to avoid doing or stop yourself from doing something. eg:The U.N. chief has refrained from pronouncing the referendum illegitimate. Ukraine's interim authorities and their international supporters say it violated the country's constitution. But Ban has called on all parties in the country and those with influence to avoid actions that could escalate tensions.
exacerbate
to make something which is already bad worse. eg:His spokesman, Stephane Dujarric, told reporters the secretary-general is concerned that Sunday's referendum declaring Crimea independent from Ukraine will only exacerbate the situation.
controversial
causing disagreement or discussion. eg: controversial referendum.
backed
used to form adjectives that describe who is providing support, especially financial support. government-backed contracts. eg: It comes after a referendum on Sunday in which Crimean officials say 97% of voters backed splitting from Ukraine.
accession
the time when a country officially joins a group of countries or signs an agreement. eg: Poland's accession to the EU. eg: Mr Putin, who signed an order on Monday recognising Crimean independence, also approved a draft bill on the accession.
ratify
(especially of governments or organizations) to make an agreement official. eg: Once signed, the bill must be approved by the constitutional court and then ratified by parliament. The process is expected to be completed this week.
eg:China said on Saturday it backed IMF financial support for Ukraine, but expressed concern about the global lender's funding capacity given the failure of the U.S. Congress to ratify a program of reforms for the institution.
eg: During his administration, for example, a separate Department of Labor was established. Two Constitutional amendments won congressional approval and were sent to the states for ratification.
spiral
when a price, etc. is becoming lower, or when a situation is getting worse and is difficult to control because one bad event causes another. eg: But she said there was still time to avoid "a negative spiral" in the situation, urging Russia to withdraw its forces from Crimea.
recap
to repeat the main points of an explanation or description. eg:Finally, the teacher recapped the main points of the lesson.
diligent
done in a careful and detailed way. eg:The discovery was made after years of diligent research.
predominantly
mostly or mainly. eg:She is predominantly a dancer, but she also sings. eg:Experience working predominantly as a Trainer within a Global SAP Environment
peruse
to read through something, especially in order to find the part you are interested in. eg: He opened a newspaper and began to peruse the personal ads.
tentative
(of a plan or idea) not certain or agreed, or (of a suggestion or action) said or done in a careful but uncertain way because you do not know if you are right. eg:I have made tentative plans to take a trip to Seattle in July.
pretty
quite, but not extremely. eg: I've got a pretty good idea of how to get there. The house has four bedrooms, so it's pretty big.
tenure
being the legal owner of land, a job or an official public position, or the period of time during which you own it. eg:Xu's critics claim that during his tenure, the buying and selling of military ranks was widespread in the defense establishment.eg: During his tenure as dean, he had a real influence on the students.
dean
a high-ranking official in a college or university who is responsible for the organization of a department or departments. eg:She is the new dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences.
hysterical
unable to control your feelings or behaviour because you are extremely frightened, angry, excited. eg: Most of the passengers were Chinese. Their families are extremely frustrated with the investigation, accusing Malaysian authorities of lying. Police forcibly carried out hysterical and sobbing relatives from a government briefing on Wednesday.
catastrophic
a sudden event that causes very great trouble or destruction. eg:Investigators are not ruling out anything, including catastrophic mechanical failure or terrorism.
trajectory
the curved path that an object follows after it has been thrown or shot the air. eg:the trajectory of a bullet/missile
landfall
(an arrival on) the first land that is reached or seen at the end of a journey across the sea or through the air. eg:The last known position of a ping was way over the southern Indian Ocean, with no landfall and no long runways, obviously, around it
eureka moment
a moment at which a person realizes or solves something. eg:The scientists may have recorded the first snapshots of a Eureka moment.
resigned
accepting that something you do not like will happen because you cannot change it. eg:After learning of Inmarsat's conclusions, Malaysia's prime minister informed relatives of passengers of the data telling of the plane's fate. The announcement seems to indicate that the government is resigned that all aboard have perished.
grieve
to feel or express great sadness, especially when someone dies. eg:A relative of one of the Chinese passengers aboard flight MH370 grieves after being told of the latest news in Beijing, March 24, 2014.
miracle
an unusual and mysterious event that is thought to have been caused by a god, or any very surprising and unexpected event. eg:Most passengers on board were Chinese. For nearly three weeks, the Chinese families of passengers have been hoping for a miracle. eg: can't promise a miracle cure, but I think we can improve things.eg: In Niger, during a trial in 2013, the anti-malaria compounds were made available in remote locations at health facilities, in the homes of village chiefs and in areas where public health workers go door-to-door.

The organization deployed some 2,000 community health care workers to educate families about the benefits of chemoprevention and to encourage them to take their children to a distribution site.

Lasry says MSF chemoprevention campaigns do not use artemisinin-based drugs that are currently the "gold standard" to treat malaria infection.

"We try to use different drugs so that even if we can potentially cause resistance, we are not causing resistance to the most effective drugs we have for treatment," she said.

If they find malaria in any of the children, Lasry says they treat it. But she says there's a shortage of rapid diagnostic tests in Niger, for example, hampering efforts to treat malaria in endemic regions.

While not a "miracle cure," officials say prevention drugs complement other malaria control strategies, including insecticide-treated bed nets.
roller coaster
a situation which changes from one extreme to another, or in which a person's feelings change from one extreme to another.
eg:He was on an emotional roller coaster for a while when he lost his job. eg:After 17 days of riding an emotional roller coaster the grief for many was too much to bear.
paramedic
a person who is trained to do medical work, especially in an emergency, but who is not a doctor or nurse. eg:Paramedics were on hand at Beijing's Lido Hotel, where many Chinese families have been gathered since plane went missing. After hearing the news, several were taken away on stretchers.
anguish
extreme unhappiness caused by physical or mental suffering. eg:Amid the anguish some family members lashed out at journalists. As one family member cried, another yelled at a reporter, telling him to stop asking questions.
mourning
eg:Shops will be closed today as a sign of mourning for the king. eg:On China's social media sites, some were calling on the Chinese government to mark a national day of mourning for those on board MH 370.
sighting
when you see something or someone, especially that is rare or trying to hide. eg:Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott earlier described the sightings as "significant" in the search for the Malaysian flight MH370 with 239 passengers and crew, bound for Beijing on March 8.
bound
1.certain or extremely likely to happen. eg:These two young musicians are bound for international success (= are certain to be successful).
eg: Ms. Murray said the U.S. needs to have stronger laws about teaching children to use guns safely. She adds that American movies, video games and language create a culture of gun violence.
"Given that there are many societal influences on violence, I mean, it's bound to happen, you know, something like Newtown shooting is bound to happen with all that influence and easy access to guns and assault rifles."
2.DIRECTION,going to
eg: he was on a plane bound for Moscow when she became ill.
eg:Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott earlier described the sightings as "significant" in the search for the Malaysian flight MH370 with 239 passengers and crew, bound for Beijing on March 8.
vital
necessary for the success or continued existence of something; extremely important. eg: The kidney plays a vital role/part in the removal of waste products from the blood. eg: Also Monday, the U.S. Pacific Command said it is sending a specialized locator to assist in the recovery of the vital "black box" flight recorder in the hope a debris field is located.
beacon
a light or fire on the top of a hill that acts as a warning or signal.eg:She was a beacon of hope in troubled times. eg:In the case of Air France 447 it took two years and they found it and of course the locator beacon had been dead for a long time
tribute
something that you say, write or give which shows your respect and admiration for someone, especially on a formal occasion. eg:Malaysian papers turn black in tribute to crashed jet
emblazon
to print or decorate something in a very noticeable way. eg: Malaysia's biggest English-language daily, The Star, ran a stark wrap-around cover emblazoned with the words "MH370 R.I.P." The names of the victims, rendered in small print, made up the letters of the headline.
cockpit
the small closed space where the pilot sits in an aircraft, or where the driver sits in a racing car. eg:The New Straits Times' darkened front page showed an aircraft above the words "Goodnight, MH370" - a reference to the last message from the cockpit, "All right, good night", before the Malaysia Airlines jet lost contact on March 8.
scuffle
a short and sudden fight, especially one involving a small number of people.
Two police officers were injured in scuffles with fans at Sunday's National Football League contest.
eg:Police blocked their buses from leaving, so they left the buses and walked there themselves, with scuffles then erupting outside the diplomatic mission.
prestigious
very much respected and admired, usually because of being important.
eg: Obama made the comments Tuesday during a speech to Chinese students at a prestigious high school in the southwestern province of Sichuan.
She said that in America, hard-working people can succeed "no matter where you live or how much your parents have...or what race, religion, or ethnicity you are."
eg: Michelle Obama Tours School, Forbidden City on First Day of China Trip. U.S. first lady Michelle Obama, accompanied by her Chinese counterpart, Peng Liyuan, visited a school on the first day of Mrs. Obama's five-day trip to China.The two participated in a calligraphy demonstration Friday before visiting the former Imperial Palace in Beijing's Forbidden City.
During their travels, the first lady, along with her mother and two daughters, will also visit the Great Wall of China, the famed Terra Cotta Warriors and a panda preserve.
Mrs. Obama is scheduled to deliver a speech Saturday at the Stanford Center of the prestigious Peking University. She will also meet the staff and families of the American embassy in Beijing.
repressive
controlling what people do, especially by using force; preventing people from expressing their feelings;eg:China is among the most repressive nations in the world concerning free speech, cracking down on dissent, blocking many news and online sites, and censoring Internet news that Beijing considers objectionable.
shrewd
having or based on a clear understanding and good judgment of a situation, resulting in an advantage. eg: Former Ukrainian prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko, a long-time political figure known for her shrewd political maneuvering and a signature peasant-style braid, has announced she is running in the country's May 25 presidential election.
turmoil
a state of confusion, uncertainty or disorder. eg:The dramatic collapse of Ukraine's government in recent days comes after months of political turmoil and social unrest. Demonstrators have been rallying against the government of President Viktor Yanukovych.
bailout
when someone helps a person or organization that is in difficulty, usually by giving or lending them money. eg: anti-government demonstrations kicked off late last year after President Yanukovych, under pressure from the Kremlin, turned away from a European trade and political deal and sealed a $15 billion bailout from Russia. Hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets. In the weeks that followed, the protests transformed a broader outcry against official corruption and police violence.
stunning
extremely beautiful or attractive. eg: Ms Tymoshenko, known for her sharp tongue and peasant-style braid, was a leader of the 2004 Orange Revolution that thwarted Mr Yanukovych's first run at the presidency. He staged a stunning comeback in to defeat her after a bitter campaign. She was then jailed in October 2011 for abuse of office for allegedly ordering a subordinate to sign a natural gas deal with Russia in 2009, which prosecutors said led to huge losses for Ukraine. She has denied any wrongdoing, calling the case part of a political witch-hunt.
stake
a share or a financial involvement in something such as a business. If you have a stake in something which is important to you, you have a personal interest or involvement in it. eg: What is at stake for the EU and Russia?Ukraine, a country of 46 million, straddles Western and Eastern Europe and has become a battleground for political and economic influence from the European Union and Russia. Having Ukraine as a clear political ally is critical for Russian President Vladimir Putin's quest to integrate and regain influence over ex-Soviet states. Ukraine has been an important target for an EU program aimed at encouraging democratic change in the region in return for free-trade agreements.
funnel
Liquid transfer; Separation techniques. eg: Ukraine hosts a number of key pipelines that funnel Russian natural gas to Europe. Russian state-owned gas company OAO Gazprom meets a quarter of the EU's gas needs, the bulk of which flows via Ukraine. Ukraine itself receives the bulk of its natural-gas supplies from Russia, and Ukrainian officials have accused Moscow of using its control over gas pipelines that lead Ukraine as a political bargaining chip. Payment disputes led Gazprom to cut flows to Ukraine in 2006 and 2009, which also interrupted the flows of gas to other European countries.
eg:Davutoglu said Turkey was open to dialogue about funneling Russian gas onward to southeast Europe.
fare
If you say that someone or something fares well or badly, you are referring to the degree of success they achieve in a particular situation or activity. ⇒ [v adv] It is unlikely that the marine industry will fare any better in September. eg: How is Ukraine's economy faring during this turmoil?
Ukraine is currently in recession, and it suffers from a wide current-account deficit, which means it buys more goods from abroad than it sells. The Ukrainian government said one reason it turned down the EU deal was that it needed to fix relations with its former Soviet master to avoid significant economic hardship. The political turmoil has put markets in Ukraine under pressure.
fuel
a substance which is used to provide heat or power, usually by being burned. eg:Is Ukraine divided?Mr Yanukovych fled to Ukraine's Russian-speaking east on Saturday, where heavy industry fueled by Russian gas dominates the economy. In the west, where some regions were once part of Poland and Austria's empire, most people speak Ukrainian and feel closer to Europe, where many have jobs. Despite these differences, there are few signs the country is in danger of a split.
rhetorical
describes speech or writing which is intended to seem important or influence people. eg:"You want to know what courage is?" he asked rhetorically. eg: THE United States has once again twisted itself a rhetorical pretzel. As when it threatened military action against Syria if a "red line" was crossed, the Obama administration's rhetoric about Russia and Ukraine goes far beyond what it will be willing and able to enforce.
Earlier this month, President Obama warned that America would "isolate Russia" if it grabbed more land, and yesterday, he suggested that more sanctions were possible. Likewise, Secretary of State John Kerry said the Group of 7 nations were "prepared to go to the hilt" in order to isolate Russia.But Washington's rhetoric is dangerously excessive, for three main reasons: Ukraine is far more important to Vladimir V. Putin than it is to America; it will be hard for the United States and Europe to make good on their threats of crippling sanctions; and other countries could ultimately defang them.
indenture
to officially agree that someone, often a young person, will work for someone else, especially in order to learn a job. eg:He was indentured to a carpenter. eg:In Project a summary line is a line that has other task lines indentured under it. In your example, Major task 1 and minor task 1 are both summary lines. Minor task 2 may or may not be a summary depending on whether there are other tasks indentured under it. If you import the outline level the indenture will be automatically picked up by Project. A summary line is not really a task even though it is called that. It simply summarized the data from the indentured tasks under it. For the most part, Project calculates the values for a summary line (e.g. start and finish dates). That's why start and finish dates should NOT be imported for summary lines. As a best practice summary lines should have neither dependencies nor resources assigned to it. Project will allow either and in some very unique circumstances a summary line may have dependencies and/or resources but generally using those attributes on a summary line causes problems. One of those problems is circular relationships.
Because Project has some very unique structural rules, importing data must be done with a lot of thought and care.
out of
1.indicating the source or derivation of something; from. eg: a bench fashioned out of a fallen tree trunk" 2.from among (a number). eg: "nine times out of ten"; eg: only 5-6 client out of 400 has implemented SAP.
stumble
to walk in a way which does not seem controlled. eg:When people stumble in their use of Microsoft Project, frequently the problem stems from a lack of understanding of how task types work. If you understand that, then Project can become the most powerful weapon in your project management arsenal(a building where weapons and military equipment are stored).
underlying
fundamental; basic. eg: the underlying cause of their discontent. eg: To understand these, you have to learn the underlying formula used by the scheduling engine:
prevalent
existing very commonly or happening often. eg: These diseases are more prevalent among young children. eg: When the deadline is so tight that it's the primary driver for the duration of the task. You have to make it work within the available timeframe. This situation has been prevalent in most of the organizations I've worked with.
diminish
to reduce or be reduced in size or importance. eg: I don't want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help. eg: If you can master the concept of task types, you'll be well on your way to fully understanding how Project works and how to use its capabilities to your best advantage — and your frustrations will diminish.
prophet
a person who is believed to have a special power which allows them to say what a god wishes to tell people, especially about things that will happen in the future.eg:an Old Testament prophet .
eg:Malaysia has joined other Muslim nations in banning the biblical motion picture Noah, saying actor Russell Crowe's visual depiction of the prophet is against the laws of Islam.
The chairman of Malaysia's Film Censorship Board, Abdul Halim Abdul Hamid, said in a statement Monday that the movie could not be shown in the country because Islam prevents the visual depiction of any prophet.
Noah is an important figure in Islam, Christianity and Judaism.
Some Christian organizations in the U.S. have also been angered by the film, saying the plot strays too far from the biblical portrayal of Noah.
eg:Hundreds of thousands of Shi'ite pilgrims are in the holy Iraqi city of Karbala. They are gathered there for the annual Ashura observance. They have done so even though there is a continuing threat of Sunni extremist attacks.

Iraq's security forces have deployed tens of thousands of troops to protect the travelers, or pilgrims. They are observing the 7th century death of Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Hussein. He is one of Shi'ite Islam's most respected people. His death marks the split between Shi'ite and Sunni Islam.
comb
verb: to search a place or an area very carefully in order to find something.
noun: to tidy your hair using a comb.
eg: The police combed the whole area for evidence.
eg: Five search planes were combing the remote area as part of an international effort to locate possible debris from Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370. The plane disappeared March 8 with 239 people on board.
repatriate
to send or bring someone, or sometimes money or other property, back to their own country. eg: We need to have one of your managers raise the end of assignment request in the system in order for us to kick start with the repatriation process. Once the EOA request is raised in the system, I will provide you with an EOA checklist which should guide you to a smooth repatriation back to your home country.
floorwalker
an employee of a retail store who supervises sales personnel and helps with customer problems
drawback
a disadvantage or the negative part of a situation.eg: Some benefits and drawbacks of Microsoft Project. eg: One of the drawbacks of living with someone is having to share a bathroom.
robust
(of a person or animal) strong and healthy, or (of an object or system) strong and unlikely to break or fail. eg: He looks robust and healthy enough. eg:a robust economy .eg:According to the Microsoft's website "Microsoft Office Project Standard 2007 gives you robust project management tools with the right blend of usability, power, and flexibility, so you can manage projects more efficiently and effectively.
blend
a mixture of different things or styles.eg:Their music is a blend of jazz and African rhythms.
inception
(n.) the beginning, start, earliest stage of some process, institution, etc.eg: Since its inception in 1968, the company has been at the forefront of computer development. eg:Not every project is the same. In fact, most of them are very different. But they all have the common components of Inception, Elaboration, Construction, and Transition (depending on the methodology used by your company, the names vary but the purposes are the same).
By spending some of your time creating a few basic templates, you can decrease the time needed to set up the fundamentals over and over. This lets you focus on outlining what you need to get done. Microsoft even has some templates, available for download, to get you started. Click here to see some of the templates.
graft
Illegal use of political influence for personal gain.eg: China Corruption Case Against Zhou Yongkang Exposes Scale of Graft .
Graft, a form of political corruption, is the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain. The term has its origins in the medical procedure where by tissue is removed from one location and attached to another for which it was not originally intended. Similarly, political graft occurs when funds intended for public projects are intentionally misdirected in order to maximize the benefits to private interests.
eg: So far, it looks like he is going to be successful in combating a lot of corruption and graft.
staggering
very shocking and surprising.eg:It costs a staggering $50 000 per week to keep the museum open to the public.eg:The staggering sum seized is said to larger than any other corruption related action yet taken by Beijing.
catch up with sb
If someone in authority catches up with you, they discover that you have been doing something wrong and often punish you for it:
They had been selling stolen cars for years before the police caught up with them.eg: Zhou is the highest ranking former Chinese official caught up in President Xi's anti-corruption crackdown. He has been under house arrest since late 2013, and multiple reports indicate that formal charges against him may be brought up in coming weeks.One of the most recent officials allied with Zhou caught up in this probe is Ji Wenlin, just removed as vice governor of Hainan province.
procuratorates
Officials who investigate and prosecute official crimes.eg:The People's Procuratorates and the public security organs, may, as required by investigation crimes, inquire into or freeze criminal suspects' deposits or remittances according to regulations,
conviction
when someone is officially found to be guilty of a particular crime
.eg:The conviction of the three demonstrators has caused public outrage locally. eg: "There are procedures under U.S. law which provide for the freezing or seizure of assets prior to criminal conviction," said former U.S. Department of Justice official Nathaniel Edmonds. "Typically, there needs to be a relation [between the seized assets] to a specified unlawful activity which could include corruption or fraud."
detention
when someone is officially detained.eg:Schwarck said that "party members detained for corruption are usually held under a form of extra-legal detention known as shuanggui."
indefinitely
for a period of time with no fixed end.eg:Schwarck said that "party members detained for corruption are usually held under a form of extra-legal detention known as shuanggui."
He said shuanggui is "separate from standard law enforcement procedure in that detainees can be stripped of their rights and assets and locked up indefinitely."
prosecution
when someone is prosecuted. eg:Doctors guilty of neglect are liable to prosecution.
scapegoat
a person who is blamed for something that someone else has done.eg: The captain was made a scapegoat for the team's failure. eg:"There is a Chinese proverb about 'killing the chicken to scare the monkeys,' which suggests that scapegoating one of many may send a signal to others to clean up their acts," said Feinerman .
"The campaign against him [Zhou] also stems from a wider effort by Mr. Xi to eliminate powerful interest groups within China's state owned enterprises, which are key opponents of the [president's] economic reform agenda." Schwarck said. "Given Zhou's former role as 'Godfather' of China's 'Big Oil,' he has been left vulnerable on this front as well."
haunt
to cause repeated suffering or anxiety.eg:Thirty years after the fire he is still haunted by images of death and destruction. eg:Feinerman said "If there is a concern at the top that no one wants to do to Zhou what might come back to haunt them should they fall out of favor, then they might be unwilling to make a huge deal about Zhou himself."
allegiance
loyalty and support for a ruler, country, group or belief.eg:Soldiers must swear allegiance to the Crown/the King. eg:He predicts that "Zhou's trial could be quite destabilizing, in that other senior party members may begin to question their allegiance to a system that no longer guarantees their security."
destitute
without money, food, a home or possessions.The floods left thousands of people destitute. eg:About 6,000 asylum seekers live in Hong Kong, perhaps hoping one day to share in the prosperity of a city in which the World Bank calculates per capita GDP exceeds that of the United States.
Barred from seeking employment even if granted refugee status, Refugee Union leader Saeid Mohammadi says asylum seekers in Hong Kong are marginalized and destitute.
In 21 years, he says, the government has approved asylum for only 11 out of 13,000 victims of torture. He says he has been in a stateless limbo since fleeing Afghanistan seven years ago.
"Hong Kong signed the [U.N.] torture convention. But their policy is to keep refugees in extreme poverty, destroy them mentally so they will commit some crime. Then the police will arrest them and reject their case because they broke the law - this is what [they] want," said Mohammadi.
commuter
someone who regularly travels between work and home.eg:Early morning commuters rush to offices in downtown skyscrapers as a pregnant Nepali refugee emerges from a tent pitched on the sidewalk.
peer
a person who is the same age or has the same social position or the same abilities as other people in a group.eg:Do you think it's true that teenage girls are less self-confident than their male peers? eg:He wasn't a great scholar, but as a teacher he had few peers (= not as many people had the same ability as him). eg:Lama Inu, 30, and dozens of her peers occupy a protest camp outside Hong Kong's Social Welfare Department.
plight
an unpleasant condition, especially a serious, sad or difficult one
.Few of us can be unmoved by the plight of the Romanian orphans. eg:Their aim is to highlight the plight of refugees forced to choose between living in poverty in Hong Kong or returning to countries where their lives may be in danger.In a city often cited as the most expensive in the world, most refugees survive on a rental allowance of $200 a month, and three monthly food parcels from the Social Welfare Department.
rancid
(of butter, oil, etc.) tasting or smelling unpleasant because not fresh.
Lama Inu, 30, and dozens of her peers occupy a protest camp outside Hong Kong's Social Welfare Department.
Their aim is to highlight the plight of refugees forced to choose between living in poverty in Hong Kong or returning to countries where their lives may be in danger.
In a city often cited as the most expensive in the world, most refugees survive on a rental allowance of $200 a month, and three monthly food parcels from the Social Welfare Department.
Food and rent are provided under a $26 million contract won by Swiss-headquartered NGO, International Social Services.
The food is cheap and often rancid, the refugees allege. And last month, a judge issued an injunction ordering International Social Services to fulfill its obligations when its staff failed to pay Inu's rent.
"My landlord kicked me out. I begged them: we had no home, clothes, nothing. For four days I did not change my dress or take a shower. The doctor admitted me to hospital because I might have a problem with my baby. We are suffering. But I will fight," said Inu.
While International Social Services did not comment, a Social Welfare Department statement said its contractor has been providing [refugees] with in-kind services on its behalf since 2006.
It said this was "to prevent [refugees] becoming destitute ... while not creating a magnet effect" that draws more refugees to Hong Kong.
The Social Welfare Department added that before providing rent, "ISS would also conduct spot checks and home visits to premises to assess the hygiene, home environment and safety condition [sic]."
But traveling into the countryside with advocacy group Vision First, VOA was introduced to South Asian refugees housed in a run down pigsty.
Asylum seeker Shahzad Khan, from Pakistan, points to his mattress lying beside a feeding trough. Electrical wires dangle under a holed roof and an open sewer runs nearby.
"We do not need anything from them, money or food. We just want work. When I came here I went to work, but spent 15 months in prison [as a result]. You can see, this place is for animals. There is no future here," said Khan.
Angered by our presence, we are set upon by the landlords of the pigsty Khan shares with 15 other refugees.
While we are forced to leave, like thousands of other asylum seekers, Khan does not know how long he will be trapped in one of the wealthiest cities on Earth.
injunction
A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something; an official order given by a court of law, usually to stop someone from doing something. eg: The court has issued an injunction to prevent the airline from increasing its prices. eg:The food is cheap and often rancid, the refugees allege. And last month, a judge issued an injunction ordering International Social Services to fulfill its obligations when its staff failed to pay Inu's rent.
premises
the land and buildings owned by someone, especially by a company or organization.eg:ISS would also conduct spot checks and home visits to premises to assess the hygiene, home environment and safety condition.
hygiene
the degree to which people keep themselves or their environment clean, especially to prevent diseas.eg:Poor standards of hygiene mean that the disease spreads fast.eg: health and hygiene regulations eg: dental/personal hygiene.eg:ISS would also conduct spot checks and home visits to premises to assess the hygiene, home environment and safety condition.
sewer
A pipe, normally underground, that carries wastewater and refuse.eg:Asylum seeker Shahzad Khan, from Pakistan, points to his mattress lying beside a feeding trough. Electrical wires dangle under a holed roof and an open sewer runs nearby.
spotlight
(of a person) receiving a lot of public attention.eg:The senator has been in the spotlight recently since the revelation of his tax frauds. eg:Hong Kong Demo Shines Spotlight on Refugee Suffering.In downtown Hong Kong, refugees continue a six-week protest outside the social welfare department of the semi-autonomous Chinese city. Denied the right to work, living on food handouts and apparently housed in accommodations unfit for humans, the protest is focusing attention on the harsh conditions faced by refugees and asylum seekers in the one of the world's wealthiest cities.
About 6,000 asylum seekers live in Hong Kong, perhaps hoping one day to share in the prosperity of a city in which the World Bank calculates per capita GDP exceeds that of the United States.
Barred from seeking employment even if granted refugee status, Refugee Union leader Saeid Mohammadi says asylum seekers in Hong Kong are marginalized and destitute.
In 21 years, he says, the government has approved asylum for only 11 out of 13,000 victims of torture. He says he has been in a stateless limbo since fleeing Afghanistan seven years ago.

"Hong Kong signed the [U.N.] torture convention. But their policy is to keep refugees in extreme poverty, destroy them mentally so they will commit some crime. Then the police will arrest them and reject their case because they broke the law - this is what [they] want," said Mohammadi.

Early morning commuters rush to offices in downtown skyscrapers as a pregnant Nepali refugee emerges from a tent pitched on the sidewalk.

Lama Inu, 30, and dozens of her peers occupy a protest camp outside Hong Kong's Social Welfare Department.

Their aim is to highlight the plight of refugees forced to choose between living in poverty in Hong Kong or returning to countries where their lives may be in danger.

In a city often cited as the most expensive in the world, most refugees survive on a rental allowance of $200 a month, and three monthly food parcels from the Social Welfare Department.

Food and rent are provided under a $26 million contract won by Swiss-headquartered NGO, International Social Services.

The food is cheap and often rancid, the refugees allege. And last month, a judge issued an injunction ordering International Social Services to fulfill its obligations when its staff failed to pay Inu's rent.

"My landlord kicked me out. I begged them: we had no home, clothes, nothing. For four days I did not change my dress or take a shower. The doctor admitted me to hospital because I might have a problem with my baby. We are suffering. But I will fight," said Inu.

While International Social Services did not comment, a Social Welfare Department statement said its contractor has been providing [refugees] with in-kind services on its behalf since 2006.

It said this was "to prevent [refugees] becoming destitute ... while not creating a magnet effect" that draws more refugees to Hong Kong.

The Social Welfare Department added that before providing rent, "ISS would also conduct spot checks and home visits to premises to assess the hygiene, home environment and safety condition [sic]."

But traveling into the countryside with advocacy group Vision First, VOA was introduced to South Asian refugees housed in a run down pigsty.
Asylum seeker Shahzad Khan, from Pakistan, points to his mattress lying beside a feeding trough. Electrical wires dangle under a holed roof and an open sewer runs nearby.
"We do not need anything from them, money or food. We just want work. When I came here I went to work, but spent 15 months in prison [as a result]. You can see, this place is for animals. There is no future here," said Khan.
Angered by our presence, we are set upon by the landlords of the pigsty Khan shares with 15 other refugees.
While we are forced to leave, like thousands of other asylum seekers, Khan does not know how long he will be trapped in one of the wealthiest cities on Earth.
disbursement
an amount of money given for a particular purpose. eg:
recrimination
arguments between people who are blaming each other.eg:The peace talks broke down and ended in bitter mutual recrimination(s). eg:Russia and the European Union have exchanged recriminations since Russia annexed Ukraine's Crimea region in March and financial aid to Ukraine became a hot topic at a meeting of finance ministers from the Group of 20 leading nations.
impasse
a situation in which further development is impossible.
The dispute had reached an impasse, as neither side would compromise.
eg: Zhu said the crisis showed the need to strengthen the financial capacity of the IMF and that China hoped the U.S. Congress could move quickly to break an impasse on the issue.
standby
1.something which is always ready for use, especially if a regular one fails.eg:Board games are a good standby to keep the children amused if the weather is bad. 2.When a person or a thing is on standby, they are ready to be used if necessary.eg:Hospitals are on standby ready to deal with casualties from the crash. eg:Please standby for the EOA authorization that our team will send.
embarkation
the act of passengers and crew getting aboard a ship or aircraft.You'll be asked for those documents on embarkation. eg: Following online cancellation, 30-day Visit Passes/Embarkation Forms will be granted to you so that you may present the forms to Immigration when leaving Singapore.
biometric
referring to detailed information about someone's body, such as the patterns of colour in their eyes, that can be used to prove who they are:
biometric data; a biometric passport;Returning original employment and dependant biometric cards to the Ministry of Manpower
courier
a person who carries important messages or documents for someone else.I want to have this package delivered by motorcycle courier.
demobilize
to release someone from one of the armed forces, especially at the end of a war. eg:He was demobilized in March 1946.eg: this is to confirm that your demobilisation date from project is 02nd May 2014
tenant
a person who pays rent for the use of land or a building. eg: the current tenant is breaking the lease and needs someone to take over the lease. The liable tenant may be willing to offer concessions to whoever takes over the lease.
eg:Reconstruction changed the economy of the South, too. White land-owners broke up their big farms into smaller pieces of land. They rented these to black farmers. With the land came seed, tools, and enough supplies for a year. In exchange for this, the owner would get a large share of the crop raised by the tenant farmer.
lease breakage
Kindly advise lease breakage and applicable fees since I will be moving out of the apartment earlier than planned. The lease is the agreement you made with the apartment owners, set down in legal terms (contract) and signed by both sides of the agreement. "Breaking the lease" is another term for "breaking the agreement".
As part of the agreement, you said you would stay in the apartment for a certain length of time. If you are moving out earlier, you are breaking the agreement you signed. The lease contract will contain info on fees.
Some lease contracts have ways that you can get out early. One often found is that you are moving more than some distance away - often 50 miles or more. If you don't fit into any of those lease cancellation terms, then you are probably going to get hit with the fees listed in the contract.
aerial
a structure made of metal rods or wires which receives or sends out radio or television signals. eg: In its latest purchase of high-tech companies, Google has acquired a manufacturer of solar-powered drones that can stay in the air almost indefinitely, relaying broadband Internet connection to remote areas. It is seen as yet another step in the U.S.-based Web giant's bid to bring Internet to the whole world.
Even as it experiments with self-driving cars on the ground, Google has been acquiring companies that manufacture pilotless flying vehicles - aircraft that can stay aloft for very long periods of time, such as solar-powered balloons and drones.
The Internet giant aims to bring Web access to remote areas of the world, which it says could help speed disaster relief or monitor environmental damage. And it says atmospheric satellites could also provide high-resolution aerial images for its Google Earth service.
Its newest acquisition, the 20-employee, New Mexico-based company Titan Aerospace, plans to manufacture a larger version of its successful solar-powered drone Solara.
Chief Technical Officer, Maximus Yaney, says it will be as efficient as a satellite, but much less expensive to operate - just one-hundredth of the cost.
"What we're focusing on from a capability perspective is being able to provide these kinds of services as an alternate or adding to satellite platform capabilities," he said.
He says the new drone, Solara 50, will be able to fly almost 20 kilometers above the earth, providing the Internet signal in a radius of almost 420 kilometers... and stay aloft for almost five years.
"Solar-powered, you have the capability of staying up there effectively indefinitely, you're simply limited by the rechargeable batteries," he said.
Other technology companies are also interested in the potential of drones. Earlier this year, Internet-based giant Facebook acquired the British drone manufacturer Ascenta, while the Internet retail company Amazon is experimenting with drones for package deliveries
Aerial photography
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position. The term usually refers to images in which the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure. Platforms for aerial photography include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, multirotor Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), balloons, blimps and dirigibles, rockets, kites, parachutes, stand-alone telescoping and vehicle mounted poles. Mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically; hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer.
mount
1.to fix something on a wall, in a frame etc., so that it can be viewed or used.The children's work has been mounted on cards and put up on the walls of the classroom.
The CCTV camera is mounted above the main door.
2.to organize and begin an activity or event
to mount an attack/campaign/challenge/protest
to mount an exhibition/display
Our football team was listless in the first half and fell behind 28 to 7,but in the second half they came back to life and mounted a comeback.
friction
the force which makes it difficult for one object to slide along the surface of another or to move through a liquid or gasWhen you rub your hands together the friction produces heat.
eg:Following Tibetan riots in 2008 that left parts of Lhasa in ruins, Frenchmen Eric Meyer and Laurent Zylberman were the only freelance journalists Beijing allowed into Tibet. They witnessed the friction between Han Chinese helping to usher in a modern culture and Tibetans seeking to hold on to centuries-old traditions.Through a day-to-day narrative of their visit, analysis of what they saw, and in stunning black and white photographs, they portray changes, clashes and emotions in a new book: Tibet, The Last Cry.
Eric Meyer told VOA's Jim Stevenson of both what he sees as lament and optimism for the future of Tibet.
informal
(of situations) not formal or official, or (of clothing, behaviour, speech) suitable when you are with friends and family but not for official occasions. eg: The World Bank says that in Pakistan, roughly 70 percent work in the so-called informal sector, a part of the economy that is unregulated and untaxed. VOA's Sharon Behn reports from Islamabad on how the informal sector impact's the Pakistani economy.
oversees
to watch or organize a job or an activity to make certain that it is being done correctly.As marketing manager, her job is to oversee all the company's advertising. eg:In one more example of escalating tensions between Washington and Moscow over Russia's annexation of Crimea, Russia has cut off all programming by the Voice of America, a move which the Broadcasting Board of Governors, the organization that oversees VOA, has strongly condemned.
curt
If someone's manner or speech is curt, it is rude as a result of being very quick.Steve answered curtly and turned his back on me.Claire's curtness made him wonder what he'd done wrong.eg:
The decision was delivered in a curt, one-sentence letter from Dmitry Kiselyov, who heads the Rossiya Segodnya (Russia Today) Information Agency, responding from the BBG's request to renew its long-standing contract to broadcast in Russia.


Dmitry Kiselyov, the head of media conglomerate Rossiya Segodnya (Russia Today) smiles as he attends a joint session of Russian parliament on Crimea's incorporation into Russia at the Kremlin in Moscow on March 18, 2014. AFP PHOTO / KIRILL KUDRYAVTSEV
"We are not going to cooperate," the letter read.

This means that the last VOA programming, which includes news and English-language lessons-has stopped airing on local Moscow frequency 810 AM.

"Moscow has chosen to do the wrong thing and restrict free speech," said BBG Chairman Jeff Shell. "This is a fundamental value shared by many countries around the world."

Shell pointed out that Russian programming, including Russia Today television, continues to air in the United States.

"We urge Mr. Kiselev and other Russian authorities to open Russian airwaves to more of our programs and those of other international broadcasters," Shell added. "We're asking for an even playing field."
a level playing field
a situation in which everyone has the same chance of succeeding.
Economic and legal environment in which all competitors, irrespective of their size or financial strength, follow the same rules and get equal opportunity to compete.If the tax systems are different in each European country, how can industries start on a level playing field? eg: "We urge Mr. Kiselev and other Russian authorities to open Russian airwaves to more of our programs and those of other international broadcasters," Shell added. "We're asking for an even playing field."
coincidental
happening by coincidence.The highest scorers, coincidentally, were all women.
eg:Kiselyov's letter to the BBG was dated March 21-which, coincidentally, was the same day that the EU froze his assets and banned his travel. The EU called him a "central figure of the government propaganda supporting the deployment of Russian forces in Ukraine," according to a list published today in Brussels.

This is the same gentleman who, on his recent television show, boasted that Russia has the capability to turn the US into "radioactive ashes."
propaganda
information, ideas, opinions or images, often only giving one part of an argument, which are broadcast, published or in some other way spread with the intention of influencing people's opinions.political/wartime propaganda .At school we were fed communist/right-wing propaganda. One official dismissed the ceasefire as a mere propaganda exercise. eg: The EU called him a "central figure of the government propaganda supporting the deployment of Russian forces in Ukraine.
Vietnamese now believe it is important for children to drink milk in addition to eating more-traditional foods like rice and noodles. People were happy that milk had vitamin D and calcium. But they did not talk about other things that milk had, such as hormones, antibiotics, allergens, fat and sugar. And it had lactose, which causes problems for some people.

Roger Mathisen is a nutrition specialist for UNICEF in Hanoi. He said part of the problem is people in Vietnam believe advertising is a source of facts. He said they do not realize that sometimes it is, in his words, "propaganda."
ferry
a boat or ship for taking passengers and often vehicles across an area of water, especially as a regular service.We're going across to France by/on the ferry. eg:
Nearly 300 people remain missing after a ferry capsized off the southern coast of South Korea Wednesday with more than 462 people on board, most of them high school students.

Coast guard officials say 174 people have been rescued, and four are confirmed dead.

Many are feared trapped in the submerged ship or stranded in 12 degree (C) water.

South Korean Navy SEALs are continuing their search inside the sunken vessel, but officials warn those trapped inside may not have survived.

Dozens of helicopters and ships are involved in the search and rescue effort. Officials from the U.S. Navy say an amphibious assault vessel is on standby and ready provide support as requested.

The boat set off from Incheon city Tuesday night for a 14-hour trip to the resort island of Jeju when it capsized. Officials say they are not sure what caused the ship to sink, but some survivors reported hearing a loud impact before the vessel rolled to its side.
capsize
to (cause a boat or ship to) turn upside down by accident while on water.When the boat capsized we were trapped underneath it. Nearly 300 people remain missing after a ferry capsized off the southern coast of South Korea Wednesday with more than 462 people on board, most of them high school students. eg: Divers continue to pull bodies from the sunken South Korean ferryboat, as authorities widened their inquiry and released transcripts capturing the confusion as the ship capsized five days ago.
amphibious
relating to vehicles which operate both on land or in water.
Many are feared trapped in the submerged ship or stranded in 12 degree (C) water.

South Korean Navy SEALs are continuing their search inside the sunken vessel, but officials warn those trapped inside may not have survived.

Dozens of helicopters and ships are involved in the search and rescue effort. Officials from the U.S. Navy say an amphibious assault vessel is on standby and ready provide support as requested.
strain
(Microbiology and virology)A strain is a genetic variant or subtype of a micro-organism (e.g. virus or bacterium or fungus). For example, a "flu strain" is a certain biological form of the influenza or "flu" virus. eg:New Ebola Strain Causing West Africa Outbreak.
circulate
to move around or through something, or to make something move around or through something.eg:The strain of Ebola virus that has killed 121 people in West Africa may have been circulating there undetected for some time, according to a new study.
This is the first reported outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. But the new study in the New England Journal of Medicine said this strain of the virus may not be new to the area.
viral
caused by a virus.viral infections
eg:Researchers from Africa and Europe compared viral DNA from this outbreak to previous episodes.
eg:The study also found that many people do not know about the problem. And, the researchers say many people believe antibiotics are effective against viral infections. The organization says this misunderstanding causes antibiotics to be used even when they will not work. The resulting overuse can cause resistance.
fluid
a substance which flows and is not solid. bodily fluids .

The strain of Ebola virus that has killed 121 people in West Africa may have been circulating there undetected for some time, according to a new study.

This is the first reported outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. But the new study in the New England Journal of Medicine said this strain of the virus may not be new to the area.

Researchers from Africa and Europe compared viral DNA from this outbreak to previous episodes.

They confirmed that it is a member of the Zaire species, which kills most of its victims. Strains of that virus have caused outbreaks previously in Gabon and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

But this virus is a new strain, a previously unknown sister in the Zaire family.

Virologist Jens Kuhn at the National Institutes of Health said there may be more.

"There might be a lot of variety in these viruses. They might be in many different countries in West Africa and East Africa where we have not heard anything of outbreaks so far," said Kuhn.

Kuhn was not part of this research. He leads the top NIH lab studying the world's most dangerous viruses, and he is working on ways to treat and prevent infection with them. Kuhn said there is a lesson in this outbreak.

"This is a warning that the variability of these viruses is greater than we knew. And so it's very important that we develop something that is broadly based and not protects only against a particular virus that we knew of before," said Kuhn.

Right now, the best protection is to avoid contact with blood or bodily fluids from an infected person.
episode
a single event or group of related events.eg:This latest eg:episode in the fraud scandal has shocked a lot of people. eg:The drugs, the divorce and the depression - it's an episode in his life that he wants to forget.
eg: Researchers from Africa and Europe compared viral DNA from this outbreak to previous episodes.
destabilize
to make a government, area or political group lose power or control, or to make a political or economic situation less strong or safe, by causing changes and problems.eg:They uncovered a plot to destabilize the government. eg:The United States says it will look for any signs Russia is serious about de-escalating the tensions in Ukraine at Thursday's emergency talks on the crisis in Geneva.
White House spokesman Jay Carney said the U.S. is prepared to impose new sanctions on Russia.
In an interview Wednesday with CBS, President Barack Obama said there will be consequences each time Russia takes steps to destabilize Ukraine and violate its sovereignty. But Obama said he is convinced Russia is not looking for a war.
Moscow has said it has the right to protect Russian speakers in Ukraine. It accuses the new Ukrainian leadership of being anti-Russian and anti-Semitic and of threatening the rights of pro-Russians.
But senior U.N. human rights official Ivan Simonvic told the Security Council Wednesday that during two trips to Ukraine in March, his team found no widespread attacks against ethnic-Russians.
biased
showing an unreasonable like or dislike for a person based on personal opinions.eg:The newspapers gave a very biased report of the meeting. eg:Moscow called the U.N. report biased and unfounded.
U.S. Ambassador Samantha Power dismissed the Russian criticism, saying there is substantial evidence of Russian involvement in the unrest in eastern Ukraine. She called it a well-orchestrated professional campaign of incitement and sabotage.
orchestrate
to arrange something carefully, and sometimes unfairly, so as to achieve a wanted result.eg:Their victory was largely a result of their brilliantly orchestrated election campaign.eg:U.S. Ambassador Samantha Power dismissed the Russian criticism, saying there is substantial evidence of Russian involvement in the unrest in eastern Ukraine. She called it a well-orchestrated professional campaign of incitement and sabotage.
Masked pro-Russians seized armored vehicles from the Ukrainian army Wednesday near Slovyansk. The Ukrainian troops did not resist. There are reports of some Ukrainian soldiers switching sides when confronted by the pro-Russians.
Russian speakers have taken over Ukrainian government buildings in nearly a dozen eastern towns and cities. The Ukrainian army has launched what it calls an anti-terrorist operation to retake the buildings, but it is unclear how much fighting is actually taking place.
eg: He also expressed concern over apparent efforts to disrupt Ukraine's presidential elections, scheduled for May 25, saying that international efforts should now be centered on allowing Ukraine to hold a free and fair poll.
Carney gave credit to Kyiv authorities for what he said were efforts to address grievances of residents of Ukraine's east through negotiations.
Holding "illegal referendums" and "annexing parts of countries" is not a way forward, he added.
Kyiv and Western governments have been accusing Moscow of orchestrating the current unrest in Ukraine's east and south.
endeavour
(US endeavor)
1.noun an attempt to achieve a goal.
2.verb try hard to do or achieve something.
an attempt to do something.
artistic endeavour.
Crossing the North Pole on foot was an amazing feat of human endeavour. eg: Wish you all the best in your future endeavours.
eg:Crossing the North Pole on foot was an amazing feat of human endeavour.
eg:"The popular focus on China's vast economic endeavors in Africa ... seems to suggest that Africa is somehow 'critical' for China. In reality, Africa accounts for only a tiny percentage of China's overall foreign economic activities: China's investment in and trade with Africa represents 3 percent and 5 percent of its global investment and trade, respectively."
unaccounted
lost or unpaid, without explanation.Millions of dollars are still unaccounted for.Much of the cost of environmental degradation goes unaccounted for.
One woman who previously had been listed as unaccounted for was found at work Friday morning. eg: The recovery operation, involving hundreds of divers, ships and aircraft, brought the total death toll to 58 Sunday, with 246 still unaccounted for. Most of the victims are high school students.
hesitant
If you are hesitant, you do not do something immediately or quickly because you are nervous or not certain.You seemed a bit hesitant about recommending that restaurant - is something wrong with it?The president is not known for his hesitancy in such matters. eg: Marine traffic control transcripts, released Sunday, showed that the crew was hesitant to order passengers to abandon ship.
stymie
to prevent something from happening or someone from achieving a purpose.n our search for evidence, we were stymied by the absence of any recent documents. eg: According to the transcript, Jindo Vessel Traffic Services instructed the crew to get passengers off the boat as other boats rushed to save them after the ferry carrying 476 people began to capsize.
But crew members told traffic controllers that their attempts to order an evacuation were stymied by a faulty announcement system.
quarters
housing available for people to live in. a room or house that has been provided, especially for servants or soldiers and their families, to live in.The army's married quarters are just outside the town. eg:But crew members told traffic controllers that their attempts to order an evacuation were stymied by a faulty announcement system.
Tracking data shows the ship took a sharp turn while navigating a group of small islands off South Korea's southwestern coast.
There are 174 known survivors, with no one rescued since Wednesday.
South Korean prosecutors say the ferry was being steered by a 26-year-old third mate who was navigating the area for the first time.
Authorities have confirmed that the ship's captain was in his quarters, leaving the inexperienced third mate at the helm.
desert
1.verb.to leave the armed forces without permission and with no intention of returning.Soldiers who deserted and were caught were shot. eg:Authorities have confirmed that the ship's captain was in his quarters, leaving the inexperienced third mate at the helm.
The captain, the third mate and one other crew member were arrested Saturday on charges of deserting their passengers as the ferry was sinking. 2.noun.an area, often covered with sand or rocks, where there is very little rain and not many plants. eg: We had to cross a large area of arid, featureless desert. eg: Defoe skilfully narrated the adventures of Robinson Crusoe on his desert island.
tilt
to (cause to) move into a sloping position.He tilted his chair backwards and put his feet up on his desk.The front seats of the car tilt.Anna looked up at him with her head tilted to one side. eg:Authorities have not established the cause of the disaster, but some survivors report hearing a loud impact noise before the vessel tilted and began sinking.
On Friday, Yonhap quoted investigators as saying the ferry's sudden turn may have caused 180 vehicles and nearly 1,200 tons of freight to shift, causing the vessel to tilt to one side.
shootout
a fight in which two people or two groups of people shoot at each other with guns.eg: Ukraine Shootout Casts Doubt on Geneva Deal
viability
ability to work as intended or to succeed. specialized ability to continue to exist or develop as a living being., Ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb. eg:Rising costs are threatening the viability of many businesses. eg: As the world population of Hawaiian geese has shrunk to very small numbers, the bird's continuing viability is in doubt. eg: A deadly shootout in eastern Ukraine has cast doubt on the viability of an accord between Russia, Ukraine, the United States and the European Union aimed at pacifying Ukraine's restive eastern territories. The parties reached the deal in Geneva on Thursday.
shattered
1. broken into very small pieces.2.extremely upset. eg:Shattered glass lay all over the road.The family were shattered at the news of Annabel's suicide. eg: Although much is unclear about Sunday's gun battle at a checkpoint manned by pro-Russian separatists, the incident shattered an Easter truce and appeared to dash already-scant hopes for a swift end to the unrest.
engulf
to surround and cover something or someone completely.The flames rapidly engulfed the house.Northern areas of the country were engulfed by a snowstorm last night.The war is threatening to engulf the entire region. eg: Russian and Ukrainian officials traded accusations of responsibility for the shootout and the worsening chaos engulfing eastern Ukraine.
accord
(a formal) agreement.On 31 May the two leaders signed a peace accord.
eg: Kislyak said Russia remains committed to last week's international accord that called for disarming militants in eastern Ukraine. Even before Sunday's shootout, U.S. President Barack Obama said he was not sure the deal would work.
eg: In this March 26, 1979 file photo, from left, Egyptian President Anwar, U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin clasp hands after signing the Camp David Accords. The historic agreement negotiated by Carter ended the hostilities between Israel and Egypt.
intimidating
making you feel frightened or nervous.She can be very intimidating when she's angry. eg:U.S. President Barack Obama said he was not sure the deal would work.
"My hope is that we actually do see follow-through over the next several days," Obama said. "But I don't think given past performance that we can count on that, and we have to be prepared to potentially respond to what continue to be efforts of interference by the Russians in Eastern and Southern Ukraine."
Some U.S. lawmakers are urging the administration to take additional steps to pressure Russia. Appearing on NBC, Republican Senator Bob Corker said U.S. sanctions have had no effect on Moscow.
"To me, unless they [Russia] immediately begin moving the 40,000 troops on the border, which are intimidating people in Ukraine, unless they begin immediately moving them away, I really do believe we should be sanctioning some of the [Russian] companies in the energy sector -- Gazprom and others," Corker said. "I think we should hit some of the large banks there. And certainly we should beef up our security relationships with Ukraine."
rule sth out
to prevent something from happening.This recent wave of terrorism has ruled out any chance of peace talks. eg:The Obama administration has ruled out lethal military assistance to Kyiv, and said it stands ready to expand existing sanctions against Russia and order new ones.
While Obama again ruled out U.S. military action, he said Washington will stand firm with its European allies to address the crisis and warned Moscow will likely face additional economic sanctions from the West.
lethal
able to cause or causing death; extremely dangerous.In the car the police found guns, knives and other lethal weapons (= weapons which can kill).
A 59-year-old man was executed by lethal injection (= by having a poisonous substance put into his body) this morning. eg:The Obama administration has ruled out lethal military assistance to Kyiv, and said it stands ready to expand existing sanctions against Russia and order new ones.
phase sth out
to remove or stop using something gradually or in stages. eg: After the government's move to phase out the English Schools Foundation's annual HK$283 million subsidy takes effect in 2016, schools under the foundation will become more expensive for middle-class expatriate families who are not too well-off, Chapman said.
"The government's argument that it should not have to support a non-local curriculum is nonsense when you consider that senior civil servants' children are educated either overseas or in international schools here at taxpayers' expense," she said.
well off
rich. Her family was very well off. eg: After the government's move to phase out the English Schools Foundation's annual HK$283 million subsidy takes effect in 2016, schools under the foundation will become more expensive for middle-class expatriate families who are not too well-off, Chapman said.
curriculum
the subjects studied in a school, college, etc. and what each subject includes; an integrated course of academic studies;eg: The government's argument that it should not have to support a non-local curriculum is nonsense when you consider that senior civil servants' children are educated either overseas or in international schools here at taxpayers' expense。
The effort is being led by a group called Scholarism, which was established three years ago by 15- and 16-year-old high school students in opposition to nationalistic curriculum.
admit
to allow someone to enter a place.The Education Bureau's website lists 83 direct subsidy schools under the category "Education services for non-Chinese-speaking students". Direct subsidy schools, unlike government-funded ones, can charge fees and have greater freedom to implement different curriculums.
The South China Morning Post called all the schools on the list to find out their admission requirements for non-Chinese-speaking children.

Of the 62 secondary schools, 38 said they did not admit such pupils because either most of their lessons were taught in Chinese, or the subject was compulsory in their curriculum.

Ten out of the 21 primary schools said the same, but many of the remaining 11 that did enrol non-Chinese-speaking pupils said parents should expect their children to encounter difficulties in the subject.
daunting
making you feel slightly frightened or worried about your ability to achieve something.A bureau spokesman said the list was meant to give expatriate parents information on all types of schools to facilitate their decision-making in applying for places for their children. All public-sector schools, including direct subsidy ones, will receive extra resources to give their non-Chinese-speaking pupils school-based support, he said.

But even if these children do enter the local school system, they face daunting challenges in handling the language.
eg: AutoHotkey scripts are a great way to customize your computer, but may seem daunting at first. Don't worry - getting started is much easier than it looks! Read on to see.
coerce
to persuade someone forcefully to do something which they are unwilling to do. eg:Joao Vitor Passos dos Santos is an exchange student at CUHKFAA Chan Chun Ha Secondary School in Ma On Shan.

The 16-year-old came from Brazil last year hoping to learn Cantonese but has not managed to pick up much so far. Most people in his school are too afraid to communicate with him using English and to teach him Cantonese, he said.

He cannot learn much about his other school subjects either, because most of his teachers - except his maths teacher - use Chinese as their teaching medium, Santos said.

Tanya Hart, who came to the city from Australia 12 years ago, has put her seven-year-old son through the local school system since kindergarten, because the boy was interested in learning Cantonese.

Although her son has been doing well, Hart said she felt a lack of support from the school for non-Chinese-speaking parents, citing Chinese-only school reports, notices and homework.

Hart and Chapman agreed that it was possible for non-local children to study in local schools if the schools made more effort to respect and understand their cultures and languages rather than coercing them to integrate into the local system.

"There will come a point where it is impossible for us to pay those international school fees," Chapman said. "We have a choice, because we can leave Hong Kong. But many local people don't have the option of good English-language education because they cannot afford it."
roundup
the act of gathering together people, animals, or things;a roundup of local news stories.There are dozens of online tools that either work with PowerPoint files or let you start from scratch to create and deliver presentations that will wow your audience.
This roundup includes tools that are free (or have a free level) and excludes tools whose primary purpose is creating video. Here's the roundup.
nonsense
an idea, something said or written, or behaviour that is silly or stupid;This report is nonsense and nothing but a waste of paper. eg:"The government's argument that it should not have to support a non-local curriculum is nonsense when you consider that senior civil servants' children are educated either overseas or in international schools here at taxpayers' expense," Chapman said.
compulsory
If something is compulsory, you must do it because of a rule or law.Swimming was compulsory at my school.Wearing seat belts in cars is compulsory by law. eg:Of the 62 secondary schools, 38 said they did not admit such pupils because either most of their lessons were taught in Chinese, or the subject was compulsory in their curriculum.
reticent
silent; reserved;unwilling to speak about your thoughts or feelings.He is very reticent about his past. eg:Most people in his school are too reticent to communicate with him in English or to teach him Cantonese, Santos said.
whisk
to take something or someone somewhere else suddenly and quickly.Our coffees were whisked away before we'd even finished them.Her husband whisked her off to Egypt for her birthday. eg:World's fastest elevator will whisk Chinese businessmen up at speeds of 72km/h
storey
a level of a building.Their new house has four storeys including the attic. eg: Their new house has four storeys including the attic.
shaft
a long, either vertical or sloping, passage through a building or through the ground. eg: They will be able to travel the length of the 440 metre shaft - from the first to 95th floor - in a stomach-churning 43 seconds.
double-decker
The best way to see the sights is from a double-decker bus. a tall bus with two levels. eg: Hitachi will install a total of 95 elevators at the tower, including two of the superfast lifts, as well as slower machines such as double-decker lifts, the statement said.
situated
in a particular position.The school is situated near to the station.
eg: The centre will be the tallest building in Guangzhou, complete with office, hotel and residential space.

It will be situated on the Zhujiang East Road and will have a gross floor area of 398,000 square metres.
At 530 metres tall, it is lower than China's current highest tallest building, the 632-metre-tall Shanghai Tower, and the proposed 700-metre-tall Suzhou Zhongnan Centre, which began construction this year.

These are all eclipsed by the world's current highest building, the 828-metre-tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, and the proposed 1000-metre-high Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, due to be completed in 2019.

The world's fastest elevator uses a newly developed permanent magnet motor that achieves both a thin profile and a high output, the statement said.
It is also equipped with a braking system capable of withstanding the terrific heat that might be generated if a malfunction ever develops.

China accounts for about 60 per cent of global demand for elevators and is at the centre of fierce competition among the world's elevator makers, a Hitachi official said.

The world's fastest elevator currently in operation is the 60.6 kilometre per hour lift at Taipei 101, in Taiwan's main city, he said.
barometer
something that can show how a particular situation is developing, or how people's opinions on a particular matter are changing;This survey is considered to be a reliable barometer of public opinion. eg: Can you please take a couple of minutes to complete the Project Barometer survey
avert
to prevent something bad from happening; avoid.to avert a crisis/conflict/strike/famine.Ukrainian presidential hopeful Yulia Tymoshenko held private talks with pro-Russian separatist leaders in eastern Ukrainian Tuesday, in a bid to break the deadlock between them and the government in Kyiv. She says more dialogue will be needed for a clash to be averted.
patriotic
showing love for your country and being proud of it.eg:Pro-Russian separatists have occupied the regional government offices in Donetsk since April 7. The Soviet-era music and patriotic Russian songs blaring out of speakers may give the feel of a festival, but inside, the militants are preparing in earnest for the government to try to oust them, and there is a sense here of foreboding.
eg:One of Ukraine's earliest monasteries once occupied the grounds. Because of the religious importance many feel that the property should be kept as a national park.
Henadiy works as a guide with Smile Tours.
"It is important for tourism because it gives a patriotic and religious education to people. Not only to Ukrainians but also because it started the spreading of our orthodox faith."
adamant
impossible to persuade, or unwilling to change an opinion or decision;Vladimir Makovich, speaker of the presidium of the self-styled Donetsk People's Republic, remains adamant. He says the only way he and his men will leave peacefully is if the government in Kyiv resigns.
menace
something that is likely to cause harm.Drunk drivers are a menace to everyone.Tymoshenko, who also met with Donetsk business leaders, had planned to hold a news conference outside the regional government offices. But an air of menace from gathering masked militants, a scuffle and the arrival of pro-Russian babushukas (elderly women) persuaded her aides to move to a nearby hotel.
slate
to be expected to happen in the future or to be expected to be or do something in the future.Geoff is slated to be the next captain of the football team.Tymoshenko, who also met with Donetsk business leaders, had planned to hold a news conference outside the regional government offices. But an air of menace from gathering masked militants, a scuffle and the arrival of pro-Russian babushukas (elderly women) persuaded her aides to move to a nearby hotel.

Eastern Ukraine is not a political stronghold for the former prime minister. And although Russian President Vladimir Putin has hinted that she is his favorite among all the candidates in Ukraine's presidential elections slated for next month, Tymoshenko remains unpopular here.

Despite that, some political analysts suspect Tymoshenko, who is trailing badly in opinion polls, hopes to pick up votes in the east and to present herself as the only candidate who can appeal to both ethnic Ukrainians and Russians.

Some pro-Ukrainian activists are angry she held talks with pro-Russian separatists. Their disappointment increased later Tuesday when news broke that a local politician and member of Tymoshenko's own Fatherland Party was found dead, with his body showing signs of torture. The Kyiv government suspects that pro-Russian militants were behind the killing.

The murder has prompted Ukraine's acting President Oleksandr Turchynov to threaten to re-launch an anti-terrorist operation in the east of the country and forcibly evict pro-Russian separatists from the buildings they have occupied.

Tymoshenko says it is important to continue to negotiate.

However, negotiations don't appear to be resolving the crisis.

Vladimir Makovich, speaker of the presidium of the self-styled Donetsk People's Republic, remains adamant. He says the only way he and his men will leave peacefully is if the government in Kyiv resigns.
scandal
(an action or event that causes) a public feeling of shock and strong moral disapproval; a situation that is extremely bad;eg:a financial/political/sex scandal;The scandal broke (= became public knowledge) right at the beginning of the Conservative Party Conference;If there is the slightest suggestion/hint of scandal, the public will no longer trust us. eg:Some magazines contain nothing but scandal and gossip. eg: South African President Zuma Unscathed by Scandals.
unscathed
without injuries or damage being caused.Her husband died in the accident but she, amazingly, escaped unscathed. eg:Some magazines contain nothing but scandal and gossip. eg: South African President Zuma Unscathed by Scandals.
statue
an object made from a hard material, especially stone or metal, to look like a person or animal. eg: South Africa's President Jacob Zuma addresses the media after unveiling a bronze statue of the late former President Nelson Mandela as part of the Day of Reconciliation Celebrations at the Union Buildings in Pretoria, Dec. 16, 2013.
dumbfounded
so shocked that you cannot speak.He was dumbfounded by the allegations.eg:South African President Jacob Zuma has been described by many as the luckiest head of state. Throughout his career, Zuma has been able to escape serious scandals, including rape charges, corruption charges and now misuse of state funds for developments at his private home.
Popularly known for his singing and dancing talent, Zuma's art of escaping serious scandals have left many people dumbfounded.
rape
to force someone to have sex when they are unwilling, using violence or threatening behaviour. eg:She was pulled from the car and raped.eg:South African President Jacob Zuma has been described by many as the luckiest head of state. Throughout his career, Zuma has been able to escape serious scandals, including rape charges, corruption charges and now misuse of state funds for developments at his private home.
Popularly known for his singing and dancing talent, Zuma's art of escaping serious scandals have left many people dumbfounded.
implicate
to show that someone is involved in a crime or partly responsible for something bad that has happened.Have they any evidence to implicate him in the robbery? eg:In 2005, then Vice President Zuma's financial advisor, Schabir Shaik, was sentenced to 15 years in prison for fraud and corruption charges related to a government arms deal. Though Zuma was implicated and investigated in connection with Shaik's charges, he survived.
acquit
to decide officially in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a particular crime.Five months ago he was acquitted on a shoplifting charge.She was acquitted of all the charges against her. eg:In 2006, Zuma was tried at the High court for allegedly raping an HIV positive family friend. He was however acquitted after convincing the court that the two had consensual sex.
racketeering
making money from a dishonest or illegal activity. They have been accused of racketeering. eg: In 2009, the National Prosecuting Authority finally dropped hundreds of fraud, corruption, racketeering, money laundering and tax evasion charges against Mr. Zuma citing evidence of political manipulation of his case.
This cleared the way for him to be elected president in May, 2009.
launder
to wash, dry and iron clothes, sheets;freshly laundered sheets;eg: In 2009, the National Prosecuting Authority finally dropped hundreds of fraud, corruption, racketeering, money laundering and tax evasion charges against Mr. Zuma citing evidence of political manipulation of his case.
ministerial
relating to or involving a minister (= senior member of parliament);eg:In 2013, the Guptas, a wealthy Indian family with close ties to President Zuma, landed a private plane full of wedding guests at an air force base. But a ministerial task force found that the president did not influence the landing.
infamous
famous for something considered bad. eg:Susan Booysen, political analyst and senior lecturer at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, said Zuma's ability to escape scandals has baffled everyone. "President Zuma has had an amazing act of escaping charges, from years ago hundreds of charges relating to South Africa's infamous arms deal to personal charges about sexual behavior. Yet each time he has escaped it," she said.
grip
1. control over something or someone.2.to hold very tightly. eg:The baby gripped my finger with her tiny hand.Rebels have tightened their grip on the city.eg:Susan Booysen, political analyst and senior lecturer at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, said Zuma's ability to escape scandals has baffled everyone. "President Zuma has had an amazing act of escaping charges, from years ago hundreds of charges relating to South Africa's infamous arms deal to personal charges about sexual behavior. Yet each time he has escaped it," she said.
Stephen Grootes, political reporter at Eye Witness News, argues that having a tight grip on state security organs might have helped President Zuma to survive this long.
"He has tight control over the Justice Department, the National Prosecuting Authority, the Intelligence Services and there has always been a suspicion that he is so interested in those parts of government because he is worried the charges that were withdrawn against him could be lodged against him again, in other words he could still face a trial," said Grootes.
lodge against
lodge something against someone,to place a charge against someone. The neighbors lodged a complaint against us for walking on their grass. I want to lodge an assault charge against Randy. eg:"He has tight control over the Justice Department, the National Prosecuting Authority, the Intelligence Services and there has always been a suspicion that he is so interested in those parts of government because he is worried the charges that were withdrawn against him could be lodged against him again, in other words he could still face a trial," said Grootes.
reluctance
an unwillingness to do something.I accepted his resignation with great reluctance.eg:Prince Mashele, executive director at the Center for Politics and Research, a think tank and research institute, said Zuma has strategically made the survival of those around him, dependent on him, hence their reluctance to act against him.
"There is a great deal of loyalty towards the ANC, So people will be voting for the ANC even though they don't like Zuma. But Zuma will benefit from that," said Mashele. "Secondly, a majority of them by the way, they know that if Zuma were to go down, they will also go down, so they will protect Zuma. By protecting Zuma they are protecting themselves."
Booysen said, however, President Zuma's scandals are hurting his party in a big way.
"The ANC is losing much credibility which in due course will be reflected in the electoral support as well," he said.
With the main opposition party, the Democratic Alliance (DA), still pushing for the reinstatement of corruption charges against President Zuma, Grootes said the charges will certainly catch up with him someday. "I think that they will certainly hang around him until he has his day in court which he said so many times he wanted and yet he has tried not to have," he stated.
Many agree that when he is gone, President Zuma will always be remembered as a giant who survived scandals that brought all others down.
in due course
if you say that something will happen in due course, you mean that it will happen at a suitable time in the future You will receive notification of the results in due course. eg:Prince Mashele, executive director at the Center for Politics and Research, a think tank and research institute, said Zuma has strategically made the survival of those around him, dependent on him, hence their reluctance to act against him.
"There is a great deal of loyalty towards the ANC, So people will be voting for the ANC even though they don't like Zuma. But Zuma will benefit from that," said Mashele. "Secondly, a majority of them by the way, they know that if Zuma were to go down, they will also go down, so they will protect Zuma. By protecting Zuma they are protecting themselves."
Booysen said, however, President Zuma's scandals are hurting his party in a big way.
"The ANC is losing much credibility which in due course will be reflected in the electoral support as well," he said.
hang around
hang around (with someone) and go around (with someone),to spend a lot of time with someone; to waste away time with someone. eg:With the main opposition party, the Democratic Alliance (DA), still pushing for the reinstatement of corruption charges against President Zuma, Grootes said the charges will certainly catch up with him someday. "I think that they will certainly hang around him until he has his day in court which he said so many times he wanted and yet he has tried not to have," he stated.
Many agree that when he is gone, President Zuma will always be remembered as a giant who survived scandals that brought all others down.
unilateral
involving only one group or country. eg:The party leader has actually declared her support for unilateral nuclear disarmament (= giving up her country's nuclear weapons without first waiting for other countries to do the same).eg: President Barack Obama has reaffirmed the U.S. treaty commitment to defend Japan, including a group of East China Sea islands claimed by both Tokyo and Beijing.
Following a Thursday meeting in Tokyo with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Obama explicitly stated the Senkaku Islands fall under the treaty obliging the United States to defend Japan if attacked.
Obama stressed the U.S. does not take a position on the sovereignty of the islands, known in China as Diaoyu, but noted that they are administered by Japan and that should not be changed unilaterally.
crucial
extremely important or necessary. eg: It is crucial that the problem is tackled immediately. eg:Earlier Thursday, Obama held a private meeting with Emperor Akihito at Tokyo's Imperial Palace. A military honor guard, and children holding U.S. and Japanese flags, greeted the president.
He will later attend a state dinner and tour the historic Meiji Shrine before heading to Seoul, where his talks are expected to focus on North Korea's nuclear program.
In Tokyo, Obama said North Korea represents "the most dangerous, destabilizing situation in all of the Asia-Pacific region." He said Japan, South Korea and the United States should work together to pressure Pyongyang, noting that China's participation is crucial.
eg:The Pentagon said it carried out 15 more airstrikes Monday against Islamic State militants near the dam, destroying more of their fighting positions and weapons.

The Mosul Dam is crucial to northern Iraq, providing electricity and irrigation for much of the region.

The United States first launched airstrikes earlier this month against the insurgents, in part to prevent the killing of thousands of minority Yazidis stranded on Mount Sinjar in northern Iraq.
standoff
a situation in which agreement in an argument does not seem possible;eg: Obama's last stop will be the Philippines, which is also involved in a territorial standoff with China and has deepened its military cooperation with Washington as a result.
abide
If you can't abide someone or something, you dislike them very much.He couldn't abide laziness. eg:Obama: Russia Not Abiding by Geneva Agreement with Ukraine
retaliate
to hurt someone or do something harmful to them because they have done or said something harmful to you. eg:Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told state television that Russia would retaliate against threats to its interests the same way as it did in South Ossetia in 2008, which led to a brief war between Russia and an overmatched Georgia.
Hundreds of U.S. Army paratroopers landed in Poland Wednesday to, in the words of the Pentagon, "send a message" to Moscow and reassure nervous U.S. allies.
Ukraine has also decided to resume what it calls "anti-terrorist" operations against pro-Russians in the east.
Pro-Russian gunmen are demanding the right to hold referendums on splitting with Ukraine and joining Russia. A vote last month in Crimea led to the Russian annexation of the Ukrainian peninsula.
intensive
involving a lot of effort or activity in a short period of time.two weeks of intensive training.an intensive course in English.Intensive bombing had reduced the city to rubble. eg:Putting together an educational slide show doesn't have to be labor intensive. Using PowerPoint's Photo Album tool, you can quickly assemble a series of screen shots and text slides for distribution as a training resource or as part of an informational package.
blunt
saying what you think without trying to be polite or considering other people's feelings.I'll be blunt - that last piece of work you did was terrible. eg: But the blunt words began even before Obama's plane touched down in Tokyo.
undermine
to make someone less confident, less powerful or less likely to succeed, or to make something weaker, often gradually
The President has accused two cabinet ministers of working secretly to undermine his position/him.eg: Obama told the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper that islands fall under the U.S.- Japan Mutual Cooperation and Security Treaty and Washington opposes any "unilateral attempts to undermine Japan's administration of the islands." eg: One observer, Chris Phillips of Queen Mary University, London, says Russia is defending Syria's right to govern itself.
"The Russians have always backed the principle of state sovereignty. As they see it, the Syrians have the right to conclude their affairs inside Syria as they wish. Russia itself is an autocratic regime and his not very keen on any major attempts to undermine the principle of state sovereignty, and they are going to stand by that."
eg: On Tuesday, Iraqi forces halted an advance designed to retake the hometown of executed former dictator Saddam Hussein after facing fierce resistance from Islamic State militants, officers in the operations room told Reuters.
Iraqi forces came under heavy machinegun and mortar fire south of Tikrit, while to the west landmines and snipers undermined efforts to get closer to a town they have tried to retake several times, said the officers.
Resident of central Tikrit said by telephone Islamic State fighters were firmly in control of their positions and were running patrols along main streets.
eg:The political agreement solved the current situations but undermined the credibility and all the achievements regarding the technical process. It hurt the process; it hurt the transparency and it hurt the principles for the elections."
stoke
to add fuel to a large closed fire and move the fuel around with a stick so that it burns well and produces a lot of heat. to encourage bad ideas or feelings in a lot of people.He's been accused of stoking up racial hatred in the region.eg: Kerry Threatens More Sanctions, Says Russia is 'Stoking Instability' in Ukraine
distraction
something that makes it difficult to think or pay attention.
something that amuses or entertains you so that you do not think about problems, work, etc.
a state in which you are very annoyed or upset.
when you are very bored or annoyed.That dreadful noise is driving me to distraction. eg: Secretary of State John Kerry says Russia is "stoking instability" in Ukraine, and the Obama administration will impose additional sanctions against Moscow if it does not keep promises made last week to help de-escalate the crisis.
Kerry says the world has rightly judged that authorities in Kyiv are working in good faith to de-escalate the crisis, while Moscow "has put its faith in distraction, deception and destabilization."
eg: Dealing with Distractions and Overreactions.
outrageous
shocking and morally unacceptable.The judge criticized the "outrageous greed" of some of the lawyers.It is outrageous that these buildings remain empty while thousands of people have no homes.These prices are just outrageous (= much too high).eg:"In plain sight, Russia continues to fund, coordinate and fuel a heavily armed separatist movement in Donetsk. Meanwhile, Russian leaders are making increasingly outrageous claims to justify their action," said Kerry.
In plain sight
"In plain sight" is referring to something being in front of you without any type of obstructions blocking sight of it..eg:"In plain sight, Russia continues to fund, coordinate and fuel a heavily armed separatist movement in Donetsk. Meanwhile, Russian leaders are making increasingly outrageous claims to justify their action," said Kerry.
grave
adj.seriously bad. eg:I made a grave mistake when I ate that Haggis. It looked good, but it tasted like ass. eg: In an interview with VOA, Ukraine's ambassador to the United Nations, Yuriy Sergeyev, says it is time for tougher sanctions against Russia for its interference in Ukraine.
"Naturally, we expect that the reaction of the democratic world will be solid, and the action could be done, including the serious economic sanctions, including the political sanctions," said Sergeyev.
Speaking to reporters at the State Department, Kerry said if Russia continues to destabilize Ukraine, "it will not just be a grave mistake, it will be an expensive mistake."
"President Putin and Russia face a choice. If Russia chooses the path of de-escalation, the international community, all of us, will welcome it. If Russia does not, the world will make sure that the costs for Russia will only grow," said Kerry.
But Duma chief Pushkov says sanctions are a mistake. Sanctions he says will bring huge losses not only to Russia, but also to European countries that have close economic and trade cooperation with Russia. What's more, he says, sanctions cannot help resolve the crisis in Ukraine.
sans
without.eg: The non-governmental organization Doctors Without Borders, or Medecins Sans Frontieres, has launched a new, malaria prevention campaign in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa aimed at protecting the illnesses' most vulnerable population - children under the age of five.
frontier
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.a border between two countries. eg: Some of the frontier between Germany and Poland follows the course of the river Oder. eg: The non-governmental organization Doctors Without Borders, or Medecins Sans Frontieres, has launched a new, malaria prevention campaign in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa aimed at protecting the illnesses' most vulnerable population - children under the age of five.
eg:
In a telephone call with Putin, Germany's Angela Merkel said reports of a new Russian military incursion into Ukrainian territory had to be cleared up, a spokesman for the chancellor said in a statement.

"The latest reports of the presence of Russian soldiers on Ukrainian territory must be explained," Merkel's spokesman Steffen Seibert said Wednesday. "She emphasized Russia's major responsibility for de-escalation and watching over its own frontiers."
eg:A group representing hundreds of French students sent this message:

"In President Lincoln we mourn a fellow citizen. There are no longer any countries shut up in narrow frontiers. Our country is everywhere where there are neither masters nor slaves. Wherever people live in liberty or fight for it. We look to the other side of the
ocean to learn how a people which has known how to make itself free...knows how to preserve its freedom."
bear(bore,borne)
to carry and move something to a place. eg: At Christmas the family descend on the house bearing gifts. eg: Countless waiters bore trays of drinks into the room. eg: The sound of the ice-cream van was borne into the office on the wind. eg: During the campaigns at the height of malaria season - from July to October - young children will be offered so-called chemoprevention drugs. Small children are at highest risk of dying from malaria, a mosquito-borne parasitic illness that claimed the lives of some three-quarters of a million people in 2012, most of them children and babies in sub-Saharan Africa.
claim a life
Cause the loss of (someone's life).[for something] to take the life of someone. eg:the attacks claimed the lives of five people. eg: The killer tornado claimed the lives of six people at the trailer park. eg: The athlete's life was claimed in a skiing accident. eg: During the campaigns at the height of malaria season - from July to October - young children will be offered so-called chemoprevention drugs. Small children are at highest risk of dying from malaria, a mosquito-borne parasitic illness that claimed the lives of some three-quarters of a million people in 2012, most of them children and babies in sub-Saharan Africa.
tropical
A warm air mass that forms in the tropics and has low air pressure.(extremely hot and feeling wet).tropical fish; eg:The Amazon river basin contains the world's largest tropical rainforest. eg:The weather was positively tropical last summer.eg: Doctors Without Borders, or MSF, is planning to roll out mass seasonal malaria chemoprevention campaigns, known as SMCs, in the Sahel sub-region to prevent new cases of the disease in countries where malaria is widespread. These nations include Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Burkino Faso and Mali.
In a 2013 SMC trial in Niger, the organization treated more than 200,000 children between the ages of three and 59 months with chemoprevention drugs.
Trials of the chemoprevention strategy in the last two years have shown a reduction of up to 83 percent in simple malaria cases; there's a similar percentage reduction in the number of cases of severe malaria.
Estrella Lasry, tropical medicine adviser for the group, says the campaign was launched at the urging of the World Health Organization.
complement
to make something else seem better or more attractive when combining with it. eg: Strawberries and cream complement each other perfectly. eg:The music complements her voice perfectly. eg:
The non-governmental organization Doctors Without Borders, or Medecins Sans Frontieres, has launched a new, malaria prevention campaign in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa aimed at protecting the illnesses' most vulnerable population - children under the age of five. During the campaigns at the height of malaria season - from July to October - young children will be offered so-called chemoprevention drugs.
Small children are at highest risk of dying from malaria, a mosquito-borne parasitic illness that claimed the lives of some three-quarters of a million people in 2012, most of them children and babies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Doctors Without Borders, or MSF, is planning to roll out mass seasonal malaria chemoprevention campaigns, known as SMCs, in the Sahel sub-region to prevent new cases of the disease in countries where malaria is widespread. These nations include Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Burkino Faso and Mali.

In a 2013 SMC trial in Niger, the organization treated more than 200,000 children between the ages of three and 59 months with chemoprevention drugs.

Trials of the chemoprevention strategy in the last two years have shown a reduction of up to 83 percent in simple malaria cases; there's a similar percentage reduction in the number of cases of severe malaria.

Estrella Lasry, tropical medicine adviser for the group, says the campaign was launched at the urging of the World Health Organization.

"And what we do is we give drugs once a month that protect and they protect the children for about a month during those four months of high transmission," said Lasry.

In Niger, during a trial in 2013, the anti-malaria compounds were made available in remote locations at health facilities, in the homes of village chiefs and in areas where public health workers go door-to-door.

The organization deployed some 2,000 community health care workers to educate families about the benefits of chemoprevention and to encourage them to take their children to a distribution site.

Lasry says MSF chemoprevention campaigns do not use artemisinin-based drugs that are currently the "gold standard" to treat malaria infection.

"We try to use different drugs so that even if we can potentially cause resistance, we are not causing resistance to the most effective drugs we have for treatment," she said.

If they find malaria in any of the children, Lasry says they treat it. But she says there's a shortage of rapid diagnostic tests in Niger, for example, hampering efforts to treat malaria in endemic regions.

While not a "miracle cure," officials say prevention drugs complement other malaria control strategies, including insecticide-treated bed nets.
chemotherapy
the treatment of diseases using chemicals.Chemotherapy is often used in the treatment of cancer. eg:Trial: Malaria Chemoprevention Protects Children
endemic
especially of a disease or a condition, regularly found and very common among a particular group or in a particular area;eg: Malaria is endemic in many of the hotter regions of the world. eg: The disease is endemic among British sheep/to many British flocks.

eg: There is endemic racism/poverty/violence in many of the country's cities. eg:"We try to use different drugs so that even if we can potentially cause resistance, we are not causing resistance to the most effective drugs we have for treatment," she said.

If they find malaria in any of the children, Lasry says they treat it. But she says there's a shortage of rapid diagnostic tests in Niger, for example, hampering efforts to treat malaria in endemic regions.

While not a "miracle cure," officials say prevention drugs complement other malaria control strategies, including insecticide-treated bed nets.
alight
1. to land on something. eg: A butterfly alighted gently on the flower. eg:1 Stops later alight at Woodlands Regional Centre, woodlands Reg Int. (B46009),9 Stops later alight at Admiralty Road West, bef British American Tobacco. (B47071) 2.to find or unexpectedly see something. eg:As she glanced round the room her eyes alighted upon a small child.
autocrat
a ruler with unlimited power, or someone who demands that people completely obey them;
eg: One observer, Chris Phillips of Queen Mary University, London, says Russia is defending Syria's right to govern itself.
"The Russians have always backed the principle of state sovereignty. As they see it, the Syrians have the right to conclude their affairs inside Syria as they wish. Russia itself is an autocratic regime and his not very keen on any major attempts to undermine the principle of state sovereignty, and they are going to stand by that."
diarrhoea
(US diarrhea) an illness in which the body's solid waste is more liquid than usual and comes out of the body more often.eg: A UNICEF spokeswoman said children in Syria do not have safe water and good sanitation. These conditions put them at risk of diarrhea, measles and other diseases.
measles
an infectious disease which produces small red spots all over the body.
band
1.a group of musicians who play modern music together.a jazz/rock band.
eg: Flamenco music is often associated with Spain. Gypsies from north India brought the music to Europe in the 18th century. But one American band is adding Arabic traditions, too. La Ruya includes sounds from Turkey, the Black Sea, Persia and North Africa. Christopher Cruise tells about their music.
Can you hear the Spanish guitar and heeled shoes in this music? They are some of the classic sounds of flamenco music. But a California band called La Ruya is transforming flamenco.
One of the band's founding members is Sam Foster. He is a drummer who became interested in Arabic and Turkish drumming. From there, he learned about flamenco. He brought in flamenco dancer Melissa Cruz and other musicians to create the unusual sound of La Ruya.
eg: The former president still has a small band of supporters.
eg: A small band of guerrillas has blown up a train in the mountains.
eg: Lincoln's supporters organized a loud and colorful campaign. It included marching bands and signs. But Lincoln was silent. He said, "It has been my decision since becoming a candidate to make no speeches. I am here only to see you and to let you see me."
2.a thin flat piece of cloth, elastic, metal or other material put around something to fasten or strengthen it, or a long narrow piece of colour, light, etc. that is different from what surrounds it.
eg: Tracey Avant is Curator of Exhibitions at Ford's Theatre. She says one of the objects on display shows that tender side. It is his signature top hat. The hat is in the exhibit "Silent Witnesses: Artifacts of the Lincoln Assassination."

She says, "It's a beautiful, iconic piece; everyone thinks of Abraham Lincoln with a top hat. But what I love about it is it's got this beautiful band that he put on it to remember his son Willie who had died in 1862 of typhoid fever. It still remained on the hat in 1865 and to me, I'm a parent, it speaks to how deeply he felt that loss."
flute
a tube-shaped musical instrument with a hole that you blow across at one end while holding the tube out horizontally to one side of you. eg: "We have oud, which is the Middle Eastern lute. We have a flute player...
The cajon, the box drum. And darbouka, the gourd drum, also known as dumbek."
lute
a musical instrument which has a body with a round back and a flat top, a long neck and strings which are played with the fingers.
cohesive
united and working together effectively.a cohesive group.cohesive forces. eg: Flamenco music is often associated with Spain. Gypsies from north India brought the music to Europe in the 18th century. But one American band is adding Arabic traditions, too. La Ruya includes sounds from Turkey, the Black Sea, Persia and North Africa. Christopher Cruise tells about their music.
Can you hear the Spanish guitar and heeled shoes in this music? They are some of the classic sounds of flamenco music. But a California band called La Ruya is transforming flamenco.
One of the band's founding members is Sam Foster. He is a drummer who became interested in Arabic and Turkish drumming. From there, he learned about flamenco. He brought in flamenco dancer Melissa Cruz and other musicians to create the unusual sound of La Ruya.
"We are taking forms and in some cases actual songs from other parts of the world and flamenco-izing them, so you have something new, a sound I haven't heard before."
"We have oud, which is the Middle Eastern lute. We have a flute player...
The cajon, the box drum. And darbouka, the gourd drum, also known as dumbek."
And, says Melissa Cruz, they have the palmas.
"Palmas are flamenco hand claps. And typically it is the flamenco singer and the flamenco dancer who are doing the palmas."
Wherever La Ruya performs, they find an interested audience.
"Flamenco is really improvisational, so there aren't any strict rules or regulations. The point is to create one cohesive piece of music."
Some say traditional Spanish flamenco should stay the way it is.
But Melissa Cruz says La Ruya's style -- with its Arabic rhythms and instruments -- is not changing flamenco. Instead, it is bringing the music back to its Moorish roots.
eg:Good writing consists not only of a string of varied, correctly-structured sentences. The sentences must also lead from one to the next so that the text is cohesive and the writer's ideas are coherent.
captive
someone who is captured and kept as a prisoner;someone who is captured and kept as a prisonera person or animal whose ability to move or act freely is limited by being closed in a space; a prisoner, especially a person held by the enemy during a war.captive soldiers.hold/take sb captive. to keep someone as a prisoner or make someone a prisoner. eg: The terrorists were holding several British diplomats captive. eg: A U.S. businessman who was held captive by his Chinese employees for nearly a week has been allowed to leave a suburban Beijing factory after the two sides settled a wage dispute.
Chip Starnes, the co-owner of Specialty Medical Supplies, said his company has agreed to give severance packages to about 100 workers who had trapped him in the factory since Friday.
The workers demanded the severance packages after a series of recent lay-offs at the factory led them to believe their own jobs were also in jeopardy, despite Starnes' insistence this was not the case.
eg:Human Rights Watch said the boys described beatings given to anyone who tried to escape or did anything their captors considered misbehavior. The boys were also barred from speaking Kurdish, forced to pray five times a day and to watch videos of captives being killed.
severance
1.money paid by an employer to an employee whose job the employer has had to bring to an end. eg: The management have offered employees one week's severance (pay) for each six months they have worked at the company.2.the act of ending a connection, relationship, etc. or of being separated from a person, place, etc. eg: The minister announced the severance of aid to the country.
Mars
the planet fourth in order of distance from the Sun, after the Earth and before Jupiter.Mars is sometimes called the Red Planet because of its distinctive colour.On the show today, we look into the future of space exploration. The American space agency NASA has announced plans for a new effort to study the sun.
And, NASA scientists are considering new technologies for a possible human trip to the planet Mars. Newly released information about space radiation means the trip needs to take less time than is currently possible.
sphere
1.an object shaped like a round ball.eg: The American space agency is making final preparations for a project to study the sun. NASA scientists hope to observe the way solar material gathers energy and heats up as it moves through the sun's lower atmosphere. Katherine Cole has more about the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph, also called IRIS.

The outer layer of the sun's atmosphere, known as the corona, is thousands of times hotter than the surface of the sun. Solar material heats up as it rises through the inner atmosphere to the corona.

Researchers want to know why this is. So they are preparing a mission to study what scientists call the sun's "interface region." This is the area between the corona and the sun's photosphere.
2.a subject or area of knowledge, work, etc.
the political sphere.
exchanges with other countries, particularly in cultural, scientific and economic spheres.
eg: Other countries were interested in this market, too. Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia all claimed special rights in parts of China. They began to divide the country into areas called "spheres of influence. " It seemed these areas could become foreign colonies. Then the United States would be cut off from trading directly with China.
cosmic
1.relating to the universe and the natural processes that happen in it.2.very great. eg: Humans traveling on a spacecraft to Mars would be exposed to two kinds of radiation. One is low-energy particles called Galactic Cosmic Rays, or GCRs. The other is solar particle radiation, which depends on sun spot activity.
Mr. Zeitlin says improvements in protective equipment might help keep astronauts safe from the solar radiation. But he says the cosmic rays are a bigger problem.
"They can typically go through several inches of solid matter shielding without being attenuated (reduced) very much. So astronauts in deep space will get a continuous low radiation dose."
propulsion
a force that pushes something forward.wind propulsion. eg: NASA experts are considering these numbers on radiation levels in their early planning for a mission to Mars. Some scientists say the answer might be improvements in the driving force of spacecraft. They say new propulsion technologies are needed to shorten the time it takes to get to Mars. This would reduce the time a person is exposed to the radiation along the way.
spectrum
the set of colours into which a beam of light can be separated, or a range of waves, such as light waves or radio waves. eg: The colours of the spectrum - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet - can be seen in a rainbow. eg: The energy and matter, called plasma, that flow through the interface region have a major effect on Earth. This area is the source of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. The radiation affects Earth's climate. It also can influence the space environment near our planet. The energy that passes into the interface region is also responsible for solar wind.
Scientists believe the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph can help them understand the process. IRIS is a small satellite that can perform complex solar observations.
Alan Title is the IRIS lead investigator. He is based at Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center in California.
"What we want to discover is what the basic physical processes are that transfer energy and material from the surface of the sun out to the outer atmosphere to the corona. And remember, the corona extends throughout the heliosphere. We live in the sun's outer atmosphere."
IRIS will provide highly detailed images that will show even individual structures of energy as they stretch away from the sun. NASA officials say the images will be three to four times as detailed as those from the agency's Solar Dynamics Observatory.
IRIS will also provide spectra. Spectra measures different wavelengths of light at once.
solar flares
Violent eruptions of particles and radiation from the surface of the Sun.
eg: On the show today, we look into the future of space exploration. The American space agency NASA has announced plans for a new effort to study the sun.
And, NASA scientists are considering new technologies for a possible human trip to the planet Mars. Newly released information about space radiation means the trip needs to take less time than is currently possible.

The American space agency is making final preparations for a project to study the sun. NASA scientists hope to observe the way solar material gathers energy and heats up as it moves through the sun's lower atmosphere. Katherine Cole has more about the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph, also called IRIS.

The outer layer of the sun's atmosphere, known as the corona, is thousands of times hotter than the surface of the sun. Solar material heats up as it rises through the inner atmosphere to the corona.

Researchers want to know why this is. So they are preparing a mission to study what scientists call the sun's "interface region." This is the area between the corona and the sun's photosphere.

The energy and matter, called plasma, that flow through the interface region have a major effect on Earth. This area is the source of the sun's ultraviolet radiation. The radiation affects Earth's climate. It also can influence the space environment near our planet. The energy that passes into the interface region is also responsible for solar wind.

Scientists believe the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph can help them understand the process. IRIS is a small satellite that can perform complex solar observations.

Alan Title is the IRIS lead investigator. He is based at Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center in California.

"What we want to discover is what the basic physical processes are that transfer energy and material from the surface of the sun out to the outer atmosphere to the corona. And remember, the corona extends throughout the heliosphere. We live in the sun's outer atmosphere."

IRIS will provide highly detailed images that will show even individual structures of energy as they stretch away from the sun. NASA officials say the images will be three to four times as detailed as those from the agency's Solar Dynamics Observatory.

IRIS will also provide spectra. Spectra measures different wavelengths of light at once.

NASA says IRIS will observe temperatures extending from about 5,000 to 65,000 degrees Celsius. That number will rise to about ten million degrees during solar flares. But, lead investigator Alan Title notes IRIS will keep a safe distance from the sun.

"IRIS flies around the Earth so it only gets about 600 kilometers closer to the sun than here we are on Earth, and that's only about 92 million miles away. So it's really not very much closer to the sun."

The IRIS mission is expected to last two years and cost more than 180 million dollars. But scientists say the solar explorer could keep going much longer. IRIS is set to launch on a Pegasus XL rocket from a military base in California on June 26. I'm Katherine Cole.
sun's corona
The corona is the final (and exterior) layer of the three regions that make up the sun's atmosphere. The corona is the widest of all three regions of the sun's atmosphere, and it extends for several million miles from the photosphere and chromosphere. At an average of 2 million degrees Kelvin, the corona is by far the hottest of the sun's layers. Scientists are still unable to explain why it's so hot. The corona is best seen in X-ray images of the sun and during solar eclipses.
sun's chromosphere
The chromosphere is the middle of the three regions that make up the sun's atmosphere. It is extremely wide and extends 1,200 miles (1,931 kilometers) above the photosphere. Temperatures in the chromosphere increase from 4,500 degrees Kelvin to about 10,000 degrees Kelvin. Scientists believe that the chromosphere is heated by the friction caused by the turbulent convection currents in the photosphere. Accordingly, the churning gases in the photosphere produce spikes of hot gas called spicules that rise up to 3,000 miles (4,828 kilometers) into the chromosphere.
narrate
to tell a story, often by reading aloud from a text, or to describe events as they happen. eg: Defoe skilfully narrated the adventures of Robinson Crusoe on his desert island.
media outlet
(media) A publication or broadcast program that provides news and feature stories to the public through various distribution channels. Media outlets include newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the Internet.
eg:Russia's State Duma has just adopted a new bill which if enacted would broadly restrict the rights of all high-profile bloggers and social media users by treating them, in essence, as mass media outlets.

The new law, billed as a measure against terrorism, will apply to anyone whose blogs or personal websites attract 3,000 or more viewers a day. It passed a second reading by lawmakers this week and is expected to be adopted next week and handed to Russian President Vladimir Putin for signing.

If all goes according to plan, bloggers would be mandated to publish their last names and initials, as well as their email addresses. They would also be required to register with the government and follow the same rules as any other media outlet, i.e., verify the accuracy of anything they publish and set age guidelines for content.

Violators will face fines with a fine of as much as $1,000 for individuals and $10,000 for "legal entities." Repeat offenders would have their site's suspended.

Local media says the purpose of the bill is to ensure that blogs and other personal websites are not used to commit crimes, divulge state secrets or promote extremism, pornography or violence. Bloggers would also be banned from using foul language.
divulge
to make something secret known. eg:Local media says the purpose of the bill is to ensure that blogs and other personal websites are not used to commit crimes, divulge state secrets or promote extremism, pornography or violence. Bloggers would also be banned from using foul language.
pornography
books, magazines, films, etc. with no artistic value which describe or show sexual acts or naked people in a way that is intended to be sexually exciting but would be considered unpleasant or offensive by many people.a campaign against pornography
complimentary
If tickets, books, etc. are complimentary, they are given free, especially by a business. eg: I have managed to arrange a complimentary airport transfer for you.Please note that the driver, Michael will be waiting for you at the lobby of Espada at 6.00 a.m. on 4 May 2014 to send you to the airport.
ruined
destroyed or spoilt.an ancient ruined castle. eg: company's brand should not be ruined or defamed just because we are not doing a good job in implementing these corporate requirement.
defame
to damage the reputation of a person or group by saying or writing bad things about them which are not true.He claims the remarks were highly defamatory.
castle
a large strong building, built in the past by a ruler or important person to protect the people inside from attack.an ancient ruined castle.
excursion
1.a short journey usually made for pleasure, often by a group of people.Next week we're going on an excursion.2. a short involvement in a new activity.A teacher by profession, this is her first excursion into writing.
eg:Uri Tours expects no further difficulties in continuing its North Korea excursions, Dantzler-Wolfe said. The company had communicated with its North Korean tour partners and was cooperating with diplomatic authorities to resolve Miller's detention, he said.
eg:On this day, Mr. Tanner has paid to join a guided group called a "swim excursion." Most of the people wear wetsuits to cover more of their bodies than traditional swimsuits.
recluse
a person who lives alone and avoids going outside or talking to other people.He is a millionaire recluse who refuses to give interviews. eg:The State Department said it was aware of Miller's detention and was working with the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang on the issue.
The Swedish Embassy often represents the interests of American citizens in the reclusive state, as Washington does not have diplomatic relations with Pyongyang.
baggage
all the cases and bags that you take with you when you travel; luggage;eg: Please go ahead with the baggage. I will meet you at the ticket counter.
go ahead (with something)
to continue with something; to continue with plans to do something. Can we go ahead with our party plans? Let's go ahead with it. eg: A U.S. tourism company that organized a trip for the American citizen detained earlier this month in North Korea said it will go ahead with further trips there for Americans.
"Given the facts of the case, we have decided to just go ahead with all of our scheduled tours,"
said John Dantzler-Wolfe, director of the New Jersey-based Uri Tours.
The detention of 24-year-old Matthew Todd Miller is "a pretty unique situation," Dantzler-Wolfe said.
Dantzler-Wolfe said the company's tour partners in the communist country told him that Miller had ripped up his visa and declared he was not a tourist.
Uri Tours expects no further difficulties in continuing its North Korea excursions, Dantzler-Wolfe said. The company had communicated with its North Korean tour partners and was cooperating with diplomatic authorities to resolve Miller's detention, he said.
North Korea announced Friday that an American had arrived there April 10 and was being held for "rash behavior" while passing through customs.

The North Korean government also said Miller had demanded asylum.

The State Department said it was aware of Miller's detention and was working with the Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang on the issue.

The Swedish Embassy often represents the interests of American citizens in the reclusive state, as Washington does not have diplomatic relations with Pyongyang.
asylum
protection or safety, especially that given by a government to foreigners who have been forced to leave their own countries for political reasons.to seek/apply for political asylum. eg:North Korea announced Friday that an American had arrived there April 10 and was being held for "rash behavior" while passing through customs.
The North Korean government also said Miller had demanded asylum.
faculty
1.An inherent mental or physical power :her critical faculties
the faculty of sight
2. A group of university departments concerned with a major division of knowledge: the Faculty of Arts.the law faculty.
eg:"We deliberately invented a language that was almost devoid of many of the technical details that were present in other languages," said Kurtz.
BASIC translated English commands, such as IF...THEN, or GO...TO, into the numerical language computers could understand.
Kurtz said the response was overwhelming.
"Not only our students loved getting onto the computer any time they wanted to, for whatever purpose they wanted to, but even the faculty got interested. Of course not everybody, but many of them," he said.
2.(US)the people who teach in a department in a college.
eg: Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg recently surprised Chinese students when he spoke to them in Chinese. In a talk at Tsinghua University in Beijing, Zuckerberg spoke Chinese for about 30 minutes. Although his Mandarin was far from perfect, students and faculty cheered his effort.
notion
(a) belief or idea. The programme makers reject the notion that seeing violence on television has a harmful effect on children.
permeate
to spread through something and be present in every part of it.
Dissatisfaction with the government seems to have permeated every section of society.
A foul smell of stale beer permeated the whole building. The table has a plastic coating which prevents liquids from permeating into the wood beneath.
eg:"Now, that whole notion that anybody could run a computer permeates the whole world. And I would say that is not the immediate legacy of BASIC but it is a part of what was involved in building up on BASIC," said Kidwell.
Kurtz and Kemeny released BASIC to the public, free of charge, so the language quickly became widespread. Kurtz says they hoped it would solve what they saw as a major upcoming problem.
"That is to say, the computer is going to be very important in the world and most people didn't know anything about it because it was in the hands of experts," he said.
eg:
Ivory trafficking - the illegal trade - follows established trade routes. It usually begins in the country's own reserves, or wildlife areas, that are supposed to be protected.

Tanzania's Selous Reserve is among parks where poachers carry out attacks. These hunters kill the animals inside the parks. The ivory then is collected in villages and taken to the port of Dar es Salaam. The material is shipped to Asia. Finally, in China, people cut and shape the ivory and sell it as a decoration.

EIA wildlife campaigner Shruti Suresh says all these activities would be impossible if Tanzanian officials did not cooperate.

"Because of the scale (size) of this, and seeing that there are several tons of ivory going through government posts, past government officials, it is clear that this corruption permeates through the highest levels of government."
divisive
describes something that causes great and sometimes unfriendly disagreement within a group of people.The Vietnam war was an extremely divisive issue in the US. eg:Today, April 30, marks the anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War. On this date in 1975, Marines evacuated the last Americans from the embassy in Saigon, bringing to a close America's most divisive foreign conflict - a division expressed in street protests and in song.
division
when people disagree about something.
eg:Disagreements about defence cuts have opened up deep divisions within the military.
eg:Americans hoped that the new president would be able to bring the North and South together again. But Taylor really had no policy. He could not support a bill to keep slavery out of the territories. That might start a quick revolt among the southern states. He could not support a bill to let slavery spread into the territories. That would make the North rise in anger.

Taylor tried to be neutral. He hoped the problem of slavery would solve itself. But the problem would not solve itself. The growing division between North and South will be our story next week.
fully-fledged
completely developed or trained.What started as a small business is now a fully-fledged company.After years of study, Tim is now a fully-fledged architect.eg:The Vietnam War took place at an unusual time in United States history. A record number of U.S. women gave birth in the years 1946 to 1959, and the largest part of that "Baby Boom" was of fighting age when the war began. The "Baby Boomers" had also created a full-fledged youth culture by that time, a culture based largely on music. So when public sentiment turned against the war, so did popular songs.
dodge
to avoid being hit by something by moving quickly to one side.to avoid something unpleasant.The minister dodged questions about his relationship with the actress. eg:"'Draft Dodger Rag' was a very important, influential song. And it was recorded by many folk singers and groups. And the lyrics were filled with ways to dodge the draft," Waffen added.

Draft dodging songs, like "Draft Dodger Rag" or David Crosby's "Draft Morning," mostly talked about the unfairness of the draft.

"The 'Fortunate Son' song had several lines in it that referred to privileged youth who are able to avoid the draft and not have to participate in the war," Waffen said
crush
to defeat someone completely.The president called upon the army to help crush the rebellion. eg:The president and the generals in Vietnam told Americans back home that the U.S. was winning the war. But in January 1968, North Vietnamese soldiers attacked positions deep inside South Vietnam, including the U.S. embassy. Though the offensive was soon crushed, it left Americans doubting what they were being told.
upstate
towards or of the northern parts of a state in the US, especially those which are far from cities where a lot of people live. eg: upstate New York.eg:We're going upstate for our vacation.eg:The song, "Fixin' To Die Rag," was performed by Country Joe and the Fish at Woodstock, a giant music festival that was held in upstate New York in 1969. According to Les Waffen, "it became extremely popular as a song that said everything about the public's antagonism against the war and it sort of reflected what public opinion was all about."
mocking
when you laugh at someone or something in an unkind way.a mocking voice. eg:Today, April 30, marks the anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War. On this date in 1975, Marines evacuated the last Americans from the embassy in Saigon, bringing to a close America's most divisive foreign conflict - a division expressed in street protests and in song.

The Vietnam War took place at an unusual time in United States history. A record number of U.S. women gave birth in the years 1946 to 1959, and the largest part of that "Baby Boom" was of fighting age when the war began. The "Baby Boomers" had also created a full-fledged youth culture by that time, a culture based largely on music. So when public sentiment turned against the war, so did popular songs.
Vietnam War Protests Influenced Popular Music
America's involvement in Vietnam started slowly - only 5,000 soldiers in 1960. So at first, people in the U.S. weren't paying very close attention. But the protest movement was starting even then.

Within two years of the 1963 song, "Soldier's Letter," the number of Americans in Vietnam would increase dramatically. America didn't have an all-volunteer army back then. In 1962 the government implemented the Selective Service, or "The Draft."

"When you registered for the selective service system, you were assigned a draft number. And if your number came up, then you were in the Army," said Leslie Waffen, the retired head of the motion picture, sound, and video branch at the National Archives and also an expert on the music of the Vietnam War.

"'Draft Dodger Rag' was a very important, influential song. And it was recorded by many folk singers and groups. And the lyrics were filled with ways to dodge the draft," Waffen added.

Draft dodging songs, like "Draft Dodger Rag" or David Crosby's "Draft Morning," mostly talked about the unfairness of the draft.

"The 'Fortunate Son' song had several lines in it that referred to privileged youth who are able to avoid the draft and not have to participate in the war," Waffen said

The president and the generals in Vietnam told Americans back home that the U.S. was winning the war. But in January 1968, North Vietnamese soldiers attacked positions deep inside South Vietnam, including the U.S. embassy. Though the offensive was soon crushed, it left Americans doubting what they were being told.

The song, "Fixin' To Die Rag," was performed by Country Joe and the Fish at Woodstock, a giant music festival that was held in upstate New York in 1969. According to Les Waffen, "it became extremely popular as a song that said everything about the public's antagonism against the war and it sort of reflected what public opinion was all about."

Even more important, Waffen says: The song also became popular with the soldiers who were fighting in Vietnam.

"There would be DJs in certain zones who would set up their own radio station and begin to broadcast the songs that you were not going to hear on Armed Forces Radio," he said.

Of course there were also songs in favor of the war. In 1965 and 1966 the most popular song in America was "The Ballad of the Green Berets."

And those celebrating soldiers also sang songs mocking those who found ways not to have to fight, as in "The Yellow Beret" by Bob Seeger.

America is a place of diverse opinions. It's also a place that offers citizens the right to express those opinions -- even when they go against the government, even in the middle of a war.
urbanization
the process by which more and more people leave the countryside to live in cities. eg: "This is part of a broader change in food consumption patterns in China that include a shift to a greater consumption of meat," said Fabinyi. "Some of the broader, larger factors contributing to this shift are urbanization and increased incomes."
exotic
unusual and often exciting because of coming (or seeming to come) from a far, especially tropical country.exotically dressed dancers. exotic flowers/food/designs. eg:The traditional Chinese dinner plate is getting a makeover as tastes in the country begin to change. Exotic seafood and different meats are now being purchased at increasing rates.
coral reef
an area of coral, the top of which can sometimes be seen just above the sea. eg: Michael Fabinyi, a Research Fellow at the Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, notes substantial socioeconomic trends are influencing what people eat in the Middle Kingdom.
"This is part of a broader change in food consumption patterns in China that include a shift to a greater consumption of meat," said Fabinyi. "Some of the broader, larger factors contributing to this shift are urbanization and increased incomes."
staple
a main product or part of something. eg: Shortages mean that even staples (= basic foods) like bread are difficult to find. eg: Romantic fiction and reference books are a staple of many public libraries. eg:Phosphate has been a staple of this area for many years. eg: Pork has always been a staple in China, but as the middle class in the country grows and has more money to spend, its consumption of this traditional meat-as well as others-is increasing rapidly.
evolve
to develop gradually, or to cause something or someone to develop gradually.Humans evolved from apes.Bacteria are evolving resistance to antibiotics. eg:In addition to the evolving Chinese economy, social factors are driving people to buy more of these products than ever before.
banquet
a large formal meal for many people, often followed by speeches in honour of someone.Medieval banquets are held in the castle once a month. eg: In addition to the evolving Chinese economy, social factors are driving people to buy more of these products than ever before. Fabinyi claims the luxurious banquet culture among the country's elite is a large reason why the high-end market for seafood like live reef fish, sea cucumbers and shark fins is thriving.
thrive
To grow vigorously; flourish: "the wild deer that throve here" .eg:In addition to the evolving Chinese economy, social factors are driving people to buy more of these products than ever before. Fabinyi claims the luxurious banquet culture among the country's elite is a large reason why the high-end market for seafood like live reef fish, sea cucumbers and shark fins is thriving.
cement
to put cement on a surface or stick things together using cement.to make something such as an agreement or friendship stronger.
eg:Fabinyi claims the luxurious banquet culture among the country's elite is a large reason why the high-end market for seafood like live reef fish, sea cucumbers and shark fins is thriving.
"It's a way of cementing social ties with important business and government partners," said Fabinyi. "Often, people who are in high level positions in government or the private sector attend several banquets a week as part of their work obligations. During these banquets, hosts are expected to impress their guests by serving very high status foods like these types of seafood."
eradicate
to get rid of completely or destroy something bad.
eg: Analysts note Chinese regulations, recently put in place to eradicate government corruption, are diminishing the effects of banquet culture but high-end seafood and pork consumption are continuing to grow overall.
eg: Mr. Carter has spoken many times with the Voice of America. In one of those interviews, he said he is most pleased with the center's work in reducing the threat of Guinea Worm disease.
"There's only been one disease in the history of humankind ever eradicated, and that was smallpox, more than 30 years ago. So Guinea Worm is going to soon be the second disease in history to be wiped off the face of the earth."
eg:KENNEDY: "Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce ... Let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved."
dairy
used to refer to cows that are used for producing milk, rather than meat, or to foods which are made from milk, such as cream, butter and cheese.
eg:USDA agricultural economist Fred Gale said Deng Xiaoping-one of China's first post-Mao leaders who focused on directing the country toward a market economy-made it a point to support the changing diet to keep the Chinese people competitive in the global marketplace.
"[Deng Xiaoping] stated, we must fundamentally change the racist food structure-increasing the meat and dairy intake in our diet to improve the physique of the Chinese people," said Gale. "So, they will rank among the excellent members of humanity. At this point, meat and dairy became a nationalistic thing and promoting production became a major national policy goal."
Regardless of the Chinese Communist Party's intentions, negative effects associated with the increase of pork and seafood consumption are leaving a bad taste in some peoples' mouths. Environmentalists argue there are ecological problems occurring on land and at sea within these animal populations.
ecological
relating to ecology or the environment.The destruction of the rain forests is an ecological disaster.
eg:
Monty Hempel is a professor of environmental sciences at Redlands University in California. He studies ecological literacy -- or ecoliteracy, for short. Ecoliteracy is the ability to think about and understand the natural processes that make life possible.
"Some people think that ecoliteracy is just a green form of science literacy. And what I have tried to ask is whether that's enough. In other words, what an ecologically-literate person needs to know might include things like the cycles and the flows, the energy systems, all of those kind of things that we would call the science of ecology."
cyanide
an extremely powerful poison.
eg:Fabinyi explained the environmental problem of over-fishing spans beyond China affecting countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia which are seafood suppliers-especially when ultra-effective methods are used to catch fish.
"A tablet of cyanide is dissolved in a water bottle which is then squirted by a diver into the coral that stuns the fish," said Fabinyi. "Then, the fish are scooped up and revived when taken back up to the surface. Because this is a much more efficient method than hook and line, it obviously is a large contributor to fishing pressure, apart from the effects that the cyanide has on the coral reefs."
squirt
(to force a liquid) to flow out through a narrow opening in a fast stream. eg:"A tablet of cyanide is dissolved in a water bottle which is then squirted by a diver into the coral that stuns the fish," said Fabinyi. "Then, the fish are scooped up and revived when taken back up to the surface. Because this is a much more efficient method than hook and line, it obviously is a large contributor to fishing pressure, apart from the effects that the cyanide has on the coral reefs."
manure
solid waste from animals, especially horses, which is spread on the land in order to make plants grow well.
eg: Problems associated with sourcing food are also an issue on land. Disease is affecting the increasing number of pigs imported from the United States. Most western breeds are not meant to be raised in outdoor areas.

But in China, these animals are being exposed to the elements as well as insects, mice and other carriers of dangerous illnesses. Gale said the effects of these conditions on the environment have many Chinese worried about food safety.

"As the marketing chain distance between the consumer and the pigs increases, the consumers don't really know where their pork came from or what's in it," said Gale. "There are a lot of things like this on the Chinese internet where a local person, in some village, is complaining about the big farms near his house and how they dump all this manure in the water making it undrinkable."
unpalatable
describes a fact or idea that is unpleasant or shocking and therefore difficult to accept.the unpalatable truth/facts about the war.
eg:But in China, these animals are being exposed to the elements as well as insects, mice and other carriers of dangerous illnesses. Gale said the effects of these conditions on the environment have many Chinese worried about food safety.
"As the marketing chain distance between the consumer and the pigs increases, the consumers don't really know where their pork came from or what's in it," said Gale. "There are a lot of things like this on the Chinese internet where a local person, in some village, is complaining about the big farms near his house and how they dump all this manure in the water making it undrinkable."
But not every aspect of getting these increasingly popular foods to the dinner table is unpalatable. Fabinyi argues fishing opportunities for people living on islands with poor agricultural potential provide a livelihood for a population that has few other natural resources to draw from.

"The trade in live-fish has been a massively important economic stimulus to local communities," said Fabinyi. "Relative to where they were previously, many households have been able to improve their standards of living from assistance-level only to being able to invest in basic-level education for their children, some level of healthcare and material goods that have resulted in the improved standard of living."
Chinese eaters are becoming more adventurous than ever before. In turn, as the flavors they seek grow in complexity, so do the effects of the country's massive consumption. Food experts claim both the positive and negative consequences of China's changing diet are already beginning to cross borders, become international issues and will continue to do so as consumption grows.
changing
in a state of becoming different;the rapidly changing world of politics;eg:
But in China, these animals are being exposed to the elements as well as insects, mice and other carriers of dangerous illnesses. Gale said the effects of these conditions on the environment have many Chinese worried about food safety.

"As the marketing chain distance between the consumer and the pigs increases, the consumers don't really know where their pork came from or what's in it," said Gale. "There are a lot of things like this on the Chinese internet where a local person, in some village, is complaining about the big farms near his house and how they dump all this manure in the water making it undrinkable."

But not every aspect of getting these increasingly popular foods to the dinner table is unpalatable. Fabinyi argues fishing opportunities for people living on islands with poor agricultural potential provide a livelihood for a population that has few other natural resources to draw from.

"The trade in live-fish has been a massively important economic stimulus to local communities," said Fabinyi. "Relative to where they were previously, many households have been able to improve their standards of living from assistance-level only to being able to invest in basic-level education for their children, some level of healthcare and material goods that have resulted in the improved standard of living."

Chinese eaters are becoming more adventurous than ever before. In turn, as the flavors they seek grow in complexity, so do the effects of the country's massive consumption. Food experts claim both the positive and negative consequences of China's changing diet are already beginning to cross borders, become international issues and will continue to do so as consumption grows.
detrimental
causing harm or damage;These chemicals have a detrimental effect/impact on the environment. eg: the foreigner shall not engage in any activity which, in the opinion of the Controller of immigration,is detrimental to the security and well-being of Singapore.
compensation
money that is paid to someone in exchange for something that has been lost or damaged or for some problem.She received £40 000 in compensation for a lost eye.
verdict
an opinion or decision made after judging the facts that are given, especially one made at the end of a trial. eg: The jury reached/returned a unanimous verdict of (not) guilty. eg: Voters gave their verdict on the government's economic record last night by voting overwhelmingly for the opposition. eg: Thailand's caretaker cabinet has appointed a new acting prime minister, Commerce Minister Niwatthamrong Boonsongphaisan, after a verdict from the nation's Constitutional Court forced Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra and several members of her cabinet to step down from office.
unanimous
If a group of people are unanimous, they all agree about one particular matter or vote the same way, and if a decision or judgment is unanimous, it is formed or supported by everyone in a group. eg: The jury returned a unanimous verdict of guilty after a short deliberation. eg:The Bangkok court on Wednesday unanimously ruled that Prime Minister Yingluck in 2011 improperly reassigned her then national security chief. It said the move was unconstitutional and done for her own benefit.
deliberation
considering or discussing something. eg:After much deliberation, she decided to accept their offer. eg: After five days of deliberations, the jury decided on a verdict.
the accused
noun.the person who is on trial in a court, or the people on trial in a court. eg:The accused protested her innocence.eg: Judge Jaroon Intachan announced the ruling against Yingluck, who was Thailand's first female prime minister.
"In this case, the accused committed what is prohibited in the constitution in section 368 and 266/1(2 and 3). It is applicable to the position of the minister which is to be terminated. And according to the constitution section 182/1(7), the accused cannot remain in position," said Jaroon.
concede
1.to admit, often unwillingly, that something is true. eg: The Government has conceded (that) the new tax policy has been a disaster.2.to allow someone to have something, even though you do not want to.eg:The president is not expected to concede these reforms. eg:Britain conceded (= allowed) independence to India in 1947.3. to admit that you have lost in a competition. eg: She conceded even before all the votes had been counted. eg: Yingluck, who defended herself before the court on Tuesday, conceded defeat in a Wednesday speech, but maintained that she has done nothing wrong. eg: Opposition candidate Narendra Modi will be the next prime minister of India, with early election results on Friday showing the pro-business Hindu nationalist and his party headed for the biggest victory the country has seen in 30 years.
India's ruling Congress party conceded defeat Friday. Congress party spokesmen told reporters the party had accepted that the country decided to vote against them.
defeat
when someone loses against someone else in a fight or competition, or when someone or something is made to fail. eg: She admitted/conceded defeat well before all the votes had been counted.
well
used to emphasize some prepositions. eg: The results are well above/below what we expected. eg:It cost well over £100.eg:he admitted/conceded defeat well before all the votes had been counted.
incinerator
a device for burning things which are no longer wanted. eg: The protests were against plans to build a large waste incinerator in the eastern city of Hangzhou.
transformation
a complete change in the appearance or character of something or someone, especially so that they are improved. eg: Local people have mixed feelings about the planned transformation of their town into a regional capital. eg:I'd never seen Carlo in smart evening clothes before - it was quite a transformation. eg:Governmental and non-governmental pressure clamps down on transformations of civil society in all sorts of ways
transparent
clear and easy to understand or recognize.I think we should try to make the instructions more transparent. eg: The United States says it does not recognize the results of "so-called" referendums held on Sunday in eastern Ukraine, viewing them as "a transparent attempt to create disorder."
secede
Noun,secession.Adj secessionist.to become independent of a country or area of government. eg: There is likely to be civil war if the region tries to secede from the south. eg:White House spokesman Jay Carney offered the assessment at a press briefing on Monday, a day after pro-Russia separatists held votes in Ukraine's eastern Donetsk and Luhansk regions claiming overwhelming popular support for the regions' secession from Ukraine.
forestall
to prevent something from happening by acting first.
The government forestalled criticism by holding a public enquiry into the matter.
eg: This is an undated portrait of American congressman & orator, Daniel Webster (1782-1852). Webster of Massachusetts was accused of ``scarlet infamy'' in 1851 when he backed a North-South compromise that forestalled the dissolution of the Union. (AP Photo)
effort
the result of an attempt to produce something, especially when its quality is low or uncertain. eg:Do you want to have a look at his exam paper? It's a fairly poor effort. eg:He also expressed concern over apparent efforts to disrupt Ukraine's presidential elections, scheduled for May 25, saying that international efforts should now be centered on allowing Ukraine to hold a free and fair poll.
Carney gave credit to Kyiv authorities for what he said were efforts to address grievances of residents of Ukraine's east through negotiations.
Holding "illegal referendums" and "annexing parts of countries" is not a way forward, he added.
Kyiv and Western governments have been accusing Moscow of orchestrating the current unrest in Ukraine's east and south.
grievance
a complaint or a strong feeling that you have been treated unfairly. eg:Bill still harbours/nurses a grievance against his employers for not promoting him. eg:Carney gave credit to Kyiv authorities for what he said were efforts to address grievances of residents of Ukraine's east through negotiations.
Holding "illegal referendums" and "annexing parts of countries" is not a way forward, he added.
Kyiv and Western governments have been accusing Moscow of orchestrating the current unrest in Ukraine's east and south.
precipitate
to make something happen suddenly or sooner than expected. eg:An invasion would certainly precipitate a political crisis. eg:Fear of losing her job precipitated (= suddenly forced) her into action. eg:Similar moves precipitated Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea region in March.
defunct
adj.no longer existing, living, or working correctly. eg:humorous I think this kettle is defunct! eg:Pushilin said Ukraine, Belarus and Russia - states that formed the core of the now defunct Soviet Union - belonged in a restored historic union.
pit
The verb to pit means to put two people or groups in confrontation or conflict. eg: "Thaksin was removed from office in a 2006 military coup. The billionaire businessman is still very influential in Thailand. He is living in exile to escape corruption charges.
The conflict pits Bangkok's urban middle class and royalist elite against the mostly poor, rural supporters of Yingluck and Thaksin."
etymology
the study of the origin and history of words, or a study of this type relating to one particular word. eg: At university she developed an interest in etymology.
clear of charges
escape without penalty;To free from a legal charge or imputation of guilt; acquit: cleared the suspect of the murder charge. eg:Controversy has swirled around the BJP prime ministerial candidate since 2002, when he led India's Gujarat state. Hindu-Muslim rioting there killed more than 1,000 people. India's Supreme Court cleared Modi of charges that he incited the violence.
faded
having lost freshness or brilliance of color. eg:The controversy appears to have faded for many voters. Modi has since cast himself as an able administrator and decisive leader who has energized the economy of Gujarat and holds the promise of doing the same for the rest of the country.
benign
pleasant and kind.describes a growth that is not likely to cause death. eg:a benign tumour. eg: Most Americans see China as benign.
emeritus
no longer having a position, especially in a college or university, but keeping the title of the position. eg: She became Emeritus Professor of Linguistics when she retired. eg:Former U.S. state and defense department official Leslie Gelb, also a president emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, says China is the first major world power in history to fall short of being a global military power.
naval
belonging to a country's navy, or relating to military ships. eg: "We can put modern aircraft carriers into the (Asia-Pacific) area. They are backwards in the most important naval kind of power," Gelb says.
hegemon
a supreme leader. eg: "When Americans hear words like Senkaku and Diaoyu, they think, this has nothing to do with me," Daly says. "It is questionable if Americans realize what it would mean for the United States and other countries should China become the hegemon of the Western Pacific."
exploit
1. to use something for advantage. eg: We need to make sure that we exploit our resources as fully as possible.2.to use someone or something unfairly for your own advantage. eg:Laws exist to stop companies exploiting their employees. eg: "The evidence is that these (problems) are related to both technology and globalization, but globalization (and China) get most of the attention," Spence says. "One strand of thought also says (the Chinese) are hurting (the United States) because they exploit workers and have unsafe and environmentally unsound (working) conditions."
in (the) light of
because or as a result of:In light of the problems we're having, we have no choice but to close the business. eg: The tasks of Funds Management are to budget all revenues and expenditures for individual responsibility areas, monitor future funds movements in light of the budget available, and prevent budget overruns.
earmark
to keep or intend something for a particular purpose. eg: Five billion dollars of this year's budget is already earmarked for hospital improvements. eg: Earmarked Funds
ground rules
the principles on which future behaviour is based. eg: In all relationships a few ground rules have to be established.
grant
a sum of money given especially by the government to a person or organization for a special purpose. eg: They gave/awarded her a grant to study abroad for one year.
-wise
relating to a particular thing. eg: What shall we do foodwise - do you fancy going out to eat? eg: Moneywise, of course, I'm much better off than I used to be. eg: What do we need to take with us clothes-wise? eg: We were very lucky weather-wise yesterday. eg: Funds represent internal/external funds that are limited time-wise (financing period) and functionally (application of funds), which have been designated for a specific expenditure. They may also be used as administration or accounting units to separate activities so as to facilitate further analyses or reporting.
appropriation
a sum of money to be used for a particular purpose. eg: The committee approved an appropriation of £10,000.
confine
to limit an activity, person or problem in some way. eg: Let's confine our discussion to the matter in question, please! eg:Please confine your use of the telephone to business calls.
eg: Funds are used to represent funds from secondary sources. They represent funds that are limited as to time available or function, which have been made available to cover specific expenditures.
In the system, a funds represents the whole organizational and functional structure of your organization (funds center and commitment item hierarchy). You can use a
Budget Structure to confine this structure to particular responsibility areas (funds centers) and expenditure categories (commitment items). You thus determine which responsibility area receives the promised funds, which have usually come from a particular source to cover a particular project and can only be disbursed on particular types of expenditure.
You can create an overall budget to cover the whole period in question: you can apportion this to the financial years affected. Budget is used up as postings are made to the fund. Funds reservations and business transactions entered in the feeder systems (such as financial accounting and materials management) also affect the budget.
irrespective
without considering; not needing to allow for. eg: The legislation must be applied irrespective of someone's ethnic origins. eg:With down payments or down payment requests which reference a purchase order, the commitment item is always transferred from the purchase order irrespective of which commitment item is assigned to the given reconciliation accounts.
equilibrium
a state of balance.the country's economic equilibrium. eg:FMBCS allows you to budget all revenues & expenditures, monitor commitments and actuals in light of the budget available, and prevent budget overruns.FMBCS is a tool to maintain the financial equilibrium of your business, by identifying potential deficits.
eg:Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia all are moving to reduce oil price supports, or subsidies, which are often a major part in government spending.

Last month Indonesian President Joko Widodo raised subsidized fuel prices by over 30 percent. Trade unions and opposition parties criticized the move. The Indonesian government says it is providing social assistance to over 15 million people to ease the effect of higher fuel costs.

But some experts say it is a matter of time before prices recover. Jack Gerard is president of the American Petroleum Institute. He says demand for oil will rise, and prices will find an equilibrium.
probation
a period of time when a criminal must behave well and not commit any more crimes in order to avoid being sent to prison;a period of time at the start of a new job when you are watched and tested to see if you are suitable for the job;US a period of time in which a student who has behaved badly must improve their work or behaviour in order to stay in a school;eg:He served a year in prison and was then let out on probation.eg:During probation, follow local legal requirements. eg:You have three month probation.
go viral
to spread rapidly via the Internet, e-mail, or other media: Footage of the candidate's off-color remarks went viral within minutes.
eg: She's has songs written about her. She's had Photoshopped images of her go viral. She's had a verb named in her honor. In some parts of the Russian-language blogosphere, she's become a minor celebrity.
Not in a good way.
Jen Psaki is the face of the U.S. State Department, seen in daily briefings fielding questions from reporters from around the world, trying to articulate U.S. foreign policy.
She's also the target of a relentless and unrivaled swirl of derision, mockery and outright insults coming from Russian bloggers, newscasters and state-run media, which operate under the thumb of the Kremlin.
relentless
continuing in a severe or extreme way.relentless criticism/pressure.
eg: James Polk was a very fascinating man. Very hard-working. Relentless in his pursuit of goals. He was not a particularly likable human being. He was somewhat suspicious of other people.

But he had a way of figuring out what he needed to do to accomplish what he wanted to accomplish, and he was very good at it, and that served him very well throughout his life.
articulate
able to express thoughts and feelings easily and clearly, or showing this quality.an intelligent and highly articulate young woman
unrivalled
having no equal; better than any other of the same type.
swirl
to (cause to) move quickly with a twisting circular movement
derision
when someone or something is laughed at and considered stupid or of no value.They treated his suggestion with derision.Her speech was met with hoots/howls of derision.
mockery
when you mock someone or something.
badge
a small piece of metal, plastic, cloth, etc., with words or a picture on it, that is pinned or sewn to your clothing, often to show your support for a political organization or belief, or your rank, or membership of a group.
stride
an important positive development.The West made impressive strides in improving energy efficiency after the huge rises in oil prices during the seventies.The group has made strides to expand internationally.
take something in (one's) stride
to accept advances or setbacks as the normal course of events. She faced a serious problem, but she was able to take it in her stride. I'll just take it in stride. We were afraid that success would spoil her, but she just took it in stride. eg:
She's has songs written about her. She's had Photoshopped images of her go viral. She's had a verb named in her honor. In some parts of the Russian-language blogosphere, she's become a minor celebrity.

Not in a good way.

Jen Psaki is the face of the U.S. State Department, seen in daily briefings fielding questions from reporters from around the world, trying to articulate U.S. foreign policy.

She's also the target of a relentless and unrivaled swirl of derision, mockery and outright insults coming from Russian bloggers, newscasters and state-run media, which operate under the thumb of the Kremlin.

"I take it as a badge of honor," Psaki told VOA's Russian Service. "It is funny and entertaining that there has been a lot of time spent dedicated to Photoshopping pictures and different attacks on me over the course of time."

"I am in a good company: U.S. officials. In fact, many women who are U.S. officials over time who also have been victims of the same Russian propaganda machine, so I take it all in stride," she said.

That one of the top public officials of the U.S. government is being mocked isn't new. What's new is how personalized and vitriolic the attacks are, coming mainly via services such as Twitter and LiveJournal.

The campaign appears to have gotten at least a wink and a nudge, if not imprimatur, from the Kremlin. It also reflects the harsh rhetoric and accusations that have been slung back and forth by Washington and Moscow on the crisis in Ukraine.

Moscow asserts that the government that took over after Viktor Yanukovych's ouster as president in February was populated by Nazis and radical nationalists, and that Washington was directly backing it. Washington, for its part, has asserted that Moscow is directly funding and managing the insurgency roiling eastern Ukraine.
vitriolic
violent hate and anger expressed through severe criticism.He is a writer who has often been criticized by the press but never before with such vitriol.He launched a vitriolic attack on the prime minister, accusing him of shielding corrupt friends. eg: That one of the top public officials of the U.S. government is being mocked isn't new. What's new is how personalized and vitriolic the attacks are, coming mainly via services such as Twitter and LiveJournal.
make a fuss
Cause a needless commotion or display, as in I'm sure he'll be here soon; please don't make a fuss . eg: All day along he says "Shush" to audacious climbers making a fuss
commotion
a sudden short period of noise, confusion or excited movement.He looked up to see what all the commotion was about.His arrival caused quite a commotion.
stern
severe, or showing disapproval.Journalists received a stern warning not to go anywhere near the battleship.She is her own sternest critic.eg: austere: forbiddingly stern;
austere
forbiddingly stern;severely simple and unornamented. eg: Monasteries are austere places designed to encourage prayer and reflection.
avarice
"Have a rice cracker;you're in luck-it's only ten bucks!"(what avarice!);greediness for wealth;
1.According to psychologists,many gamblers are motivated not by avarice but by a need for excitement.
2.It was not avarice that motivated Joe to work hard to become wealthy so much as a desire for financial security.
3.Although Lou was not really an avaricious person,he did find the idea of winning the twenty million dollar lottery prize attractive.
autonomous
self-governing
1. In the American system of government,states are not autonomous;many power are reserved to the central government.
1. In the American system of government,states are not autonomous;many power are reserved to the central government.
2.After the fall of Soviet Union,many of its former republics became autonomous nation-state.
3.With the issuance of the declaration of independence in 1776,the United states asserted its right to be an autonomous nation.
eg: Monday, the U.S. military helped Iraqi and Kurd forces recapture a strategic dam in the north from the Sunni extremists.

U.S. President Barack Obama said if the militants had breached the Mosul Dam, it would have brought "catastrophic" floods to northern Iraq, killing thousands.

Obama said the U.S. is seeing important progress in Iraq, helping push back the militants and providing arms and aid to Kurdish and Iraqi forces.

In Geneva, the United Nations refugee agency said it is preparing a massive operation to provide aid to 500,000 people displaced in northern Iraq.

The agency said tents and other supplies will be airlifted to Irbil, the capital of the Kurdish autonomous region, starting Wednesday.
rigid
stiff or fixed; not able to be bent, moved, changed or persuaded.a rigid steel and concrete structure;eg: In the times of the emperors, the formality within the Forbidden City was rigid beyond belief.
upend
The findings upend an impression of alarming low numbers left by a 2011 Stanford University study which led to petitions by conservationists to add white sharks to state and federal endangered lists, Burgess said.
conservation
the protection of plants and animals, natural areas, and interesting and important structures and buildings, especially from the damaging effects of human activity;a conservation area.
eg: The World Wildlife Fund says more than half of the world's wildlife population has been lost. The conservation group says this has placed the health of the planet at risk.
petition
a document signed by a large number of people demanding or requesting some action from the government or another authority.
eg: The findings upend an impression of alarming low numbers left by a 2011 Stanford University study which led to petitions by conservationists to add white sharks to state and federal endangered lists, Burgess said.
foolproof
(of a plan or machine) so simple and easy to understand that it is unable to go wrong or be used wrongly.I don't believe there's any such thing as a foolproof scheme for making money. eg:Bear in mind that this isn't foolproof. A user on your network could just change their device's DNS server to bypass the filtering. Young children wouldn't think to do this, but teenagers could likely foil it — just like most parental controls.
frills
extra things that are added to something to make it more pleasant or more attractive, but that are not necessary.a cheap, no frills airline. eg: Other DNS services don't offer this feature. For example, Google Public DNS does not include any content-filtering features, as it aims to just function as a fast DNS service without any of the frills.
trick
an action which is intended to deceive, either as a way of cheating someone, or as a joke or form of entertainment.My niece was showing me all the tricks that she's learned to do with her new magic set.For a moment I thought you had a patch of grey hairs, but it's just a trick of the light.
straightforward
easy to understand or simple;He explained quite straightforwardly that there wasn't enough work for us all.if the image in question is a vector image (e.g., WMF), it may be very easy to customize the clip art image. However, if the image is a bitmap image (e.g., PNG, JPG, GIF), then you cannot simply "ungroup" the image and edit it as you want. If you own Photoshop and you're proficient with it, this task may be fairly straightforward for you. However, many business users don't have access to this expensive photo editing software or if they do, they may not know how to use it.
solid
describes a metal or a colour which is pure, and does not have anything else mixed together with it.a white rose on a solid blue background.By fade, I mean blending the image into the background color or another solid color of your choice. You may have thought you needed Photoshop to create a fade effect with your images. However, you can achieve a fade effect directly in PowerPoint using an object with a blended transparent gradient fill.
bullet point
a symbol, often a small black circle, used in text to show separate things in a list
abrupt
describes something that is sudden and unexpected, and often unpleasant.Our conversation came to an abrupt end when George burst into the room.
slouch
to stand, sit or walk with the shoulders hanging forward and the head bent slightly over so that you look tired and bored.Straighten your back - try not to slouch.A couple of boys were slouched over the table reading magazines.A group of teenagers were slouching around outside the building.Thanks to the image editing features in PowerPoint 2010 (and also in 2013 which is due to arrive soon), you really don't need to look elsewhere to handle graphic jobs. Photoshop and industry standard graphic editors can do a lot of heavy lifting, but PowerPoint isn't a slouch either. Another benefit is that the learning curve in PowerPoint isn't as steep as in something like Photoshop.
sleight of hand
speed and skill of the hand when performing tricks. skilful hiding of the truth in order to win an advantage.By some statistical sleight of hand the government have produced figures showing that unemployment has recently fallen. eg: The image fade technique is a bit like a sleight of hand where you use another invisible object to hide a part of the main image and thus combine them to give the appearance of a fade.
opaque
preventing light from travelling through, and therefore not transparent or translucent.
The next two steps involve setting the color of the gradient to match the background of the slide so it obscures part of the apple, and adjusting the transparency of the gradient so that a fade is created revealing a part of the apple. Here the background of the slide and the image is white, so we go with white for both the stops.
To "flow" the gradient and create the fade effect, you will need to set the transparency of one of the gradient stops (select one of the gradient stops and move the slider for transparency) while keeping the other one opaque. Experiment with the sliders and create the fade effect as per the requirements of the slide. Here's what I got for my image of the apple.
latent
present but needing particular conditions to become active, obvious or completely developed. eg: Recent developments in the area have brought latent ethnic tension out into the open. eg: We're trying to bring out the latent artistic talents that many people possess without realising it.
latency
Latency problems occur when it takes too long for the packet to complete its trip.
xylophone
a musical instrument consisting of flat wooden bars of different lengths which you hit with a pair of sticks that have hard, round ends made from wood or plastic
resemble
to look like or be like someone or something.after the earthquake, the city resembled a battlefield.The look and form of the phone is designed to resemble the playful nature of the xylophone. .
encumbrance
a mortgage or other charge on a property, or the fact of a property having a mortgage, etc.something that makes it difficult to do things.
FM is a process that allows classification and tracking of revenues and expenditures in terms of a budget structure
The FM module contains several core master data elements:
Fund - Source and use of financing
Fund Center - Organizational Structure
Commitment Item - Expenses and Revenues
Functional Area - Program or Activity
Fund Type - Description
Funded Program - Lower level internal programs or activity
Fund: Represent the lowest level source of funding used for tracking, controlling and reporting on available financial resources. A full set of financial reports is possible for each fund.
Funds Center: Represent the lowest level areas of responsibility for budgetary assignment, monitoring and control. Can be one to one with cost centers.
Commitment Items: Represent the categories or classifications of fund equity, revenues, expenses and encumbrances at the lowest level of detail necessary for internal and external reporting. These have a one to one relationship with GL accounts.
Functional Area: Structures that identify and classify financial transactions by overall purpose, objective, function and/or mission for accomplishing major services or regulatory responsibilities.
Fund Types: Determine Budget scope. Some assignments are Overall budget, Annual budget and Not Assigned
Funded Programs: Represent lower-level internal programs or initiatives, which represent a plan or system under which actions may be taken to achieve specific goals.
elegant(elegance)
1.graceful and attractive in appearance or behaviour. an elegant woman.It was her natural elegance that struck me.
2. describes an idea, plan or solution that is clever but simple, and therefore attractive.
It looks as if it has no relation to Smart Art. But, you'll learn how to create this elegant diagram using a SmartArt object called 'Segmented Cycle'. The transformation you're about to create is:
bleeding-edge
relating to or describing systems , devices or ideas that are so modern that they are still being developed.bleeding-edge technology. eg: Bleeding edge techniques with Asynchronous I/O and Event-driven programming.
synonym
he words ' small ' and 'little' are synonyms.
antonym
word which means the opposite of another word.Two antonyms of ' light ' are ' dark ' and ' heavy '.eg: Everyone would benefit from studying 5 SAT words a night. Maybe this is something you can do first thing in the morning with your breakfast, or right before you go to bed at night. Study with flash cards each week. Group synonyms. Know their antonyms. Each week I quiz my students on 35 words. Quiz yourself or have someone quiz you.
passage
1.a short piece of writing or music which is part of a larger piece of work.Several passages from the book were printed in a national newspaper before it was published .eg: The Critical Reading section of the SAT is comprised of vocabulary, short reading passages, and longer reading passages.
2.(also passageway) a usually long and narrow part of a building with rooms on one or both sides, or a covered path which connects places.
A narrow passage led directly through the house into the garden.
The bathroom's on the right at the end of the passage.
eg:During all his trips, Columbus explored islands and waterways, searching for that passage to the Indies. He never found it. Nor did he find spices or great amounts of gold. Yet, he always believed that he had found the Indies. He refused to recognize that it really was a new world.

Evidence of this was all around him -- strange plants unknown in either Europe or Asia. And a different people who did not understand any language spoken in the East.

Columbus' voyages, however, opened up the new world. Others later explored all of North America.
essay
a short piece of writing on a particular subject , especially one done by students as part of the work for a course. eg: For homework I want you to write an essay on endangered species .eg: While the Writing (grammar + essay) portion is counted in the overall score, many top colleges still weigh the importance of the Critical Reading & Math sections more heavily.
connotation
a feeling or idea that is suggested by a particular word although it need not be a part of the word's meaning , or something suggested by an object or situation. eg: The word ' lady ' has connotations of refinement and excessive femininity that some women find offensive .eg: Because it's impossible to know what words might be tested on the PSAT/SAT, start to figure out if words have a positive or negative connotation. Knowing roots can help you: Instead of learning one word at a time, you can learn a group of words that contain a certain root. They'll be related in meaning, so if you remember one, it will be easier to remember the others. Try to decode a new vocab word by its root. If you can recognize a familiar root, chances are you'll get enough of an idea to answer the question.
connote
To me, chocolate connotes pleasure and indulgence .
pompous
too serious and full of importance.He's a pompous old prig who's totally incapable of taking a joke .
prig
a person who obeys the rules of correct behaviour and considers himself or herself to be morally better than other people
pretentious
trying to appear or sound more important or clever than you are, especially in matters of art and literature.a pretentious art critic. eg: A bombastic piece of writing many impress some readers,but others will surely conclude that its author is an insincere and pretentious person.
Belie
Jason tried to belie the fact he was a lousy worker by showing up early at the office.


In an attempt to belie the vehicle's high mileage, the car salesman turned back the speedometer on the car.


The woman hoped her excessive shopping would fool her friends and belie the truth about her empty bank account.


Because the large man wanted to belie his gentle personality, he often spoke in a rough tone of voice.


Janice hoped her smile would belie the sadness she felt.

When the editor realized the article did nothing but belie the facts about the trial, he made a hasty decision to replace the piece with an article that was more authentic.


The small size of the weapon does not belie the amount of danger it can inflict upon a person.


If you look at the porch closely, you will see that the rotten porch boards belie the stability of the house's entryway.


Kim's blonde hair and strange behavior often belie the fact she is a very intelligent woman who graduated at the top of her college class.


In order to belie the truth about his illness, Jack always pretends to be healthy and happy at work.
reflection
serious and careful thought.On reflection (= After considering it), I decided I had been wrong .After thirty years as a judge , her reflections on/about justice were well worth listening to. eg: Monasteries are austere places designed to encourage prayer and reflection.
surveillance
the careful watching of a person or place , especially by the police or army , because of a crime that has happened or is expected.More banks are now installing surveillance cameras .
indictment
a reason for giving blame;statement of accusing someone;The charges on the indictment include murder and attempted murder . The indictment that the grant jury returned today charges the defendant with numerous counts,among them:conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction resulting in death.indictment,it details what the person will stand trial for in a U.S . court of law.
stand trial
to be put on trial in a court of law.Two other men are to stand trial next month for their part in the bombing .
slightly
Someone who is slightly built is thin and delicate .Arthur,a sightly built young man,has a disinclination to participate in sports involving physical contact.
slightly
Someone who is slightly built is thin and delicate .Arthur,a sightly built young man,has a disinclination to participate in sports involving physical contact.
delicate
needing careful treatment , especially because easily damaged.Molly's health has always been delicate (= She becomes ill easily ).Delicate plants need to be kept in a greenhouse during the winter .
eg:President Abraham Lincoln feared that if Kentucky seceded, Missouri and Maryland might withdraw from the Union, too. The Confederacy would then become too powerful to fight, he thought.

President Lincoln wanted Kentucky firmly on the side of the Union. But he decided not to put Kentucky under military rule, as he had done in Maryland. Historian Amy Murrell Taylor says Lincoln wanted to treat the situation "delicately."

"It's about maintaining that support of Kentuckians."

Lincoln sent people to Kentucky to urge newspapers to publish pro-union statements. Lincoln's administration also provided weapons and supplies for home guard forces -- local, pro-Union militias.
delicately
delicate.delicate situation/matter/point, etc.
a situation or matter, etc. that needs to be dealt with carefully in order to avoid trouble or offence.
I need to speak to you about a rather delicate matter.
The pay negotiations have reached a delicate point/stage.
Teachers need to strike a delicate (= carefully achieved) balance between instructing their pupils and letting them discover things for themselves.
delicately.adverb.
I thought you handled the situation very delicately (= in a way that avoided causing offence).
The pudding was delicately flavoured with vanilla.
eg:President Lincoln wanted Kentucky firmly on the side of the Union. But he decided not to put Kentucky under military rule, as he had done in Maryland. Historian Amy Murrell Taylor says Lincoln wanted to treat the situation "delicately."
infantry
the part of an army that fights on foot.The infantry was/were sent into battle . eg: We're talking about a considerable number of forces, at least, from what I understand, five infantry brigades, a large amount of armored tanks, combat engineers, and of course they're all supported by aerial drones, the navy and a good amount of artillery.
eg:When Pickett's charge began with its 13,000 troops, there were less than 6,000 Union infantry soldiers to encounter them.
brigade
[C] a large group of soldiers in an army.
smolder
burn slowly with smoke but no flame.Witness and reports say body parts and smolder debris are scattered across a charred field.
charred
burnt and black.
Mediterranean
(also the Mediterranean Sea, informal the Med) the sea surrounded by southern Europe , northern Africa and the Middle East.Italy's navy has rescued more than 1 000 migrants from multiple boats intercepted crossing the Mediterranean over the past 24 hours.they are seeking asylum in Europe and their number are growing.
feast
a special meal with very good food or a large meal for many people.
The official TAP news agency reported Thursday the attackers targeted soldiers on Mount Chaambi on the Algerian border as they were holding their sundown feast Wednesday night as part of the Ramadan Muslim holy month.
assailant
a person who attacks another person.The ministry said the assailant used automatic rifles and rocket launchers.
unmolested
ADJ If someone does something unmolested, they do it without being stopped or interfered with.Like many fugitives, he lived in Argentina unmolested for many years. Although a civil court has now ruled authorities cannot use force to disperse demonstrators, many protesters are skeptical they will be unmolested.
unmolested
ADJ If someone does something unmolested, they do it without being stopped or interfered with.Like many fugitives, he lived in Argentina unmolested for many years. Although a civil court has now ruled authorities cannot use force to disperse demonstrators, many protesters are skeptical they will be unmolested.
doll
a child's toy in the shape of a small person or baby
doll
a child's toy in the shape of a small person or baby
pajamas
US for pyjamas. soft loose clothing which is worn in bed and consists of trousers and a type of shirt. pyjama bottoms (= trousers )
a pyjama top.loose trousers that are tied around the waist and worn by men and women in some Asian countries.I need a new pair of pyjamas.
pajamas
US for pyjamas. soft loose clothing which is worn in bed and consists of trousers and a type of shirt. pyjama bottoms (= trousers )
a pyjama top.loose trousers that are tied around the waist and worn by men and women in some Asian countries.I need a new pair of pyjamas.
jumper
UK (US sweater) a piece of clothing made from wool which covers the upper part of the body and the arms , and which does not open at the front.US a dress which does not cover the arms and is usually worn over another piece of clothing which does cover the arms
jumper
UK (US sweater) a piece of clothing made from wool which covers the upper part of the body and the arms , and which does not open at the front.US a dress which does not cover the arms and is usually worn over another piece of clothing which does cover the arms
broccoli
a vegetable with a thick green stem and a tree-like dark green top.
broccoli
a vegetable with a thick green stem and a tree-like dark green top.
repell
to force something or someone to move away or stop attacking you.After a third day of Israeli ground operations in the Gaza Strip, Israeli soldiers Saturday said they repelled a cross-border tunnel raid and uncovered more than a dozen tunnels into Israeli.
shell
o fire shells at something.
Shelling of enemy lines continued all day .
Palestinian medics report that more Israeli air strikes and shelling have killed 25 more Palestinians.
defy
to refuse to obey a person , decision , law , situation , etc .As Israel continued its ground offensive in Gaza, 1000s of pro-Palestinian protesters marched against the violence in cities across France, defying a government ban on the demonstrators.
synagogue
a building in which Jewish people worship and study their religion.Authorities had banned protests in many French cities because of the violence last week at a similar protest in Paris which included attacks on a pair of synagogues.
eg:Israeli police say two Palestinians have killed at least four rabbis and wounded six others in an attack at a Jewish holy place in Jerusalem. Police killed the two attackers.

The attack took place at a synagogue in West Jerusalem. The synagogue is in a Jewish neighborhood with a large number of Western immigrants.
grenade
a small bomb thrown by hand or shot from a gun.Security officials in Egypt say gunmen armed with rocket-propelled grenades have killed at least 20 guards near the border with Libya.
napkin
a small square piece of cloth or paper used while you are eating for protecting your clothes or to clean your mouth or fingers
Please put napkins on the table,Victor!
silly
showing little thought or judgment; foolish.
My silly victor he forgets everything.
sitcom
a situation comedy.
I'm sure sitcom is becoming easier.
possessive adjectives
we are going to see possessive adjectives in english
masculine
having characteristics that are traditionally thought to be typical of or suitable for men.
a masculine appearance/voice.
his for masculine.
feminine
acting, or having qualities which are traditionally considered to be suitable for a woman.
The current style in evening wear is soft, romantic and feminine.
her is for feminine.
plural
The possessive adjectives never change ,they stay the same whether the noun is singular or plural.my book,my books,OK?
industrious
having the characteristic of regularly working hard.an industrious worker.She's extremely competent and industrious.How industrious.
serious
Are you ready for some serious studying?
scarf
a strip, square or triangle of cloth, worn around the neck, head or shoulders to keep you warm or to make you look attractive.a knitted/woollen/silk scarf.
eg:Witnesses said a second man may have been working with the shooter. The shooter and another man wore scarves of the same design on their heads.
gorgeous
very beautiful or pleasant.
What a gorgeous room/dress/colour!
The bride looked gorgeous.
The weather was so gorgeous.
She's always gorgeously dressed.
she has gorgeous red hair and she was a very good friend of mine.
provocative
causing an angry reaction, usually intentionally.a provocative question/remark.In a deliberately provocative speech, she criticised the whole system of government.

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry is in Burma, also known as Myanmar, for talks with Southeast Asian foreign ministers about tensions in the South China Sea and other multilateral issues.

Kerry began the day Saturday by meeting with the senior diplomats from members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, assembled in the administrative capital of Naypyidaw for an annual security conference.

The United States had submitted a proposal for a freeze on provocative acts in the disputed region. However, the ASEAN members say they have not discussed the plan because they signed an agreement with China on "self restraint" in 2002.

Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi accused the U.S. of exaggerating the dispute and repeated that China has a right to safeguard its own sovereignty.

China claims sovereignty over almost all of the South China Sea. However, ASEAN member states Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam also claim parts of the sea. Taiwan also has claims in the area.

The delegates say it is up to ASEAN to deal directly with China on any sovereignty disputes.
multilateral
involving more than two groups or countries.Seven countries are taking part in the multilateral talks..U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry is in Burma, also known as Myanmar, for talks with Southeast Asian foreign ministers about tensions in the South China Sea and other multilateral issues.
mosque
a building for Islamic religious activities and worship.
Hamas fighters in Gaza fired rockets across the border, sending residents of southern Israel running for bomb shelters. Israeli military sources said Israeli warplanes hit mosques, weapons depots and training facilities in Gaza.
deal a blow to
deal a blow to sb/sth (also deal sb/sth a blow).to cause someone or something, usually a plan or hope, to fail or to be affected very badly:
The latest trade figures have dealt a severe blow to hopes of an early economic recovery.
The fighting which resumed Friday after a three-day pause in the month-long war dealt a blow to Egyptian-led efforts to secure a long-term cease-fire between the bitter enemies.
indiscriminately
not showing careful thought or planning, especially so that harm results
an indiscriminate terrorist attack on civilians
An Israeli government spokesman said Hamas fighters have been indiscriminately targeting civilians.
"Hamas has indiscriminately targeted men, women and children. And in so doing, Hamas has not only shown its total disregard for Israeli life, but has shown it has no qualms whatsoever about once again endangering and bringing tragedy upon the civilian population of Gaza," said Regev.
qualm
an uncomfortable feeling of doubt about whether you are doing the right thing
She had no qualms about lying to the police.
lift
to end a rule or law
The restrictions on water usage have been lifted now that the river levels are normal.
At last they've lifted the ban on jeans at the club.
lift the ban.
to impose/lift a curfew.
Hamas says it will not stop fighting until Israel lifts its seven-year blockade of Gaza. Israel says it will end the blockade only after Gaza is de-militarized, a condition Hamas rejects.

Hamas denied firing rockets first. It said Israel failed to meet its demands at cease-fire talks in Cairo, namely the lifting of a crippling blockade on Gaza and construction of a seaport. Hamas spokesman Hussam Badran says now the group is playing by different rules.
categorical
without any doubt or possibility of being changed; certain.
a categorical statement/reply/assurance.

Badran says Hamas is negotiating with a finger on the trigger, and will not raise the white flag.

Israel has categorically rejected Hamas's demand for a seaport, saying it will not allow Gaza to be flooded with weapons. Israeli officials also say they will not negotiate under fire.

The Israeli blockade of Gaza has choked the Gazan economy and kept Palestinians from traveling.

U.S. President Barack Obama says Gaza cannot sustain itself and is not capable of providing jobs and economic growth. He says the territory cannot remain permanently closed off from the world.
cast in one's lot with
to join with voluntarily and share the fortunes of.to choose to share in whatever happens to another person or a group If I'm going to cast my lot with this team, I'm going to try to make them as good as possible any way I can.
After a period of observation, Yelu Deguang finally concluded that Shi Jingtang had indeed cast in his lot with him.
cast in one's lot with
to join with voluntarily and share the fortunes of.to choose to share in whatever happens to another person or a group If I'm going to cast my lot with this team, I'm going to try to make them as good as possible any way I can.
After a period of observation, Yelu Deguang finally concluded that Shi Jingtang had indeed cast in his lot with him.
bearing
.a person's way of standing or moving.
"a man of precise military bearing"
synonyms:posture, stance, carriage, gait, deportment;
He said to Shi,"I haven't traveled three thousand li to rescue you in vain.I believe you have the bearing and aura to be ruler of the Central Plains.I'll make you Emperor.
bearing
.a person's way of standing or moving.
"a man of precise military bearing"
synonyms:posture, stance, carriage, gait, deportment;
He said to Shi,"I haven't traveled three thousand li to rescue you in vain.I believe you have the bearing and aura to be ruler of the Central Plains.I'll make you Emperor.
prefecture
a political region or local government area in some countries, for example Japan, France, and Italy.
Upon his accession Shijingtang immediately ceded the sixteen prefectures to the Khitans,as promised.
prefecture
a political region or local government area in some countries, for example Japan, France, and Italy.
Upon his accession Shijingtang immediately ceded the sixteen prefectures to the Khitans,as promised.
indignity
a loss of respect or self-respect, or something which causes this
They were subjected to various indignities and discomforts, including having to get dressed and undressed in public.
Whenever any of the Khitan bigwigs was less than satisfied,they would immediately send Shi Jingtang messengers to take hime to task,and Shi would unfailingly give abject and reverent apologies.Envoys of the Jin would frequently suffer indignities and insults from the insolent Khitan officials who received them.This humiliating experience would be recounted back in the capital Bian.The entire Jin court felt the pain of humiliation,except Shi Jingtang,who remained unconcerned and unaffected.
indignity
a loss of respect or self-respect, or something which causes this
They were subjected to various indignities and discomforts, including having to get dressed and undressed in public.
Whenever any of the Khitan bigwigs was less than satisfied,they would immediately send Shi Jingtang messengers to take hime to task,and Shi would unfailingly give abject and reverent apologies.Envoys of the Jin would frequently suffer indignities and insults from the insolent Khitan officials who received them.This humiliating experience would be recounted back in the capital Bian.The entire Jin court felt the pain of humiliation,except Shi Jingtang,who remained unconcerned and unaffected.
crack
to make a joke or clever remark.He's always cracking jokes.
We were surprised to see our usually serious math teacher in a jocular mood,cracking jokes a -mile-a-minute.
cut to the chase
to talk about or deal with the important parts of a subject and not waste time with things that are not important
I didn't have long to talk so I cut to the chase and asked whether he was still married.
break the bank
to use up all one's money. (Alludes to casino gambling, in the rare event when a gambler wins more money than the house has on hand.) It will hardly break the bank if we go out to dinner just once. Buying a new dress at a discount price won't break the bank.
meteor shower
A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky.
The yearly Perseid meteor shower will reach peak intensity in the skies over Earth on the night of August 12 and 13. Although the moon will be unusually bright, there should still be a good show from this famous meteor shower.
Much of the world will be able to see the Perseids after the sky becomes fully dark. The best viewing time is expected to take place early on the morning of August 13, between 3:00 to 4:00 a.m. your local time. Addtional information can be found from the NASA website.
meteor
n. a piece of rock or metal that burns and glows brightly in the sky as it falls from outer space into the Earth's atmosphere.
eg: The meteor was obliterated when it collided with the Moon.
meteorite
n. a meteor that reaches the surface of the earth without being completely destroyed
sensor
n. a device that responds to a physical stimulus such as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion and then sends a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control)
This commission controls sensors and other equipment that watch for possible violations of the Nuclear Test ban treaty. Some of the devices are seismic, meaning they measure the movement of the Earth. Others are hydroacoustic, meaning they measure the sounds in the Earth's oceans. The Commission also uses ultrasound and radionuclide sensors.
seismic
adj. of or relating to earthquakes or other vibrations of the earth and its crust
ultrasound
n. a method of producing images by using a machine that produces sound waves which are too high to be heard
ailment
an illness.Treat minor ailments yourself.
Most medicines that can be bought over the counter only mitigate the effects of an ailment,they don't cure ailment itself.
haunting
beautiful, but in a sad way and often in a way which cannot be forgotten.
a haunting melody.
the haunting beauty of Africa
poignant
causing or having a very sharp feeling of sadness.
The photograph awakens poignant memories of happier days.
It is especially poignant that he died on the day before the wedding.
The poem has a haunting poignancy.
Eg: The poignant fruits of a prison courtyard.
On South Africa's Robben Island, famous for its jail, volunteers are harvesting vines planted in a garden once tended by its most famous inmate, Nelson Mandela.
Over the years many people have been accused of trying to cash in on the Mandela brand but the participants in this scheme see it as a way of cherishing his memory.
poignancy
The poem has a haunting poignancy.
inmate
prisoner.a person who is kept in a prison or a hospital for people who are mentally ill.
The poignant fruits of a prison courtyard.
On South Africa's Robben Island, famous for its jail, volunteers are harvesting vines planted in a garden once tended by its most famous inmate, Nelson Mandela.
Over the years many people have been accused of trying to cash in on the Mandela brand but the participants in this scheme see it as a way of cherishing his memory.
tended by
looked after by.
On South Africa's Robben Island, famous for its jail, volunteers are harvesting vines planted in a garden once tended by its most famous inmate, Nelson Mandela.
cherish
1. to love, protect and care for someone or something that is important to you
Freedom of speech is a cherished (= carefully protected) right in this country.
2.to keep hopes, memories or ideas in your mind because they are important to you and bring you pleasure
I cherish the memories of the time we spent together.
The poignant fruits of a prison courtyard.
On South Africa's Robben Island, famous for its jail, volunteers are harvesting vines planted in a garden once tended by its most famous inmate, Nelson Mandela.
Over the years many people have been accused of trying to cash in on the Mandela brand but the participants in this scheme see it as a way of cherishing his memory.
take on
to compete against, oppose, or fight: I will take him on at tennis; I'll take him on any time.
Friday, European Union governments agreed to support individual country decisions to arm Kurdish fighters taking on Islamist State militants in Iraq. They also offered strong backing for the new Iraqi government.
rear admiral
an officer of very high rank in the navy
The Pentagon says Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoygu has assured U.S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel that no Russian military personnel are part of a humanitarian convoy that is being inspected at the Ukraine border.
Pentagon Press Secretary Rear Admiral John Kirby said Friday the two discussed the situation in Ukraine by phone on Friday.
Meanwhile, Russia is denying reports that a column of Russian military vehicles crossed into eastern Ukraine late Thursday and was destroyed by Ukrainian troops. Jamie Dettmer has more.
Ukraine's President said Friday, his country's armed forces had destroyed part of a Russian military column that had crossed the border in an escalation of the conflict over Ukraine's breakaway eastern regions.
The self-styled prime minister for the Donetsk People's Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, tells VOA the claim is untrue and the pro-Moscow separatists hit a Ukrainian military column, seizing weapons in the clash.
eg:Barack Obama faces many challenges as he enters his final two years as president. In December, Mr. Obama marked the end of America's longest war.

"After more than 13 years, our combat mission in Afghanistan will be over."

But the Department of Defense says that does not mean America will no longer help Afghanistan. Rear Admiral John Kirby is a department spokesman. He spoke to reporters before 2014 ended.

"It's not like on December 31st we're just gonna walk away. We aren't. We're going to remain."
breakaway
an act of separating from a group, especially because of disagreement.
The sports association accepted the inevitability of a breakaway by the elite clubs.
The breakaway group formed a new political party.
Ukraine's President said Friday, his country's armed forces had destroyed part of a Russian military column that had crossed the border in an escalation of the conflict over Ukraine's breakaway eastern regions.
The self-styled prime minister for the Donetsk People's Republic, Alexander Zakharchenko, tells VOA the claim is untrue and the pro-Moscow separatists hit a Ukrainian military column, seizing weapons in the clash.
yet
still; until the present time.
Thousands of anti-government protesters gathered in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, late Friday to protest the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.
The protests led by opposition leader Imran Khan and Muslim cleric Tahir ul-Qadri constitute the biggest challenge yet to Mr. Sharif's year-old government.
Khan and Qadri say the government is corrupt.
cache
a hidden store of things, or the place where they are kept:
an arms cache
a cache of explosives/weapons/drugs
Residents in the Wadajir neighborhood of southwest Mogadishu were awakened Friday by heavy gunfire.
Colonel Ali Aden Humad, a spokesman for the African Union force AMISOM, told VOA his troops and Somali forces were trying to secure an arms cache near the home of former warlord Ahmed Hassan Adow when Adow's militia attacked.
"So what happened is when we decided to come to that target, some militia fired on AMISOM troops."
The ex-warlord, also known as Ahmed Da'i, told VOA's Somali service the clashes began when government forces attacked his home before dawn.
veteran
a person who has had a lot of experience of a particular activity.
Police in the U.S. state of Missouri say the unarmed black teenager whose shooting death by a police officer sparked days of protests was a robbery suspect.
The police chief of the town of Ferguson, Thomas Jackson, identified the officer who shot and killed Brown as Darren Wilson, a 6-year veteran of the force with no disciplinary record.
eg:War veteran realises dream by voting for independence
revelation
when something is made known that was secret, or a fact that is made known.
VOA senior analyst Andre de Nesnera joins On Assignment's Philip Alexiou to discuss the lingering effects of the revelations by U.S. intelligence leaker Edward Snowden.
curfew
a rule that everyone must stay at home between particular times, usually at night, especially during a war or a period of political trouble.
to impose/lift a curfew.
He was shot for breaking (= not obeying) the curfew.
Angry protesters again took to the streets in Ferguson, Missouri, late Sunday, following the shooting death of an unarmed black teenager by a white police officer.
Television footage showed heavily armed police officers apparently firing tear gas at the protesters who tried marching toward them.

The police are preparing to enforce a curfew for the second straight night. The curfew begins at midnight local time and runs until 5 a.m.
autopsy
the cutting open and examination of a dead body in order to discover the cause of death.
The body arrived for autopsy at the Dallas hospital.
in a timely fashion
It means in a reasonable, acceptable mount of time. For example, if a friend calls you and you don't call them back for a week, you did not call back in a timely fashion.
The phrase in timely fashion means quickly, promptly, within a reasonable time frame. One might also hear in a timely manner, which has the same meaning.
Asked on CNN's program State of the Union on Sunday how long the curfew in the St. Louis suburb would continue, Nixon said the duration would be "judged by the community."

Nixon also said on Sunday that he appreciates the parallel investigation into the police shooting death that is being conducted by the U.S. Justice Department.

"I think that having the dual investigations will guarantee that it gets done in a timely fashion, that it's done thoroughly and that it gets justice," Nixon said.

Earlier Sunday, scores of demonstrators had remained in the streets after the curfew took effect.

Law enforcement officials used loudspeakers to warn protesters to disperse immediately. Officers, equipped with gas masks and full-length shields, stood among and on top of armored vehicles.

Nixon said Saturday the state of emergency was not to silence people but to contain a handful of looters who are endangering the community.
handful
an amount of something that can be held in one hand
He pulled out a handful of coins from his pocket.
loot
(usually of large numbers of people during a violent event) to steal from shops and houses
During the riot shops were looted and cars damaged or set on fire.
Nixon said Saturday the state of emergency was not to silence people but to contain a handful of looters who are endangering the community.
contain
to keep something harmful within limits and not allow it to spread.
ore police were sent to help contain the violence.
Nixon said Saturday the state of emergency was not to silence people but to contain a handful of looters who are endangering the community.
trooper
a soldier who belongs to the lowest rank in the part of an army that fights in strong military vehicles or on horses.
State trooper in charge.
canister
a metal, usually cylindrical, container for gases or dry things.
The police fired tear gas canisters into the crowd.
Missouri State Highway Patrol Captain Ron Johnson, who was named by the governor this week to oversee security in the town, said protesters weren't the reason for the escalated police reaction early Sunday morning.

Johnson said they responded strongly Sunday out of fear for officers' safety.

Johnson said canisters of smoke and later tear gas were fired as part of police attempts to reach the victim of a shooting at a restaurant, "and not in relation to the curfew."

The person shot at a restaurant during the night was in critical condition, Johnson said. Police were unable to identify the victim, whom Johnson said was not shot by police.

The wounded person was taken to hospital by bystanders before police could reach him.

Johnson also said someone had shot at a passing police car but was not apprehended.

He said a city curfew will run each night from midnight until 5 a.m. until further notice.

The governor told CNN on Sunday tensions in Ferguson were likely to remain high, citing the community response as "raw and appropriate."
incendiary
adjective (CAUSING ANGER) likely to cause violence or strong feelings of anger
incendiary remarks
"I think it had an incendiary effect," he said on CBS' Face the Nation, adding police "clearly are attempting to besmirch a victim of a shooting."
besmirch
to say bad things about someone to influence other people's opinion of them.
His accusations were false, but they served to besmirch her reputation.
"I think it had an incendiary effect," he said on CBS' Face the Nation, adding police "clearly are attempting to besmirch a victim of a shooting."
assassinate
murder (an important person) in a surprise attack for political or religious reasons.
synonyms:murder, kill, slaughter;
"I think it had an incendiary effect," he said on CBS' Face the Nation, adding police "clearly are attempting to besmirch a victim of a shooting."
Attorney Ben Crump, who is representing Brown's family, said in a statement issued on Friday that the family was "beyond outraged" at the police attempts to "assassinate the character of their son."
eg: a plot to assassinate the Queen.
eg: Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in the spring. That is the time of year when lilac plants burst into flower throughout much of the United States.
anonymity
when someone's name is not given or known.
frankly
1.in an honest and direct way

She spoke very frankly about her experiences.
2.used when giving an honest and direct opinion, often one that might upset someone
Quite frankly, I think this whole situation is ridiculous.
That's a frankly absurd suggestion.
"Quite frankly we disagree deeply. I think for two reasons, number one to attempt, in essence, to disparage the character of this victim in the middle of a process like this is not right. It's just not right. And secondarily, it did put the community and quite frankly the region and the nation on alert again," Nixon said.
disparage
to criticize someone or something in a way that shows you do not respect or value them.

Brown's family and supporters have demanded for days that the officer who shot Brown be held accountable.

The U.S. Department of Justice is investigating the shooting for any civil rights violations, and the St. Louis County Police department is also investigating the shooting.

For days, police repeatedly refused to identify the officer involved, citing concerns for his safety. On Friday, Ferguson Police Chief Tom Jackson gave in to community pressure and identified Darren Wilson, 28, as the officer involved.

But at the same time, Jackson added to the community's outrage when he announced Brown had been a suspect in the robbery of a convenience store at the time he was shot.

Jackson later told a news conference that when Wilson shot Brown, the officer did not know the teen was a suspect in the robbery. There was no connection between the shooting and the alleged robbery, Jackson said.

Nixon said the release of the video was "not right."

"Quite frankly we disagree deeply. I think for two reasons, number one to attempt, in essence, to disparage the character of this victim in the middle of a process like this is not right. It's just not right. And secondarily, it did put the community and quite frankly the region and the nation on alert again," Nixon said.

"I think it had an incendiary effect," he said on CBS' Face the Nation, adding police "clearly are attempting to besmirch a victim of a shooting."
Attorney Ben Crump, who is representing Brown's family, said in a statement issued on Friday that the family was "beyond outraged" at the police attempts to "assassinate the character of their son."
Other law enforcement agencies have criticized the Ferguson police department for trying to make the alleged robbery an issue connected to the shooting, and for releasing a video from inside the store that shows Brown violently shoving a store clerk before he walks out the door.

The U.S. Justice Department asked Ferguson police on Thursday not to release the video, out of a concern it would roil the community further, but on Friday it was released over the objections of federal officials, said a law enforcement official speaking on condition of anonymity.
lie with
lie with someone if something such as responsibility or blame for something lies with someone, they are responsible for it or they should be blamed for it
There is evidence to suggest that some blame lies with the police.
if something such as power or a decision lies with someone, they have power or the right to make a decision
Unfortunately, the decision doesn't lie with our department.
eg:
Lance Armstrong, the former cycling champion, has admitted to using drugs to improve his performance for the first time. In an interview with Oprah Winfrey on her OWN Network, Armstrong said he had used drugs during all seven of his Tour de France wins, from 1999 to 2005. From Washington, here's the BBC's correspondent Ben Wright:
The confession took a long time to come. Despite being stripped of his Tour de France titles last year following a doping investigation, Lance Armstrong always denied cheating.
But he had been lying. The 41-year-old American cyclist told Oprah Winfrey he used performance enhancing drugs in every Tour de France contest he won.
He took banned substances and used blood transfusions to boost his performance. Without them, he said, it wouldn't have been possible to win.
Armstrong said he kept repeating "one big lie" and conceded that his admission would be "too late" for most people. "All the fault and all the blame lies with me," Lance Armstrong said.
But he claimed his actions had not felt like cheating at the time and denied having pressurised other members of his team to dope.
pressurize
UK usually pressurise.to strongly persuade someone to do something they do not want to do
He was pressurized into signing the agreement.
slogan
a short easily remembered phrase, especially one used to advertise an idea or a product.
a campaign slogan.
Without a coherent set of policies to persuade the electorate, the Republicans have resorted to sloganeering and empty rhetoric.
warrant
to make a particular activity necessary.
Obviously what she did was wrong, but I don't think it warranted quite such severe punishment.
It's a relatively simple task that really doesn't warrant a great deal of time being spent on it.
eg:Daniel Russel is the top United States diplomat for East Asia. He says China's temporary deployment of an oil platform in disputed waters has increased tension in the area.

"China, as a large and powerful nation, has a special responsibility to show restraint. There is a big footprint that comes with military strength and it warrants setting your feet very, very carefully -- treading very gingerly when you are in a sensitive area."

Secretary of State John Kerry plans to attend the conference in Myanmar. A U.S. diplomat says Secretary Kerry will urge China and its neighbors to agree to voluntarily end actions that increase tensions in the South China Sea.
stagnate
to stay the same and not grow or develop
The electronics industry is showing signs of stagnating after 15 years of tremendous growth.
eg: It makes sense that the U.S. government and American firms would want to invest in Africa, given that it is home to 7 of the 10 fastest growing economies in the world over the past 10 years. But while Thursday's announcement represents a step forward for American engagement in the region, it pales in comparison to what China is doing, especially when you take into account the fact that the U.S. economy is still twice as large as China's.

China surpassed the U.S. as Africa's largest trade partner right around the time of the financial crisis, and trade between China and Africa has increased ever since. Trade between Africa and the U.S., on the other hand, has stagnated, as you can see in the chart below from Yun Sun, a fellow at the Brookings Institution who focuses on China's relations with Africa.
eg:Pakistan's adviser on the economy, Sartaj Aziz, hopes new investments from China will help Pakistan's economy.

"So this investment over an 8-10 year period of $4 billion a year, would certainly step up the investment rate, GDP ration as well as growth rate, which has somehow stagnated between three and four percent for the last seven, eight years."
in tandem
1.at the same time
The heart and lungs will be transplanted in tandem.
2. If two pieces of equipment, people, etc. are working in tandem, they are working together, especially well or closely
I want these two groups to work/operate in tandem on this project.
eg:This is in stark contrast with the sort of rhetoric that the president himself has used, as he has often talked about the need to "win the future" by out-educating, out-innovating, and out-competing the Indians and the Chinese. And it's not just the Obama Administration that likes to paint China as a competitor rather than a collaborator, as American politicians tend to describe the world in stark, competitive terms during election season and during high profile events like the State of the Union. But the president appears to understand that the world is a bit more complicated than an economic football game. The above quote suggests that he believes that African economic development would be good for America even if it's not American firms doing the development, as a vibrant Africa could be an excellent destination for American exports.
China, for its part, has approached the U.S. to work in tandem on infrastructure and development projects in Africa.
behoove
behove.it behoves sb to
It is right for someone to do something.
It ill behoves you to (= You should not) speak so rudely of your parents.
eg;China, for its part, has approached the U.S. to work in tandem on infrastructure and development projects in Africa.
That being said, it would behoove Americans for U.S. companies to invest even more in Africa. Studies show that firms that invest abroad are more likely to spend money and create jobs at home as well. Furthermore, American companies are likely to export more to countries with which they already have a history of partnership.
tactic
[C usually plural] a planned way of doing something
These bomb attacks represent a change of tactics by the terrorists.
vis-a-vis
1.in relation to
I've got to speak to James Lewis vis-a-vis the arrangements for Thursday.
2. in comparison with
The decline in the power of local authorities vis-a-vis central government is worrying.

eg:
Al Haj Abdur Rashid is a community activist and Islamic religious leader -- an imam. He is the president of the Islamic Leadership Council of Metropolitan New York. He says the lack of trust between police and black and poor people in America is not new. He says it has existed since the time of the Civil War -- the mid 1800s.

"Anyone who studies American history, there has always been a consistent national problem between law enforcement and its abusive tactics vis-a-vis people of color generally and poor people in particular. And law enforcement still hasn't gotten it right."
cyborg
in science fiction stories, a creature that is part human and part machine.
Researchers are trying to develop ways for humans and computers to work together more closely. Someday, humans and computers may be joined. The combination of a human and a computer is called a cyborg.

Jonathan Mugan has written a book about the relationship between humans and computers, called "The Curiosity Cycle." He told VOA by email that it is time to prepare for a future where computers have more control over our lives.
curiosity
an eager wish to know or learn about something.
to arouse/excite/satisfy someone's curiosity
I'm burning with curiosity - you must tell me who's won!
She decided to call her ex-boyfriend out of curiosity.
"Why do you ask?" "Oh, just idle curiosity (= for no particular reason)."
neuron
a nerve cell that carries information between the brain and other parts of the body.
synapse
the point at which electrical signals move from one nerve cell to another.
The American computer company IBM says it has developed a microprocessor -- a computer chip -- that works much like the human brain.

IBM calls the chip TrueNorth. It is the size of a postage stamp. The chip has 5.4 billion tiny parts that work like the human brain's neurons and synapses. Neurons and synapses are the cells and electric forces that carry messages to and from the brain.

TrueNorth has 1 million neurons and 256 million synapses. The human brain has 100 billion neurons and up to 150 trillion synapses. IBM says it can program the new chip to understand difficult problems and then solve them as humans would.
sectarian
(a person) strongly supporting a particular religious group, especially in such a way as not to be willing to accept other beliefs.
Sectarian means having something to do with groups or sects. Sectarian violence is the term commonly used to describe fighting among groups or sects.
He called on terrorists on both sides of the sectarian divide to end the cycle of violence.
intestine
(either of the two parts of) a long tube through which food travels from the stomach and out of the body while it is being digested.
His younger brother and sister died of the intestinal disease diarrhea that could have been treated. But no medicine or hospital was available.
mortar
a large gun with a short wide barrel (= part shaped like a tube) which fires bombs or other explosives very high into the air, or an explosive device shot from such a gun.
Mortar Bombs Land in Saudi Arabia Near Iraq Border
racial
1. happening between people of different races
racial discrimination/prejudice
He had a vision of a society living in racial harmony.
2.connected with someone's race
They are members of a racial minority.
The racial violence in the city of Ferguson, Missouri is an important issue for Barack Obama, the first African-American president. Mr. Obama has asked protestors to stop fighting with police. And he has called for calm and understanding. But violent protests continue.
harmony
a pleasant musical sound made by different notes being played or sung at the same time
singing in harmony
It is a simple melody with complex harmonies.
Attorney General
the top legal officer in some countries, who advises the leader of the government.
eg:
The protestors are angry about the shooting death of an unarmed black teenager by a white police officer. Darren Wilson killed Michael Brown on August 9th.

The president returned to the White House this week in the middle of a planned vacation. He met with Attorney General Eric Holder. Mr. Holder is leading the federal civil rights investigation of the shooting. After the meeting, the president spoke about the problems of race relations in America.

"To a community in Ferguson that is rightly hurting and looking for answers, let me call once again for us to seek some understanding rather than simply holler at each other. Let's seek to heal rather than to wound each other. As Americans we've gotta use this moment to seek our shared humanity that's been laid bare by this moment."
eg: Caleb Cushing of Massachusetts was named Attorney General. Although a northerner, Cushing was a friend of many southerners. He was a very able man, but his loyalties were not clear. James Buchanan of Pennsylvania was named Minister to Britain.
holler
to shout loudly.
He was hollering something about seeing a snake.
He let out a holler as he fell.
"To a community in Ferguson that is rightly hurting and looking for answers, let me call once again for us to seek some understanding rather than simply holler at each other. Let's seek to heal rather than to wound each other. As Americans we've gotta use this moment to seek our shared humanity that's been laid bare by this moment."
soy sauce
a strong-tasting dark brown liquid made from fermented soya beans and used especially in Chinese and Japanese cooking.

There is good reason for the popularity of salt: It can add to the taste of food. And it protects against loss of needed body fluids during extreme heat.

But a new study finds more than 99 percent of the adult population of the world eats too much salt. The World Health Organization says people in many places use twice as much salt as they need. The World Health Organization warns especially about too much use of soy sauce, spicy meat dishes and processed food. And it says pouring a lot of salt on food over long periods can lead to death.
cardiovascular
relating to the heart and blood vessels (= tubes that carry blood around the body)
cardiovascular disease
Researchers from Tufts University in Massachusetts studied people from 181 countries where information was available. They found that they used an average of 3.95 grams of sodium each day in 2010. The WHO suggests that people use no more than two grams of sodium.

An estimated 1.65 million people die every year from overuse of sodium. The study noted that 40 percent of those deaths happen in people younger than age 70. The great majority of early deaths happened among people from non-wealthy countries.

But there is some good news from the study.

People in Kenya, Cameroon and Gabon used the least salt. And Kenya had the lowest death rate from heart disease and stroke.

The country of Georgia reported the highest rate of death from cardiovascular problems. Almost 2,000 of every million of the country's people died from heart and arterial diseases.

Dr. Dariush Mozzafarian led the Tufts study. He notes the rates of stroke are huge throughout China, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
artery
one of the thick tubes that carry blood from the heart to other parts of the body
Hardening of the coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack.

The country of Georgia reported the highest rate of death from cardiovascular problems. Almost 2,000 of every million of the country's people died from heart and arterial diseases.

Dr. Dariush Mozzafarian led the Tufts study. He notes the rates of stroke are huge throughout China, Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
coronary
an extremely dangerous medical condition in which the flow of blood to the heart is blocked by a blood clot (= a mass of blood)
He's in hospital after having a coronary last week.
catastrophe
a sudden event that causes very great trouble or destruction.
They were warned of the ecological catastrophe to come.
n. a terrible disaster; a momentous tragic event.
eg: United States officials are considering several plans designed to help religious minorities in northern Iraq.
Islamic State militants captured the area during the night. The militants asked the Yazidis, a minority Christian group, to accept Islam, leave their homes or face death. The Islamic State was formerly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

As many as 40,000 people are reported trapped on a mountaintop in northern Iraq. They have little food or water.
A spokesman for President Barack Obama said "the situation is nearing a humanitarian catastrophe." But the spokesman noted, "there are no American military solutions to the problems in Iraq."
eg: Russian President Vladimir Putin once described the fall of the Soviet Union as the "greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century."

Dmitri Trenin, director of the Carnegie Moscow Center, says there are important differences in the thinking of modern Russians.

"The fall of the Soviet Union (was), unlike the collapse of Communism - those are two different things. The fall of the Soviet Union was seen as a catastrophe by a lot of people. It was not so much the empire that collapsed, but the entire order, the welfare state, the way of life."
unveil
1.to remove a covering like a curtain from a new statue, etc. at a formal ceremony in order to show the opening or finishing of a new building or work of art
The memorial to those who had died in the war was unveiled in 1948 by the Queen.
eg: Iraqi Forces Battle Extremists as UN Unveils Relief Operation
2. If you unveil something new, you show it or make it known for the first time
A new government policy on forests is due to be unveiled in April.
eg: Indonesian President Joko Widodo shakes hands with members of his new cabinet after they were unveiled at the presidential palace in Jakarta, Oct. 26, 2014.
dam
a wall built across a river which stops the river's flow and collects the water, especially to make a reservoir (= an artificial lake) which provides water for an area
The Aswan High Dam is on the River Nile in Egypt.
eg: Iraqi and Kurdish forces backed by U.S. aircraft battled Sunni extremists in northern Iraq Tuesday, as the United Nations prepared a massive aide operation for hundreds of thousands of civilian refugees.
A day after retaking control of the country's biggest dam near Mosul, Iraqi forces pressed toward the northern city of Tikrit, where witnesses said they met stiff resistance from Islamic state fighters. Authorities said the Iraqi advance stalled by mid-afternoon Tuesday.
stiff
firm or hard.
not easily bent or moved.
If you are stiff or part of your body is stiff, your muscles hurt when they are moved.
Sitting still at a computer terminal all day can give you a stiff neck.
A day after retaking control of the country's biggest dam near Mosul, Iraqi forces pressed toward the northern city of Tikrit, where witnesses said they met stiff resistance from Islamic state fighters. Authorities said the Iraqi advance stalled by mid-afternoon Tuesday.
Authorities say the U.N. relief operation will target an estimated 1.2 million displaced Iraqis. The operation is set to start with a four-day airlift from neighboring Jordan into the northern Iraqi Kurdish city of Irbil. It is designed to supply tents, water, fuel and other critical supplies to refugees holed up in schools, mosques and other facilities.
landmine
a bomb which is put on or under the ground and explodes when a person steps on it or a vehicle drives over it.
On Tuesday, Iraqi forces halted an advance designed to retake the hometown of executed former dictator Saddam Hussein after facing fierce resistance from Islamic State militants, officers in the operations room told Reuters.
Iraqi forces came under heavy machinegun and mortar fire south of Tikrit, while to the west landmines and snipers undermined efforts to get closer to a town they have tried to retake several times, said the officers.
Resident of central Tikrit said by telephone Islamic State fighters were firmly in control of their positions and were running patrols along main streets.
Officials said the offensive began early Tuesday.
irrigate
to supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow.
eg: The Pentagon said it carried out 15 more airstrikes Monday against Islamic State militants near the dam, destroying more of their fighting positions and weapons.

The Mosul Dam is crucial to northern Iraq, providing electricity and irrigation for much of the region.

The United States first launched airstrikes earlier this month against the insurgents, in part to prevent the killing of thousands of minority Yazidis stranded on Mount Sinjar in northern Iraq.
proverb
a short sentence, etc., usually known by many people, stating something commonly experienced or giving advice
The appetite, says the proverb, grows with eating.
There is an old Arab proverb that everything you write or speak should pass through three gates: Is this kind? Is this necessary? Is this true?
fascinating
extremely interesting.
The book offers a fascinating glimpse of the lives of the rich and famous.
I found the whole film fascinating.

Below are a few fascinating facts and findings about dreams.
Fascinating facts about the butterfly have been drawing Dr. Taylor's attention.
eg:James Polk was a very fascinating man. Very hard-working. Relentless in his pursuit of goals. He was not a particularly likable human being. He was somewhat suspicious of other people.

But he had a way of figuring out what he needed to do to accomplish what he wanted to accomplish, and he was very good at it, and that served him very well throughout his life.
sarcoma
a type of cancerous lump in the bones, muscles or joints (= places where two bones are connected)

A Chinese boy with bone cancer has become the first patient with a spinal part from a three-dimensional printer.

Twelve-year-old Qin has Ewing's sarcoma. The sometimes deadly bone cancer usually attacks children and young adults, causing severe pain.

Doctors at Beijing University removed a small part of Qin's backbone and replaced it with a 3-D printer copy. The part is made of titanium.
trophy
1.a prize, such as a gold or silver cup, which is given to the winner of a competition or race, and often returned after a year to be given to the winner of the competition in the following year
He's an excellent snooker player, but he's never won a major trophy.
The Duchess of Kent will be presenting the trophies.
2.something used as a symbol of success from hunting or war
That stuffed pike above the fireplace is Pat's trophy from a fishing holiday.
eg:Trophy Hunting Is Big Business in South Africa
poacher
someone who catches and kills animals illegally.
Asian countries, like Thailand, are fighting to contain the illegal ivory trade and the killing of elephants by illegal hunters known as poachers. However, South Africa has a tourism industry that permits people to hunt big game animals such as the elephant, rhinoceros and lion. Many people object to this blood sport. But some argue that hunting big game animals creates income needed to save the country's population of big animals.

In many sports, when you win or do well, you get a trophy. This trophy could be a medal, as in the Olympics, or it could be a cup or a small statue.

In hunting, especially big game hunting, the trophies are parts of the animal that is killed. In their homes hunters may show the skins, heads and horns of the animals they kill.
ivory
[U] the hard yellowish-white substance that forms the tusks of some animals such as elephants, used especially in the past to make decorative objects
intricately carved ivory earrings
a ban on ivory trading
intricate
having a lot of small parts or details that are arranged in a complicated way and are therefore sometimes difficult to understand, solve or produce
The watch mechanism is extremely intricate and very difficult to repair.
Police officers uncovered an intricate web of deceit.
rhinoceros
a very large thick-skinned animal from Africa or Asia, which has one or two horns on its nose
a population of black/white rhinoceros
incredibly
used for saying that something is very difficult to believe.
eg:"In an ideal world, rhinos wouldn't be under the extreme pressure they are facing today and there wouldn't be any need for trophy hunting, but the reality is that wildlife conservation is incredibly expensive."

Not every country in Africa permits trophy hunting. Kenya has had a policy against it for a long time. The Kenyan government banned the sport in 1977 describing it as a "barbaric" part of its colonial past.
traumatic
If an experience is traumatic, it causes you severe emotional shock and upset
Some of the most disturbed children had witnessed really traumatic things, such as rape and murder.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD is caused by a frightening event, either witnessed or experienced. Signs of the disorder may include depression, bad dreams and severe nervousness. Thoughts about the event may be uncontrollable.
eg:Lori Baker says that in most cases, the people died of the heat.
"There are a few traumatic things we need to look at, but, all in all, most of the individuals that we see die of heat exhaustion."
gene
a part of the DNA in a cell which contains information in a special pattern received by each animal or plant from its parents, and which controls its physical development, behaviour,
The illness is believed to be caused by a defective gene.
eg:
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD is caused by a frightening event, either witnessed or experienced. Signs of the disorder may include depression, bad dreams and severe nervousness. Thoughts about the event may be uncontrollable.

Soldiers who have seen a lot of death and destruction in armed conflict, survivors of natural disasters and rape victims often suffer from PTSD.

Even with treatment, the brain disorder is difficult to cure. But someday, a blood test may show if a person is threatened by PTSD or already suffers from it. Researchers at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York have identified a blood marker that appears linked to PTSD.

The researchers used rats and cat waste in their work. They saw a pattern of gene activity involved in the operation of the stress hormone corticosterone in the brain tissue of the rats. The activity took place after the rats smelled the urine of cats for 10 minutes. The liquid waste was in cat litter, a material that lines a waste box for indoor cats.

Loud noises caused the rats to show anxiety - fear - when they were tested. And they were easily startled. Then, the stressed rats were given corticosterone an hour after they smelled the cat litter. The researchers found that one week after seeing the litter, the treated rats showed little interest and nervousness compared to untreated rats.

Icahn scientist Nikolaos Daskalakis said Swiss doctors noted that the hormone corticosterone calmed people who received it after a car accident. He said the finding may lead to the development of a test for PTSD risk. The test would measure what is called glucocorticoid receptor activity in the blood. The receptors are genes that become "turned on" in the presence of stress.

Corticosterone is produced naturally by the body. The hormone connects to the receptor and has a calming effect. But in some rats and in some people, the pathway appears to be ineffective. This puts them at higher risk for PTSD.

Scientist Daskalakis says PTSD does not just affect the brain. He says it involves the whole body. He says this is why identifying common regulators is extremely important. He also says more detailed studies in humans and in animals are needed in order to one day have a treatment.
hormone
any of various chemicals made by living cells which influence the development, growth, sex, etc. of an animal and are carried around the body in the blood

male and female hormones

growth hormones
tissue
a group of connected cells in an animal or plant that are similar to each other, have the same purpose and form the stated part of the animal or plant

human tissue

plant tissue

brain/lung/muscle/fat tissue

His face is covered with scar tissue where he was badly burned.
eg:Graft, a form of political corruption, is the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain. The term has its origins in the medical procedure where by tissue is removed from one location and attached to another for which it was not originally intended. Similarly, political graft occurs when funds intended for public projects are intentionally misdirected in order to maximize the benefits to private interests.
eg:Not until after Garfield's death did doctors find the bullet that killed him. It lay only a few centimeters from the wound. Tissue had grown around it. The bullet itself would not have killed the president. What killed him was the effort made by doctors to find the bullet. Their instruments had spread infection throughout his body.
litter
small pieces of rubbish that have been left lying on the ground in public places.
About 2% of fast-food packaging ends up as litter.
startle
to do something unexpected which surprises and sometimes worries a person or animal

She was concentrating on her book and his voice startled her.

The noise of the car startled the birds and the whole flock flew up into the air.

Her article on diet startled many people into changing their eating habits.
needle
a thin metal pin, used in sewing, which is pointed at one end and has a hole called an eye at the other end for thread
a needle and thread
Here, your eyes are better than mine - could you thread (= put thread through) this needle for me?
eg:
Researchers said infections rates are rising in young people who sell sex for money and who use needles to put drugs into their bodies. Young men who have unprotected sex with other men are also increasingly infected with HIV.
prostitution
the work of a prostitute
Poverty drove her to prostitution.
Health workers say women who work in Thailand's prostitution centers are better-protected from HIV. Women in these centers understand how to avoid the virus. And they take steps to keep from getting infected.

However, the UNICEF study found that female sex workers in Thailand who are not Thai often cannot use the country's free health services. They also may not get important information about how to prevent HIV.

And another group of young women is at a higher risk of getting the virus: those who have sex for money but do not work all the time as sex workers. Mr. Gass says this group includes university students and young girls. He says they meet the people they will have sex with on the street or at bars.

He says they "really don't have the life skills and negotiating ability to ensure that the partners that they spend time with are using condoms."

Researchers estimate about 500,000 people in Thailand are living with HIV. At one time AIDS was the top killer in the country. Now the disease is number five. It is responsible for four percent of all deaths in Thailand.
literacy
1.the ability to read and write
Far more resources are needed to improve adult literacy.
2. knowledge of a particular subject, or a particular type of knowledge.
Computer literacy is becoming as essential as the ability to drive a car.
eg:"Some people think that ecoliteracy is just a green form of science literacy. And what I have tried to ask is whether that's enough. In other words, what an ecologically-literate person needs to know might include things like the cycles and the flows, the energy systems, all of those kind of things that we would call the science of ecology."
isosceles triangle
a triangle with two sides of equal length.
counteroffensive
a set of attacks which defend against enemy attacks.
Russian heavy weaponry has reportedly crossed the border into southern Ukraine, U.S. and Ukrainian officials said Wednesday, aiding rebels in what appeared to be a major counteroffensive in a new front along the border with Russia.
blatant
describes something bad that is very obvious or intentional.
a blatant lie
The whole episode was a blatant attempt to gain publicity.
incursion
a sudden attack on or act of going into a place, especially across a border
incursions into enemy territory
With battles raging to the north - near the rebel-held city of Luhansk, and southeast of the city of Donetsk — the fighting near Novoazovsk, a southern town along the Sea of Azov, appeared to be the most blatant incursion by Russian forces to date.
ammunition
(informal ammo) objects that can be shot from a weapon such as bullets or bombs
a good supply of ammunition
a shortage of ammunition
Western reporters around Novoazovsk said Ukrainian forces were abandoning vehicles and ammunition as they retreated from the advancing forces.
eg:Radio cannot show the faces in the pictures. But you can get an idea about their feelings by the names of some of the popular songs of the period. One of the most famous was "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition." Another was "He Is One-Aye in the Army, and He's One-Aye in My Heart." And one of the most hopeful songs was "When the Lights Go on Again All Over the World."
retreat
to go away from a place or person in order to escape from fighting or danger.
Western reporters around Novoazovsk said Ukrainian forces were abandoning vehicles and ammunition as they retreated from the advancing forces. The U.S. State Department said Russian military hardware crossing the border included tanks and rocket launchers and there were reports of separatists shelling residential areas in the port city of Mariupol, west of Novoazovsk. Heavy fighting had also erupted at the Donetsk airport.
resort
a place where many people go for rest, sport or another stated purpose.
a tourist resort.
Novoazovsk, a resort town of 40,000, is strategically located on the road linking Russia to Mariupol and, further west, the Black Sea peninsula of Crimea, which Russia annexed on March.
armoured
protected by a strong covering, or using military vehicles protected by strong covering.
Ukrainian national security spokesman Col. Andriy Lysenko said a group of Russian soldiers had crossed the border in armored personnel carriers and a truck and entered the town of Amvrosiyivka, not far from where Ukraine detained 10 Russian soldiers on Monday.
eyewitness
a person who saw something happen, for example a crime or an accident.
According to an eyewitness account, the thieves abandoned their vehicle near the scene of the robbery.
Despite Moscow's denials, Russian support for separatists since the rebellion began in April has been all but confirmed by eyewitness accounts, intelligence reports and types of weaponry being utilized in rebels' fight against Ukrainian troops.
siege
the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it
The siege of Mafeking lasted for eight months.
The soldiers laid siege to (= started a siege of) the city.
The castle was under siege for months.
figurative That whole weekend at Cannes, Brigitte Bardot was under siege by photographers.
eg: In Iraq, residents of Amerli celebrate end of militant siege
eg:Grant agreed to let the Confederate soldiers go home. He and Pemberton signed the surrender agreement on July fourth. The siege of Vicksburg had lasted forty-seven days.
corridor
a long passage in a building or train, especially with rooms on either side
Her office is at the end of the corridor.
Western and Ukrainian officials have said Russia is trying to break Ukrainian forces' siege of Luhansk, and also battling to open a supply corridor from border to nearby Donetsk.
chancellor
a person in a position of the highest or high rank, especially in a government or university.
Helmut Kohl became the first Chancellor of a united Germany in 1990.
A former politician has been appointed Chancellor of the university.
eg: In a telephone call with Putin, Germany's Angela Merkel said reports of a new Russian military incursion into Ukrainian territory had to be cleared up, a spokesman for the chancellor said in a statement.

"The latest reports of the presence of Russian soldiers on Ukrainian territory must be explained," Merkel's spokesman Steffen Seibert said Wednesday. "She emphasized Russia's major responsibility for de-escalation and watching over its own frontiers."
eg: In a speech at China's top university the chancellor said there should be no limits on the number of Chinese students and tourists able to visit Britain if they want to. He also stressed that there was no country in the west more open to Chinese investment than the UK.
eg: Germany's Chancellor answered that his government did accept the proposals.
assuage
to make unpleasant feelings less strong.
Also Wednesday, NATO said it was stepping up exercises in Eastern Europe, as a way to assuage concerns of the alliance's newer members - Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, among others, who fear Russian threats. Alliance chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he expects NATO members next week will approve sending temporary forces into the region.
insurgency
an occasion when a group of people attempt to take control of their country by force.
Putin's statement did not address increasingly pointed accusations by Kyiv and the West that Russia is directly intervening in the insurgency. But he praised the rebellion's "serious successes in stopping the armed operation by Kyiv," which he said threatens the lives of civilians
outright
completely or immediately.
I think cigarette advertising should be banned outright.
The driver and all three passengers were killed outright.
U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. Samantha Power used even more forceful language to condemn Russia. At an emergency meeting of the U.N. Security Council, Power said Moscow has "outright lied" about its involvement in Ukraine.
"At every step, Russia has come before this council to say everything except the truth. It has manipulated. It has obfuscated. It has outright lied. So we have learned to measure Russia by its actions and not by its words. In the last 48 hours, Russia's actions have spoken volumes," said Powers.
wage
to fight a war or organize a series of activities in order to achieve something
Surely the President needs Congress' permission to wage war on another country?
They've been waging a long campaign to change the law.
For his part, Russian U.N. Ambassador Vitaly Churkin accused the Kyiv government of "waging war against its own people" in Russian-speaking eastern Ukraine. Churkin, however, did not deny the involvement of Russian forces in the area.
marshal
1.to bring together or organize people or things in order to achieve a particular aim
The fighting in the city followed reports of the rebels marshalling their forces in the countryside.
The company is marshalling its forces/resources for a long court case.
They had marshalled an armada of 1000 boats and a squadron of 70 aircraft to help clear up the oil.

It is unlikely that the rebels will be able to marshal as much firepower as the government troops.

NATO said about 1,000 Russian troops are operating inside of eastern Ukraine, with about 20,000 more marshaled on the border. Officials also released satellite images that they say show Russian combat forces engaged in military operations inside Ukraine.
2. a title used for important officers in the armed forces of some countries.
a field marshal/air vice marshal.
eg:On the morning of November eighth, a German delegation went to Allied military headquarters to discuss terms.The Germans were met by the Supreme Allied Commander, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France. Foch greeted them coldly. And he did not offer peace terms until they officially asked for a ceasefire. Germany -- not the Allies -- had to put down its weapons first.
armament
[U] the process of increasing the number and strength of a country's weapons
As the country prepares for war, more and more money is being spent on armament.
armaments [plural]: weapons or military equipment
the country's armaments programme
Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said Thursday that Russian soldiers and armaments had crossed into eastern Ukraine and seized the port town of Novoazovsk.
reprehensible
If someone's behaviour is reprehensible, it is extremely bad or unacceptable
reprehensible conduct/actions
Australia's Prime Minister Tony Abbott said August 29 that if Russian armed forces had moved into eastern Ukraine, then it was an "invasion."

"Clearly, if, as seems to have been the case, Russian armed forces have simply moved across the border, that is an invasion and it is utterly reprehensible. It is an absolutely clear-cut case of a larger country bullying a smaller country, and this should have no place in our world. You cannot have an international order if might is right. You cannot have a safe and secure world if powerful countries are able to take what they want. Plainly, what we have seen in Ukraine over the last six months or so, is an increasingly aggressive role by Russia and it seems that Russia is now stepping out of the shadows and overtly trying to achieve its objects of domination in Ukraine and it is completely, absolutely and utterly unacceptable,"
utter
complete or extreme
utter confusion/misery/chaos
utter nonsense/rubbish/drivel
The meeting was a complete and utter waste of time.
Lying back in the hot bath was utter bliss.
bliss
perfect happiness
Lying on a sunny beach is my idea of sheer bliss.
wedded/domestic bliss
sheer
used to emphasize how very great, important or powerful a quality or feeling is; nothing except

The suggestion is sheer nonsense.

His success was due to sheer willpower/determination.

It was sheer coincidence that we met.
wail
to make a long, high cry, usually because of pain or sadness:
The women gathered around the coffin and began to wail, as was the custom in the region.
[+ speech] "My finger hurts," wailed the child.
The obstinate toddler clung to her mother,wailing and refusing to get on the bus to go to nursery school.
clung
past simple and past participle of cling
cling
to stick onto or hold something or someone tightly, or to refuse to stop holding them
We got so wet that our clothes clung to us.

They clung together in terror as the screams grew louder.

One little girl was clinging onto a cuddly toy.

She clung to the handrail as she walked down the slippery steps.
sue
to take legal action against a person or organization, especially by making a legal claim for money because of some harm that they have caused you

He was so furious about the accusations in the letter that he threatened to sue.

She sued the paper for (= in order to get) damages after they wrongly described her as a prostitute.

She is suing her husband for (= in order to get a) divorce.

The lawyer is an opportunist; she approaches people injured in car accidents and asks them if they'd like her help in suing other parties involved.
spellbound
having your attention completely held by something, so that you cannot think about anything else

The children listened to the story spellbound.

He held his audience spellbound.
eg: The orator held the crowd spellbound with his fascinating speech and exciting way of speaking.
stacked
adjective.
covered or filled with a large amount of things.
The fridge is stacked with food.
All of Hong Kong's chief executives have been chosen by a small election committee stacked with pro-Beijing loyalists drawn mostly from business sectors.
call the shots
to be in the position of being able to make the decisions which will influence a situation.
The company was more successful when just one or two people were calling the shots.
"Who is calling the shots in this house?"
eg: U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein told NBC television Sunday she believes the situation in Ukraine is deeply personal for Putin, and she said he may be calling the shots himself.
"People say, 'Just wait till the sanctions bite and the economy slips.' I don't think so. I think if Russians follow him, and ... they are following him ... the Russians are very brave and very long suffering, and they will tough out any economic difficulty," she said.
tough sth out
to deal with a difficult period or situation without becoming any less certain or determined in your plans or opinions
It's a difficult situation, but if we can just tough it out, things are bound to get better soon.
formulate
to develop all the details of a plan for doing something.
U.S. President Barack Obama is scheduled to travel to Wales this week for a NATO summit that will address the crisis and formulate a strategy aimed at deterring what is widely seen as Russia's territorial overreach.
radical
relating to the most important parts of something or someone; complete or extreme
We need to make some radical changes to our operating procedures.
She has had to undergo radical surgery (= aimed at removing the cause of a disease).
Barker introduced some radically new ideas.
"It is a deeply serious situation and we have to show real resolve, real resilience in demonstrating to Russia that if she carries on in this way, the relationship between Europe and Russia, Britain and Russia, America and Russia will be radically different in the future," said Cameron.
dealt
past simple and past participle of deal verb.
"The militia have dealt the enemy their first naval defeat," Igor Strelkov, a former separatist military commander, said on the social media network VKontakte.
antibiotic
a medicine or chemical that can destroy harmful bacteria in the body or limit their growth.
I'm taking antibiotics for a throat infection.
a one-month course of antibiotics
Some types of antibiotic are used to promote growth in farm animals.
He's on antibiotics for an ear infection.
The UN Children's Fund says fast food, sugary drinks and lack of interest in exercise have caused the rate of overweight children in Vietnam to increase by six times since 2000.
But another reason might be milk.
Vietnamese now believe it is important for children to drink milk in addition to eating more-traditional foods like rice and noodles. People were happy that milk had vitamin D and calcium. But they did not talk about other things that milk had, such as hormones, antibiotics, allergens, fat and sugar. And it had lactose, which causes problems for some people.
skinny
very thin.
You should eat more, you're much too skinny.
eg: She says, "I want them to develop and be tall. I don't want them to be too skinny."
pedestrian
a person who is walking, especially in an area where vehicles go.
On a recent trip to Ho Chi Minh City, Mr. Waibel said it is "not very pedestrian-friendly and there are no bicycle lanes to my knowledge."
evolution
the way in which living things change and develop over millions of years
Darwin's theory of evolution
a gradual process of change and development
the evolution of language
eg: The final decision of the European Union on furthering the economic sanctions against Russia will depend on the evolution of the situation in Ukraine, said the President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy.
dwindle
to become smaller in size or amount, or fewer in number.
The community has dwindled to a tenth of its former size in the last two years.
Her hopes of success in the race dwindled last night as the weather became worse.
eg:Iraqi officials say their forces have ended a siege by Islamic militants on the northern town of Amerli, where 1000s of people have been trapped for over 2 months with dwindling food, water and medical supplies.
vacate
to leave a room, building, chair, etc. so that it is available for other people
Hotel guests are requested to vacate their rooms by noon.
Denis vacates his job at the end of the week.
eg:[As Islamist militia groups in Libya say] An Islamist militia group in Libya says it's taken control of the residential annex of the vacated U.S. embassy in Tripoli, that is, a month after American diplomats fled to escape the violent clashes between rival militias in the Libyan capital.
News agencies reported on Sunday that the Dawn of Libya, an umbrella group for Islamist militias, said it had been in control of the U.S. compound for about a week, seizing it from a rival militia after weeks of fighting for control of Tripoli and its international airport.
topple
to (cause to) lose balance and fall down
The statue of the dictator was toppled (over) by the crowds.
The tree toppled and fell.
eg: Increasing violence has wracked Libya in the 3 years since long-time dictator Moammar Gadhafi was toppled.
appropriate
to take something for your own use, usually without permission
He lost his job when he was found to have appropriated some of the company's money.
eg: Israel says it is appropriating 400 hectares of Palestinian land in the occupied West Bank, possibly 1 of the biggest seizures for the Jewish state in decades.
Israel's army says it is declaring that the land is "state-owned" under orders from political leaders. It is in reaction to the kidnapping and murders of 3 Israeli teenagers in June in Bethlehem.
The U.S. State Department is calling the Israeli land takeover "counterproductive" in peace efforts and is asking Israel to reconsider.
Chief Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat is condemning the move as part of what he calls Israeli crimes against the Palestinian people.
counterproductive
having an effect which is opposite to the one that is intended or wanted
Improved safety measures in cars can be counterproductive as they encourage people to drive faster.
eg:Israel says it is appropriating 400 hectares of Palestinian land in the occupied West Bank, possibly 1 of the biggest seizures for the Jewish state in decades.
Israel's army says it is declaring that the land is "state-owned" under orders from political leaders. It is in reaction to the kidnapping and murders of 3 Israeli teenagers in June in Bethlehem.
The U.S. State Department is calling the Israeli land takeover "counterproductive" in peace efforts and is asking Israel to reconsider.
Chief Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat is condemning the move as part of what he calls Israeli crimes against the Palestinian people.
eg:Thirty-eight-year-old Alexander Zakharchenko was sworn in as prime minister of the so-called Donetsk People's Republic.

Speaking in Vienna, United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon called the election "unfortunate and counterproductive." He said the situation in Ukraine remains an issue of great concern.
pick up
to increase or improve.
The truck picked up speed slowly.
The wind always picks up in the evening.
The number of applicants will pick up during the autumn.
His spirits picked up when he got the good news.
Her career only began to pick up when she was in her forties.
eg: Chris Lewa is a rights activist and researcher on the ethnic Rohingya in Myanmar's western Arakine state. She says that many attempts to flee did not happen until recently. She says more people appear ready now to risk their lives at sea.

"(It is) very worrying and the fact that, I think, the situation that it is not going to stop now. Since the 10th of August, we noticed again several boats leaving in a short span of time and that means that probably going to continue increase again as the (sailing) season continues (to) really picks up."
pneumonia
a serious illness in which one or both lungs become red and swollen and filled with liquid
People who are bedridden can easily get pneumonia.
syndrome
a combination of medical problems that commonly go together, which might show the existence of a particular disease or mental condition.
eg: Scientists are investigating a mysterious kind of pneumonia. They call it Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS. Most of the cases have been among health care workers in Hong Kong, Hanoi and Singapore. These workers were directly involved in the care of people infected with the disease. Family members of those infected have also gotten sick. Several people have died.
acute
If a bad situation is acute, it causes severe problems or damage
She felt acute embarrassment/anxiety/concern at his behaviour.
The problem of poverty is particularly acute in rural areas.
eg: Scientists are investigating a mysterious kind of pneumonia. They call it Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS.
pepper
a greyish black or creamy coloured powder produced by crushing dry peppercorns, which is used to give a spicy hot taste to food
freshly ground black pepper
salt and pepper
eg: Local media said three others were arrested for disorderly conduct at a separate demonstration, which police dispersed using pepper spray.
devastate
to destroy a place or thing completely or cause great damage.
eg:
The regime tries to devastate what they have promised for the people, I think universal suffrage means there should be no censorship on the candidates on any election
eg:When Typhoon Haiyan devastated Philippines' Leyte Island one year ago, many local fishermen lost their wooden boats.
universal suffrage
the right of all adults to vote.
suffrage: the right to vote in an election, especially for representatives in a parliament or similar organization.
heckle
to interrupt a public speech or performance with loud unfriendly statements or questions
A few angry locals started heckling (the speaker).
eg:he thinks the heckling of Li was intended mainly to express the humiliation and resentment of Hong Kong's people.
resent
to feel angry because you have been forced to accept someone or something that you do not like.
She bitterly resented her father's new wife.
He feels/harbours (a) deep resentment against/towards his parents for his miserable childhood.
harbour
1.to think about or feel something, usually over a long period
He's been harbouring a grudge against her ever since his promotion was refused.
There are those who harbour suspicions about his motives.
Powell remains non-committal about any political ambitions he may harbour.
2.an area of water next to the coast, often protected from the sea by a thick wall, where ships and boats can shelter
eg:U.S. Navy sailors could see the smoke a few miles outside Charleston Harbor. They were protecting a ship bringing food for the men at Sumter.
But neither the sailors nor the food could reach the fort to help Major Anderson. Confederate boats blocked the entrance to the harbor. And powerful Confederate guns could destroy any ship that tried to enter.
grudge
a strong feeling of anger and dislike for a person who you feel has treated you badly, which often lasts for a long time
I don't bear any grudge against you.
defiant
1.proudly refusing to obey authority
a defiant attitude/gesture
The protesters blocking the entrance to the offices remained defiant this morning.
2. not willing to accept criticism or disapproval
The Prime Minister was in defiant mood in the House of Commons.
eg:Hong Kong Democracy Movement Defiant Over Free Elections
tether
a rope or chain used to tie especially an animal to a post or other fixed place, usually so that it can move freely within a small area.
eg: How to Reverse Tether: Share Your Laptop's Internet Connection with Your Phone
rich
containing a lot of exciting events or experiences and therefore very interesting.
He has written a book about the island's rich history.
She had a rich and varied life and met many famous and exciting people.
eg: Millions of tourists visit China each year, and their impressions of the country can vary widely based on a short exposure time. For people like Jim Hammond, the experience was much deeper and the understanding of the Middle Kingdom much richer.
unscrupulous
behaving in a way that is dishonest or unfair in order to get what you want
an unscrupulous financial adviser
Graft, a form of political corruption, is the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain. The term has its origins in the medical procedure where by tissue is removed from one location and attached to another for which it was not originally intended. Similarly, political graft occurs when funds intended for public projects are intentionally misdirected in order to maximize the benefits to private interests.
inherent
existing as a natural or basic part of something
There are dangers/risks inherent in almost every sport.
I have an inherent distrust of lawyers.
There's nothing inherently wrong with his ideas.
eg:You have to look at the negative side, and that is the fact that it is based on greed. Greed is of course a weakness of humanity that is from the very beginning of mankind. I think that you can't have a government that is based on greed and expect it to survive. I think the Chinese people inherently have an ethical basis from the past to judge the government.
eg:So, in 1841, the remaining thirty or so members of the Amistad captives got on a ship called The Gentleman and returned to West Africa. Howard Jones says the incident was the only time he knows that black people who had been brought to the new world as slaves actually made it back home.

"And how they do it? By winning in the American court system. This was just unheard of. But the decision was basically that it doesn't matter whether you are black, white, purple, green or whatever color you are, you have been kidnapped. And so therefore you have — and Joseph Story said this in his decision, which really opened the door for a lot of arguments — that under the eternal principles of justice, you have the inherent right of self-defense, even if you must kill your captors."
entangle
to cause something to become caught in something such as a net or ropes
The dolphin had become entangled in/with the fishing nets.
entangled in/with sth/sb.
involved with something or someone in a way that makes it difficult to escape
He went to the shop to buy bread, and got entangled in/with a carnival parade.

The mayor and the city council are anxious to avoid getting entangled in the controversy.

She seems to be romantically entangled with some artist in Rome.
eg: They do not want to get too involved overseas or entangled with foreign countries or foreign problems.
greed
a very strong wish to continuously get more of something, especially food or money
I don't know why I'm eating more - it's not hunger, it's just greed!
He was unsympathetic with many house sellers, complaining that they were motivated by greed.
eg: You have to look at the negative side, and that is the fact that it is based on greed. Greed is of course a weakness of humanity that is from the very beginning of mankind. I think that you can't have a government that is based on greed and expect it to survive. I think the people inherently have an ethical basis from the past to judge the government.
Poaching
Poaching has traditionally been defined as the illegal hunting, killing or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.
eg: ine Chinese fishermen will go on trial this week in the Philippines for allegedly poaching in Filipino territorial waters and catching a protected turtle species. Their arrest has angered the Beijing government, which says the fishermen were in China's territory. Some analysts say the trial highlights the ongoing tensions in the South China Sea.
turtle
an animal which lives in or near water and has a thick shell covering its body into which it can move its head and legs for protection
eg:Anchored at the dock of the Special Boat Unit's station is a 30-meter long ship. The maritime police say they picked up its crew of 11 Chinese nationals as well as 5 Filipino accomplices while catching endangered sea turtles.
eg: This muffled creak is what researchers heard repeatedly when they listened to giant South American river turtles swimming together. It could help explain how the animals coordinate their behaviour so well in the nesting season, when females gather in large groups at beaches before laying their eggs.
The researchers used microphones above and below the water to record the turtles at different stages in the season. And when the newly hatched turtles and adults were together in the river, scientists heard a different sound.
(Turtle sounds)
This, they think, is parents guiding newly hatched babies on their first migration. The researchers also say that their study shows how vulnerable turtles could be to man-made noise disturbing this quiet but seemingly vital chatter.
eg: More than 2,000 rare turtles were returned to their native wild home in Indonesia in February. These creatures were taken from wildlife traffickers. They had been seized a month earlier in Hong Kong.
traffic
to buy and sell goods illegally.
eg: The Philippines' National Police Special Boat Unit patrols the waters around the island province of Palawan. The United States gave Philippine authorities six fast ships to help fight various types of crime, as the unit's captain Osmundo Salito explains.

"Narcotics trafficking, human trafficking, terrorism, piracy, smuggling, poaching and other forms of criminality," said Salito.
eg: people are still executed for some non-violent crimes, such as drug trafficking and corruption.
narcotic
an illegal drug such as heroin or cocaine
He faces three years in jail for selling narcotics.
behind bars
in prison
He's spent most of his life behind bars.
eg:This follows a ruling last month, in which a Palawan court found 12 other Chinese fishermen guilty of poaching in a protected coral reef zone. Those men were sentenced to between 6 and 12 years behind bars.
eg:"Most of the kids were forced to come there, they didn't know where they were going," said Hilla Medalia, co-director of Web Junkie. "Some of them were drugged, one of our kids thought he was going skiing and found himself behind bars at the center."
high-profile
attracting a lot of attention in the media.
furious
extremely angry.
The chancellor shared the stage at Peking University with London's mayor - Boris Johnson. Their high-profile visits are a sign of a diplomatic thaw between the two countries. Beijing was furious after the prime minister met the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader - the Dalai Lama - last year.
eg:The Emancipation Proclamation freed the slaves in states held by the Confederates. For political reasons, the proclamation did not free slaves in the states that supported the Union. Nor did it free slaves in the areas around Norfolk, Virginia, and New Orleans, Louisiana.

Lincoln personally agreed that all slaves should be freed. But he did not believe that the Constitution gave him that power. He said the Emancipation Proclamation was a military measure made under his wartime powers as commander in chief. As such, it was legal only in enemy territory. He hoped the emancipation of slaves in all the states could be done slowly, during peacetime.

People in the South were furious about the proclamation. Southern newspapers accused the president of trying to create a slave rebellion in states he could not occupy with troops.
thaw
to (cause to) change from a solid, frozen state to a liquid or soft one, because of an increase in temperature
Allow the meat to thaw properly before cooking it.
The sun came out and thawed the ice.
It's beginning to thaw (= The weather is warm enough for snow and ice to melt).
eg:
The chancellor shared the stage at Peking University with London's mayor - Boris Johnson. Their high-profile visits are a sign of a diplomatic thaw between the two countries. Beijing was furious after the prime minister met the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader - the Dalai Lama - last year.

The chancellor's announcement to relax visa rules for Chinese nationals will be welcomed by British businesses. They've been calling on the government to ease restrictions as a way of encouraging more high-spending Chinese tourists to visit the UK.
muffled
(of a sound) not very loud or clear.
This muffled creak is what researchers heard repeatedly when they listened to giant South American river turtles swimming together. It could help explain how the animals coordinate their behaviour so well in the nesting season, when females gather in large groups at beaches before laying their eggs.

The researchers used microphones above and below the water to record the turtles at different stages in the season. And when the newly hatched turtles and adults were together in the river, scientists heard a different sound.


This, they think, is parents guiding newly hatched babies on their first migration. The researchers also say that their study shows how vulnerable turtles could be to man-made noise disturbing this quiet but seemingly vital chatter.
pro bono
(relating to work that is done, especially by a lawyer) without asking for payment:
pro bono cases/lawyers/work
He takes on some charity cases pro bono.
eg: Legal advice can cost a lot. A person with little money does not have the same ability to get legal help as a richer person.

But in recent years, a growing number of law firms do pro bono work. They work for free. Lawyers who offer free legal help for their clients, the people they represent, are usually called pro bono lawyers.
charity
a system of giving money, food or help free to those who are in need because they are ill, poor or have no home, or any organization which has the purpose of providing money or helping in this way
She does a lot of work for charity.
People tend to give to (= give money to) charity at Christmas time.
Proceeds from the sale of these cards will go to (= be given to) local charities.
UNICEF is an international charity.
They did a charity performance on the first night, to raise money for AIDS research.
avail
use, purpose, advantage, or profit
We tried to persuade her not to resign, but to no avail (= did not succeed).
My attempts to improve the situation were of little/no avail.
eg:Identified only as Linda, a 65-year-old woman has been fighting for a year to gain guardianship of a child relative, her grandnephew Michael. But all her efforts failed. They were to no avail. Nothing worked.

"Because of the abuse that was occurring and the neglect, and I tried many times to get guardianship through the courts and to no avail."
numb
1. If a part of your body is numb, you are unable to feel it, usually for a short time
2.not able to feel any emotions or to think clearly, because you are so shocked or frightened.
When she first heard the news, she was numb with disbelief.
Ever since his girlfriend left him he has felt numb.
eg:Then, Linda found an organization called Bet Tzedek. Bet Tzedek provides free legal help to those who cannot pay a lawyer. The staff connected Linda with pro bono lawyers from a large legal group who accepted her case.

After a year of fighting, Linda finally won guardianship of Michael. She says the shock of finally having Michael legally in her home left her numb -- feeling almost senseless.

"I was kind of numb for a while and until I said, my goodness it happened. It finally happened. Now he's with me. Now I can go home and say to Michael, we have a home, Michael."
burgeon
to develop or grow quickly.
Love burgeoned between them..
The company hoped to profit from the burgeoning communications industry.
eg: The firm O'Melveny & Myers handles anything from corporate law - company and business law - to intellectual property law. It also operates a strong pro bono program worldwide.

"The notion is burgeoning and growing. We're doing a lot of pro bono work through our office in London and Brussels and lawyers in our Hong Kong and Singapore and Beijing offices are getting more and more involved in pro bono pursuits."
vibrant
energetic, exciting and full of enthusiasm
a vibrant young performer
a vibrant personality
a vibrant city
The hope is that this area will develop into a vibrant commercial centre.
eg: Free Lawyers? What's The Catch?
But why work for free? Mr. Lash says there are many reasons law firms offer free legal help. And some of those reasons come from self-interest.
"In order to really maintain a competitive edge, major law firms really need to have vibrant pro bono programs. They're invaluable ways to train young lawyers; they are great recruiting tools when we're all interviewing at the top law schools."
spawn
to cause something new, or many new things, to grow or start suddenly
The new economic freedom has spawned hundreds of new small businesses.
Her death spawned countless films and books.
'Electronic Heroin' Spawns Chinese Internet Addiction Camps
affliction
something that makes you suffer
Malnutrition is one of the common afflictions of the poor.
eg: In 2008, China, which has over 20 million Internet addicts, became one of the first countries to declare the affliction a clinical disorder. Internet addiction has spawned the creation of over 250 camps within China designed to treat addicted youth.
clinical
describes medical work or teaching that relates to the examination and treatment of ill people
clinical tests/training
the Department of Clinical Medicine
Clinical trials of the new drug may take five years.
clinically
This toothpaste has been clinically proven (= has been shown in experiments) to protect your teeth.
Doctors pronounced him clinically dead (= judged him to be dead by examining his body).
disapproving Should doctors always remain clinically detached from (= express no emotion towards) their patients?
don
to put on a piece of clothing
He donned his finest coat and hat.
Gaming appears to be the most addictive Internet behavior, with some gamers donning diapers so as to avoid bathroom breaks.
diaper
US for nappy.a square of thick soft paper or cloth which is fastened around a baby's bottom and between its legs to absorb its urine and solid waste.
eg:For workers, increased pay is welcome. Edgar Gonzalez, a young father, says the move will make a difference for him.
"It will mean a lot. It will help me out with the rent. It will help me out with diapers. It will help me out with having a better life."
resort to sth
to do something that you do not want to do because you cannot find any other way of achieving something
I had to resort to violence/threats to get my money.
[+ -ing verb] When she didn't answer the telephone, I resorted to standing outside her window and calling up to her.
eg: Harwit said the parents of Internet-addicted youth are desperate to cure their offspring. Some even resort to drugging their kids to take them to the camps.
desperate
If you are desperate for something or desperate to do something, you want or need it very much indeed. ⇒ They'd been married nearly four years and June was desperate to start a family.
1.very serious or bad.
2.very great or extreme.
3.feeling that you have no hope and are ready to do anything to change the bad situation you are in.
giving little hope of success; tried when everything else has failed.
The doctors made one last desperate attempt/effort to save the boy's life.
Desperate measures are needed to deal with the growing drug problem.
They made a desperate plea for help.
eg: Cutter Hodierne directed the film. It is his first full-length movie. News about Somali piracy in the Indian Ocean had caught his interest. He was especially fascinated by the subject from the viewpoint of the gunmen.
"I just was so intrigued by what would lead somebody to that point of doing something so desperate and also so kind of audacious."
eg:While Willkie and Roosevelt began campaign battles with words, German and British planes were fighting real battles with bullets over the English channel. Winston Churchill sent a desperate message to Roosevelt. The British prime minister said Britain could not fight alone much longer. It needed help immediately.
eg:Gansevoort,despairing of further successful resistance,had decided upon a desperate attempt to cut through the enemy's lines.
offspring
1.the young of an animal
In the case of the guinea pig, the number of offspring varies between two and five.
2.humorous or formal,a person's children
Tom's sister came round on Saturday with her numerous offspring.
as a last resort
if all other methods fail
British police are supposed to use guns only as a last resort.
eg: Harwit said the parents of Internet-addicted youth are desperate to cure their offspring. Some even resort to drugging their kids to take them to the camps.
"They look to [the camps] as a kind of last resort for reforming their children, especially if it's one child, the only child that they have, and giving them a chance to break their addiction to Internet games and hopefully then return to school and become more academically capable," he said.
rigorous
careful to look at or consider every part of something to make certain it is correct or safe.
eg: "Most of the kids were forced to come there, they didn't know where they were going," said Hilla Medalia, co-director of Web Junkie. "Some of them were drugged, one of our kids thought he was going skiing and found himself behind bars at the center."

Once there, the patients are required to participate in rigorous exercises, medication and therapy. Sometimes patients are also placed in isolation for as long as 10 days. The living conditions are Spartan, according to Medalia.
spartan
simple and severe with no comfort
a spartan diet/meal
spartan living conditions
They lead a rather spartan life, with very few comforts and no luxuries.
eg: Once there, the patients are required to participate in rigorous exercises, medication and therapy. Sometimes patients are also placed in isolation for as long as 10 days. The living conditions are Spartan, according to Medalia.
rehabilitate
to return someone or something to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living
The prison service should try to rehabilitate prisoners so that they can lead normal lives when they leave prison.
Physiotherapy is part of rehabilitating accident victims.
After 20 years in official disgrace, she's been rehabilitated (= given a positive public image again).
rehabilitation
a drug rehabilitation clinic;
the rehabilitation of derelict buildings
eg:But some of the disciplinary measures at the camps have become overly harsh, and deaths have been reported. According to a 2012 Xinhua story, "instructors who resort to violence while treating addicts at Internet addiction rehabilitation centers will be disqualified from continuing their job."
lingering
lasting a long time.
eg: Such lingering military tensions were likely a topic to come up during meetings later Tuesday between Rice and Chinese Defense Minister Chang Wanquan.
hangout
a place where someone spends a lot of time or where they live
The café is a favourite hangout of artists.
eg:In 2010, at age 24, Cutter Hodierne went to Kenya and made a shorter version of Fishing Without Nets. He used Somali refugees to play the parts. These untrained actors included day laborers, fishermen and truck drivers. They were all living in Mombasa, Kenya at the time.
"We would set up these informal auditions in restaurants and just like hangouts where Somalis would sit around and chew khat and drink tea, and we would audition people there."
meteorological
relating to weather conditions.
Accurate meteorological records began 100 years ago.
The United Nations says surging carbon dioxide emissions sent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to record levels last year.

In its annual report on greenhouse gas concentrations released Tuesday, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said carbon dioxide levels between 2012 and 2013 marked the largest yearly increase since reliable global records began 30 years ago.
acidification
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
eg: In a statement accompanying the report, WMO chief Michel Jarraud warned that "past, present and future carbon dioxide emissions will have a cumulative impact on global warming and ocean acidification." He said the "laws of physics are non-negotiable."
apprehend
to catch and arrest someone who has not obeyed the law.
The police have finally apprehended the killer.
Johnson also said someone had shot at a passing police car but was not apprehended.
catwalk
the long, narrow stage that models walk along in a fashion show.
Asian names are well established on the fashion catwalks in America, and a new wave of Asian designers already accomplished at home hopes to follow suit at New York Fashion Week.
follow suit
to do the same thing as someone else.
When one airline reduces its prices, the rest soon follow suit.
Asian names are well established on the fashion catwalks in America, and a new wave of Asian designers already accomplished at home hopes to follow suit at New York Fashion Week.
inroads
make inroads
› to start to have a direct and noticeable effect (on something).
The government is definitely making inroads into the problem of unemployment.
The newest designers to arrive are Asian-born and Asian-trained, looking to make inroads in the lucrative U.S. fashion market.
lucrative
(especially of a business, job or activity) producing a lot of money.
The merger proved to be very lucrative for both companies.
The newest designers to arrive are Asian-born and Asian-trained, looking to make inroads in the lucrative U.S. fashion market.
heritage
features belonging to the culture of a particular society, such as traditions, languages or buildings, which still exist from the past and which have a historical importance
These monuments are a vital part of the cultural heritage of South America.
eg:The newest designers to arrive are Asian-born and Asian-trained, looking to make inroads in the lucrative U.S. fashion market.
Their early predecessors, by comparison, had Asian heritage but were U.S.-born and U.S.-trained designers. One of the best known is Vera Wang, known for her wedding gowns and who recently designed one for celebrity Kim Kardashian.

Then came designers born in Asia but trained in the United States, such as Jason Wu, whose styles have been worn by first lady Michelle Obama.

The newest wave brings a stronger sense of their own cultures, mixed with Western sensibilities, said Lie Sang Bong, who founded his brand Lie Sangbong in 1985 in South Korea.
fascinated
extremely interested.
I was fascinated to hear about his travels in Bhután.
eg: He is opening a New York shop in October.
"I find inspiration in Korean poetry, architecture and natural landscapes, but I'm equally fascinated by the construction of traditional Parisian couture and, at the moment, by the women of New York and the way in which they approach fashion,'' he said.
couture
the designing, making and selling of expensive fashionable clothing, or the clothes themselves
a couture show/collection/house.
eg:
"I find inspiration in Korean poetry, architecture and natural landscapes, but I'm equally fascinated by the construction of traditional Parisian couture and, at the moment, by the women of New York and the way in which they approach fashion,'' he said.
debut
when someone performs or presents something to the public for the first time
She made her professional stage debut in Swan Lake.
He started as an actor, making his debut as a director in 1990.
her debut (= first) album
eg:Two designers to make their New York debut are Zhuliang Li with his Shanghai-based luxury brand Oudifu, which has 200 retail stores in China, and Tao Wang, designer at Broadcast, one of China's top 10 labels, which has 800 stores.

Born in China and trained in Japan, Wang is launching her own collection Taoray Wang with plans for a showroom in New York.

"I've been in this industry for over 20 years, and it's time for me to seriously look at the business rather than to show my creativity. I want a platform for the brand,'' Wang said, adding that the global buyers are in New York, rather than in China.
eg: The company is about to be floated on the New York Stock Exchange in what's set to be the biggest debut in history, and it's creator is Jack Ma.
apparel
mainly US clothes of a particular type when they are being sold in a shop
sports apparel
eg: While expanding into the U.S. market, these designers are keeping a foothold in Asia, where China is set to overtake the United States as the world's largest apparel market by 2017, according to market research firm Euromonitor.
textured
describes something that has a surface that is not smooth but has a raised pattern on it
textured wallpaper.
eg: Wan said she strives for a balance between Asian and Western cultural expressions, using rough-textured fabrics in soft, feminine silhouettes.
"I think people are interested in the softness of Oriental minimalism,'' she said.
fabric
(a type of) cloth or woven material
dress fabric
seats upholstered in hard-wearing fabric
cotton fabrics
eg: Wan said she strives for a balance between Asian and Western cultural expressions, using rough-textured fabrics in soft, feminine silhouettes.

"I think people are interested in the softness of Oriental minimalism,'' she said.
upholster
to cover a chair or other type of seat with suitable cloth and fill it with a suitable substance.
silhouette
a dark shape seen against a light surface
The silhouette of the bare tree on the hill was clear against the winter sky.
minimalist
belonging or relating to a style in art, design and theatre that uses the smallest range of materials and colours possible, and only very simple shapes or forms
minimalist painting
The set for the ballet is minimalist - white walls and a chair.
eg:While expanding into the U.S. market, these designers are keeping a foothold in Asia, where China is set to overtake the United States as the world's largest apparel market by 2017, according to market research firm Euromonitor.

"I don't want to shift my focus away from any one market, but it's important for me to expand the brand's reach,'' said South Korea's Son Jung Wan, who launched in New York three years ago.

Wan said she strives for a balance between Asian and Western cultural expressions, using rough-textured fabrics in soft, feminine silhouettes.

"I think people are interested in the softness of Oriental minimalism,'' she said.
henceforth
starting from this time
Henceforth, the said building shall be the property of Brendan Duggan.
Michael Schumacher has left hospital to continue his recovery at home but the former Formula One champion faces "a long and difficult road ahead" after his skiing accident last year, a statement said on Tuesday.

"Henceforth, Michael's rehabilitation will take place at his home. Considering the severe injuries he suffered, progress has been made in the past weeks and months," said the brief statement issued by manager Sabine Kehm.

"There is still, however, a long and difficult road ahead.
coma
a state of unconsciousness from which a person cannot be woken, which is caused by damage to the brain after an accident or illness
He's been in a coma for the past six weeks.
She went into a deep coma after taking an overdose of sleeping pills.
eg:For two days, the president remained in a coma. Then his condition changed. He regained consciousness and was able to talk. He rested and became stronger.
traumatize
to shock and upset someone severely and for a long time
She was completely traumatized by the death of her mother.
The whole experience left him traumatized.
eg:Schumacher suffered severe head injuries in a ski accident in Meribel in the French Alps on Dec. 29 and was transferred by ambulance to Lausanne in June after emerging from a coma.

He underwent nearly three months of treatment in an outdoor section of the hospital known as "Jardin des Sens" or Garden of the Senses, shielded from view. It specialises in the recovery of severely traumatised neurological patients by exposing them to water, scents and other elements.
neurological
relating to nerves
neurological disease/damage
Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disorder.
eg:He underwent nearly three months of treatment in an outdoor section of the hospital known as "Jardin des Sens" or Garden of the Senses, shielded from view. It specialises in the recovery of severely traumatised neurological patients by exposing them to water, scents and other elements.
contaminate
to make something less pure or make it poisonous
Much of the coast has been contaminated by nuclear waste.
The food which had been contaminated was destroyed.
The infection was probably caused by swimming in contaminated water/water contaminated with sewage.
asthma
a medical condition which makes breathing difficult by causing the air passages to become narrow or blocked。
airborne
in the air, or carried by air or wind or by an aircraft; flying
The airborne radioactive particles have covered a huge area of Russia.
Airborne troops were dropped by parachute behind enemy lines.
The old plane had great difficulty getting airborne (= rising into the air).
eg:
The southwest Iranian city of Ahvaz walked away with the unfortunate distinction of having the highest measured level of airborne particles smaller than 10 micrometers.
walk away
ACCIDENT.
to escape an accident without being badly hurt
She overturned the car, but walked away from it without a scratch.
The southwest Iranian city of Ahvaz walked away with the unfortunate distinction of having the highest measured level of airborne particles smaller than 10 micrometers.
sulfur
US for sulphur.
a pale yellow element which exists in various physical forms. It burns with a blue flame and a strong smell and is used in medicine and industry.
eg:The list, which relies on country-reported data over the past several years, measures the levels of airborne particles smaller than 10 micrometers — so-called PM10s — for almost 1,100 cities.

WHO recommends an upper limit of 20 micrograms for PM10s, which can cause serious respiratory problems in humans. They are mostly sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide from power plants, auto exhausts and industry.
nitrogen
a gas with no colour or taste which forms about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere and is a part of all things which live.
eg:
The list, which relies on country-reported data over the past several years, measures the levels of airborne particles smaller than 10 micrometers — so-called PM10s — for almost 1,100 cities.

WHO recommends an upper limit of 20 micrograms for PM10s, which can cause serious respiratory problems in humans. They are mostly sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide from power plants, auto exhausts and industry.

Ahvaz's annual average of PM10s was 372 micrograms per cubic meter.

The study found that the Mongolian capital Ulan Bator had an annual average PM10s density of 279 micrograms per cubic meter, followed by another west Iranian city, Sanandaj, with 254 micrograms.

Cities in Pakistan and India, such as Quetta and Kanpur, as well as Botswana's capital Gaborone, also ranked high on the pollution scale.

WHO said the reasons for the high pollution levels varied, but that often rapid industrialization and the use of poor quality fuels for transportation and electricity generation are to blame.

At the other end of the list are cities in Canada and the United States, which benefit from lower population density, favorable climates and stricter air pollution regulation.

Yukon territory's capital Whitehorse had a yearly average of just 3 micrograms of PM10s per cubic meter, while Santa Fe, New Mexico, measured 6 micrograms.

Washington, D.C., had a level of 18 micrograms, Tokyo measured 23 micrograms, and Paris had 38 micrograms of PM10s per cubic meter.
eg: The report also notes what it calls the world's "Ecological Footprint." That is the effect of human activities on the planet. Mr. Lambertini says there has been an increase in carbon dioxide gases and the pouring of nitrogen into oceans and rivers from fertilizers used in agriculture. He says this cannot continue.

"So, we are consuming on average every year about the equivalent of about 1.5, one-and-a half times the resources available to the planet. That means we are cutting trees more quickly than they can be restored. We are fishing the oceans more quickly than fishing stocks can reproduce, and we are emitting in the atmosphere more CO2 than the natural systems can actually absorb. This is clearly not sustainable."
betrayal
an act of betraying someone or something, or when someone or something is betrayed.
I felt a sense of betrayal when my friends refused to support me.
eg:More conservative American Jews sometimes consider criticism of Israeli actions by some American Jews as a betrayal.

"The idea that you can't criticize Israel because to do so is anti-Semitic means that Israel as a state has carte blanche to do anything."
carte blanche
complete freedom to do something
[+ to infinitive] Her husband has given her carte blanche to redecorate the living room.
eg: More conservative American Jews sometimes consider criticism of Israeli actions by some American Jews as a betrayal.

"The idea that you can't criticize Israel because to do so is anti-Semitic means that Israel as a state has carte blanche to do anything."
fluid
smooth and continuous.fluid movements.
Unlike their counterparts of past generations, students at the University of Southern California Annenberg School of Journalism learn to deliver news across all platforms, including television, radio and the Web. And that's not all, said Willow Bay, director of the School of Journalism.

"Today we expect journalists to be able to use all sorts of technological tools to research stories, to vet that research, to analyze that research. We expect them to be fluid in multimedia storytelling skills. We expect them increasingly to be their own marketing and distribution arms, to get their stories in front of audiences and to spread those stories as far as they can," said Bay.
pressure
to strongly persuade someone to do something they do not want to do.
Thailand Media Pressured Under Military Rule
repression
when people are controlled severely, especially by force.
The political repression in this country is enforced by terror.
Phil Robertson is with the New York-based Human Rights Watch. He says the bans on news reports send a clear message to the Thai media.

"Well, I think there's a deepening repression of critical media bringing out points of view that the military junta disagree with. You know, what we're seeing is increased banning of reports, blocking of websites, issued warning to media both print and electronic media not to step across a line that only the military junta really knows where that line is."
junta
a government, especially a military one, that has taken power in a country by force and not by election
The military junta has/have today broadcast an appeal for calm.
coup
a sudden illegal, often violent, taking of government power, especially by (part of) an army
a military coup
eg: Supinya Klangnarong is a media rights activist and a member of the National Broadcasting Commission. She says the media are fearful over the future.
"A climate of fear is spreading at the national level and also the organizational level because of the coup and the martial law and all the criminalization of acts, especially up to the official, even at the NBTC - public figures - especially the officials are more sensitive - they could not tolerate criticism."
eg:Emma Sinclair Webb says that, since the unrest, there have been more restrictions on the media and the Internet, and stronger punishments for protesters.

"Then there are some very serious prosecutions of protesters, for even attempting a coup against the government. They face a possible life imprisonment. So you've got still with the crackdown against the Gezi protesters continuing, a year on, and very little justice for those who were victims of the massive police violence during Gezi protests."
eg: Emma Sinclair Webb is a top researcher on Turkey for Human Rights Watch. She says she is worried about the possibility the government will abuse the power the legislation gives it by making charges that cannot be proven -- just so it can seize property.

"Now, of course, coup plotting is a very serious charge but in Turkey it's a rather widely-used charge. We have seen it used against a group of football supporters for participating in protests. So I think increasing the power to seize assets is part of the government wanting to arm itself to crack down more on opponents."
across from
opposite.
"she sat across from me".
Some 2,000 African asylum seekers live at the Holot detention center, in the southern Israeli desert. They can leave during the day, but must report back three times a day. Across the street from the detention center is the Saharonim prison, where more than 1,000 Africans are held. They cannot leave.
sapphire
a precious stone, usually bright blue, that is often used in jewellery:
a ring with a large sapphire
a sapphire ring/bracelet
Why Apple went for glass instead of sapphire on the iPhone 6
pension
a sum of money paid regularly by the government or a private company to a person who does not work any more because they are too old or they have become ill
They find it hard to live on their state pension.
He won't be able to draw (= receive) his pension until he's 65.
try
to examine a person accused of committing a crime in a court of law by asking them questions and considering known facts, and then decide if they are guilty
Because of security implications the officers were tried in secret.
eg: But the professor notes Chinese government concerns about dual citizenship.
"For example, when a Chinese [citizen] who holds an American passport commits a crime, or has confrontation with the Chinese government, in case he or she is detained or tried in China, the Chinese government will have to inform and work with the U.S. on his case. This is not only a cumbersome process, but also gives foreign countries excuses to interfere with China's internal affairs."
eg: Eisenhower chose Senator Richard Nixon of California as his vice presidential candidate. By that time, Mr. Nixon was known throughout the United States for his strong opposition to communism.
Earlier, as a member of the House of Representatives, he had led the investigation of a former State Department official, Alger Hiss. Hiss was accused of helping provide secret information to the Soviet Union. Hiss denied the accusation. He was never officially charged with spying. But he was tried and found guilty of lying to a grand jury and was sentenced to prison.
cumbersome
awkward because of being large, heavy or not effective.
cumbersome equipment
cumbersome bureaucracy
But the professor notes Chinese government concerns about dual citizenship.

"For example, when a Chinese [citizen] who holds an American passport commits a crime, or has confrontation with the Chinese government, in case he or she is detained or tried in China, the Chinese government will have to inform and work with the U.S. on his case. This is not only a cumbersome process, but also gives foreign countries excuses to interfere with China's internal affairs."
dinosaur
a type of reptile which stopped existing about 60,000,000 years ago. There were many different types of dinosaur, some of which were extremely large.
eg: The dinosaur lay undiscovered for perhaps 77 million years after it died. Then, in 2005, an American scientist found some of its fossilized remains in the Patagonia area of southern Argentina.

Kenneth Lacovara says the first bones he saw were just a collection of small pieces. But additional digging resulted in the recovery of huge bones. Mr. Lacovara is both a paleontologist and a geologist. He realized his find was something enormous. The dinosaur may be among the largest land animals that ever lived.
confederate
united in or part of a confederacy
confederate states
In late 1860 and early 1861, South Carolina and other southern states withdrew from the Union. They formed a new nation called the Confederate States of America.
cannon
a large, powerful gun fixed to two or four wheels, which fires heavy stone or metal balls, and which was used in the past.
fort
a military building consisting of an area surrounded by a strong wall, in which soldiers live and which is designed to be defended from attack.
Major Robert Anderson led the small force of U.S. soldiers at Fort Sumter. Anderson could not use his most powerful cannons to answer the Confederate attack. The cannons were in the open at the top of the fort, where the gunners were not protected. Too many of his men would be lost if his force tried to fire these guns.

So Anderson had his men fire smaller cannons from better-protected positions. These, however, did not do much damage to the Confederate guns. A big cloud of smoke rose high in the air over Fort Sumter.
major
an officer of middle rank in the British, US and many other armed forces such as the US Air Force
Her father was a major in the Scots Guards.
I met Major Jones last year.
eg:Major Robert Anderson led the small force of U.S. soldiers at Fort Sumter. Anderson could not use his most powerful cannons to answer the Confederate attack. The cannons were in the open at the top of the fort, where the gunners were not protected. Too many of his men would be lost if his force tried to fire these guns.
eg:Print based on the painting called Hancock at Gettysburg by Thure de Thulstrup. Shows Major General Winfield S. Hancock riding along the Union lines during the Confederate bombardment prior to Pickett's Charge.
domestic violence
(n.) the inflicting of physical injury by one family or household member on another.
Twenty-five percent of American women will experience domestic violence, that is, physical abuse by a partner. Most cases are never reported to police. But recently such violence was captured on video tape.
suspension
when a person is temporarily not allowed to work, go to school or take part in an activity, as a punishment.
The footballer is likely to receive a three-match suspension following an incident in yesterday's game.
eg: Janay Rice has also used social media in connection with the video. On Instagram she wrote, "To make us relive a moment in our lives that we regret every day is a horrible thing."

She also criticizes her husband's dismissal from the Ravens and the NFL suspension.

Janay Rice is not the only one who feels that her husband's suspension went too far.
incompetent
not having the ability or skill to do something as it should be done
an incompetent teacher/doctor
He has described the government as corrupt and incompetent.
reactive
reacting to events or situations rather than acting first to change or prevent something
Unfortunately, the police have dealt with the problem of car theft in a reactive rather than a proactive way.
eg: Ms. Jacobs also says that the NFL has been merely reacting to events. She says the NFL's history on domestic violence issues is questionable. When asked if the NFL has changed, Ms. Jacobs says that remains to be seen.

"Well, that's still to be determined. Every single action by the NFL from the new domestic violence policy to Rice's indefinite suspension has been reactive. The League still seems to be incompetent when it comes to understanding domestic violence. So, it's very hard to say what has changed when really nothing has."
purple
of a dark reddish blue colour.
purple plums.
October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month and the color to represent it is purple. The non-profit National Network to End Domestic Violence has asked NFL football teams to wear the color purple for the month of October. The group hopes the action will help increase recognition of the problem.
marvellous
(US marvelous)extremely good
Now, you wait here. Your father has a marvelous surprise for you。 Ooh, what is it? If I told you, it wouldn't be a surprise。If you tell me, I'll still act surprised。You are such a naughty boy。
consulate
noun [C] the office where a consul works.
the Cuban consulate in Mexico City.
sour
unfriendly or easily annoyed
Overnight, it seemed, their relationship had turned sour.
eg: It's still in a very sour political state. The relationship is still at its lowest point.
puppet
a toy in the shape of a person or animal that you can move with strings or by putting your hand inside.
a person or group whose actions are controlled by someone else.
eg: Western powers have been accused of trying to establish a puppet government/regime in the divided country.
bridge
to make the difference or division between two things smaller or less severe
We must bridge the gap between labour and management.
eg: Teens Help Seniors Bridge Technology Gap
dumb
stupid and annoying.
I am more confident today than I was before. Today I have more hands-on. Working with young people makes it wonderful because that's all they know and they didn't make me feel that I was old or dumb."
grocery
grocery shop, US also grocery store.
As people are aging, their worlds get a little smaller. Some of them can no longer drive, some of them don't get out to make long trips to see their relatives. And it brings them back out into Facebook, into Skype and just to be able to communicate. They can do everything from ordering things from Amazon now, to ordering groceries or meals.
mob
a large angry crowd, especially one which could easily become violent
The angry mob outside the jail was/were ready to riot.
The first train of Union troops passed without incident. But a mob blocked the rail line and threw stones at the second train. Shots were fired. Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed.
inaugurate
to put someone into an official position with a ceremony
American presidents are always inaugurated on January 20th.
Abraham Lincoln and scene from his inauguration.
pamphlet
a thin book with only a few pages which gives information or an opinion about something.
Most people did not know very much about Abraham Lincoln, so the Republican Party published many books and pamphlets about him. They told the story of a poor farm boy who educated himself. Through hard work and honesty, they said, he had become a candidate for president.
glorious
deserving great admiration, praise and honour
a glorious victory.
a memorial to the glorious dead of two world wars.
gloriously
We've had gloriously sunny weather.
They looked gloriously happy.
Douglas expected Lincoln to win the election. But he knew a Lincoln victory would create problems. If Lincoln became president, some people who strongly supported slavery threatened to take the Southern states out of the union.

So Douglas turned his efforts to a campaign for the union itself. He said, "The election of a man to the presidency by the American people, under the Constitution, is no reason for any attempt to dissolve this glorious nation."
dissolve
to end an official organization or a legal arrangement
Parliament has been dissolved.
Their marriage was dissolved in 1968.
Douglas expected Lincoln to win the election. But he knew a Lincoln victory would create problems. If Lincoln became president, some people who strongly supported slavery threatened to take the Southern states out of the union.
So Douglas turned his efforts to a campaign for the union itself. He said, "The election of a man to the presidency by the American people, under the Constitution, is no reason for any attempt to dissolve this glorious nation."
electoral college
a group of people whose job is to choose a political or religious leader.
Election Day was November 6. The popular vote was close; the vote in the Electoral College was not. Lincoln received 180 electoral votes. Breckinridge received 72. Bell received 39. And Douglas received just 12.
convention
1.a large formal meeting of people who do a particular job or have a similar interest, or a large meeting for a political party.
the national Democratic convention.
Where are they holding their party convention?
eg: Their representatives met in Montgomery, Alabama. They agreed to create a new nation. It would be an independent republic called the Confederate States of America.

The convention approved a constitution for the new nation. The document was like the Constitution of the United States, but with major changes. The Confederate Constitution gave greater importance to the rights of states. And it said there could be no laws against slavery.
eg: Missouri was another slave state in question. Its governor tried hard to take Missouri out of the Union. He called a convention to decide the question. But a majority of the delegates refused to vote for secession.
2.a formal agreement between country leaders, politicians and states on a matter which involves them all.
the Geneva Convention.
a convention on human rights.
eg: Peace Democrats demanded an immediate end to the Civil War. They did not care if the north and south remained apart permanently.

The party's statement contained these words: "After four years of failure to restore the Union by war. . . justice, humanity, liberty, and the public welfare demand that immediate efforts be made to end the fighting. Let us look to a convention of states -- or other peaceable means -- to restore the Union."
intruder
someone who enters a place without permission in order to commit a crime
Intruders had entered the house through a back window.
assault
a violent attack
He was charged with sexual assault.
UK The number of indecent assaults has increased alarmingly over the past year.
an assault on a police officer.
Ms. Murray said the U.S. needs to have stronger laws about teaching children to use guns safely. She adds that American movies, video games and language create a culture of gun violence.

"Given that there are many societal influences on violence, I mean, it's bound to happen, you know, something like Newtown shooting is bound to happen with all that influence and easy access to guns and assault rifles."
bind sb to sth
to force someone to keep a promise
His sister had been bound to secrecy.
We are bound to the original contract.
militia
n. an army of citizens instead of professional soldiers.
Jim Tuttle is a reporter. He researched U.S. gun culture for a project called News21. One of the groups he visited was a citizen militia in the state of Mississippi.

"The folks that I met in the militia especially, they want their kids to be able to defend themselves if there's, you know, a home intruder or a home invasion or something like that."
uphold
to defend or keep a principle or law, or to state that a decision which has already been made, especially a legal one, is correct。
As a police officer you are expected to uphold the law whether you agree with it or not.
Judge Davis upheld the county court's decision.
eg: Because Mr. Scott was not a citizen, he had no right to ask the court even to hear his case.Jean Harvey Baker is a historian. She explains the decision this way: "The court ruled that blacks had no rights in the United States that the white man was bound to uphold."
plot
a secret plan made by several people to do something that is wrong, harmful or not legal, especially to do damage to a person or a government
The plot was discovered before it was carried out.
[+ to infinitive] The police have foiled a plot to assassinate the president.
eg: The raid on Harpers Ferry increased the bitterness of the national dispute over slavery. Members of the Democratic Party called the raid a plot by the Republican Party. Republican leaders denied the charge. They said the raid was the work of one man -- one madman. Still, they said, John Brown had acted for good reason: to end slavery in America.
foil
to prevent someone or something from being successful
The prisoners' attempt to escape was foiled at the last minute when police received a tip-off.
eg: The police have foiled a plot to assassinate the president.
humid
(of air and weather conditions) containing extremely small drops of water in the air.
eg: Weather: Becoming less humid with some showers
New York is very hot and humid in the summer.
shower
a short period of rain or snow
showers of rain, hail and sleet
You're soaked! Did you get caught in the shower?
There will be thundery/wintry showers over many parts of the country.
Snow showers are expected at the end of the week.
cask
a strong, round, wooden container used for storing liquid.
a cask of water/wine.
The Cask of Amontillado.
carnival
[C or U] (a special occasion or period of) public enjoyment and entertainment involving wearing unusual clothes, dancing, and eating and drinking, usually held in the roads of a city
There's a real carnival atmosphere in the streets.
eg: Late one evening during carnival season, I happened to meet Fortunato on the street. He was going home alone from a party. Fortunato was beautiful in his silk suit made of many colors: yellow, green, purple and red. On his head he wore an orange cap, covered with little silver bells. I could see he had been drinking too much wine. He threw his arms around me. He said he was glad to see me.
vinegar
a sharp-tasting liquid, made especially from sour wine, malt or cider, which is used to add flavour to or to preserve food.
cellar
a room under the ground floor of a building, usually used for storage.
"But my friend," I protested, "it is late. The wine is in my wine cellar, underneath the palace. Those rooms are very damp and cold and the walls drip with water."
damp
slightly wet, especially in a way that is not pleasant or comfortable.
"But my friend," I protested, "it is late. The wine is in my wine cellar, underneath the palace. Those rooms are very damp and cold and the walls drip with water."
stairway
a passage in a public place with a set of steps that leads from one level to another.
I took two large candles, lit them and gave one to Fortunato. I started down the dark, twisting stairway with Fortunato close behind me. At the bottom of the stairs, the damp air wrapped itself around our bodies.
moan
to make a long low sound of pain, suffering or another strong emotion
He moaned with pain before losing consciousness.
"Let me die," he moaned.
eg: By the time I laid the first row of stones Fortunato was no longer drunk. I heard him moaning inside the tiny room for ten minutes. Then there was a long silence.
granite
a very hard, grey, pink and black rock, which is used for building.
eg: I finished the second and third rows of stone blocks. As I began the fourth row, I heard Fortunato begin to shake the chains that held him to the wall. He was trying to pull them out of the granite wall.
shovel
a tool consisting of a wide square metal or plastic blade, usually with slightly raised sides, fixed to a handle, for moving loose material such as sand, coal or snow.
Should I put another shovelful of coal on the fire?
eg: "Ah yes," I said, "the cask of Amontillado." I leaned over and began pushing aside the pile of bones against the wall. Under the bones was a basket of stone blocks, some cement and a small shovel. I had hidden the materials there earlier. I began to fill the doorway of the tiny room with stones and cement.
eg: A miner uses a shovel to haul dirt at the Atunso Cocoase small-scale mine in Atunso, Ghana, Oct. 16, 2014.
nugget
a solid lump of a valuable metal (such as gold).
James Marshall found the gold nugget in January 1848. Mr. Marshall was building a sawmill near the American River in central California. When he looked in the water, he saw shiny pieces of metal. One of them was about the size of a fingernail. Mr. Marshall took the piece and put it in his mouth.
sawmill
a factory where trees are cut up into pieces with machines.
curator
a person in charge of a museum, library, etc.
Paul Johnston is curator of Maritime History at the Smithsonian's Museum of American History here in Washington, D.C. The museum displays the gold nugget Mr. Marshall found.
maritime
1.connected with human activity at sea
Amalfi and Venice were important maritime powers.
Make sure you visit the maritime museum if you're interested in anything to do with ships or seafaring.
eg: Paul Johnston is curator of Maritime History at the Smithsonian's Museum of American History here in Washington, D.C. The museum displays the gold nugget Mr. Marshall found.
2. near the sea or coast
The temperature change in winter is less pronounced in maritime areas.
pronounced
very noticeable or certain
I'm told I have a very pronounced English accent when I speak French.
She's a woman of very pronounced views which she is not afraid to air.
assay
to perform an examination on a chemical in order to test how pure it is.
Paul Johnston is curator of Maritime History at the Smithsonian's Museum of American History here in Washington, D.C. The museum displays the gold nugget Mr. Marshall found.

"And you can see Mr. Marshall actually bit down on it. You can see the molar marks, his bite mark on it as well a little chip taken out of the upper left hand corner for assaying, or testing the purity of the gold."
fed up
bored, annoyed or disappointed, especially by something that you have experienced for too long.
I'm fed up with my job.
He got fed up with all the travelling he had to do.
eg: .Mr.Larsen was so fed up with his children's prodigal spending that he cut their allowances in half.
swamp
(an area of) very wet soft land.
eg: The expedition faced a choice:Go the long way around the vast swamp and lost precious time or go through it and risk having their vehicles get stuck in a quagmire.
stuck
adjective.
1. unable to move, or fixed in a particular position, place or way of thinking.
eg: The expedition faced a choice:Go the long way around the vast swamp and lost precious time or go through it and risk having their vehicles get stuck in a quagmire.
2.in a difficult situation, or unable to change or get away from a situation.
We'd be stuck if your sister hadn't offered to come round and look after the children tonight.
be/get bogged down
to be/become so involved in something difficult or complicated that you cannot do anything else.
Let's not get bogged down with individual complaints.
UK Try not to get too bogged down in the details.
The defense lawyer introduced so much evidence that the trial became bogged down in a quagmire of irrelevant information.
volcano
a mountain with a large circular hole at the top through which lava (= hot liquid rock) gases, steam and dust are or have been forced out.
an extinct/dormant volcano.
an active volcano.
Erupting volcanoes discharge massive quantities of dust into the stratosphere.
The volcano is quiescent now,but it erupts the village surrounding it will be destroyed.
extinction
n., the state or situation that results when something (such as a plant or animal species) has died out completely.
eg:Marco Lambertini is the WWF's International Director-General. He spoke to VOA about the report.
"This is about losing natural habitats. This is about converting forests, grasslands, and wetlands into agriculture mainly, and it is about unsustainable use of wildlife. So, wildlife traffic, hunting, and unsustainable hunting practices like that. Poaching, as you mention, has been actually increasing over the last 10 years and is definitely a driving force for extinction, particularly of large species. But, also as you mention, there are dimensions to poaching that are related to timber, illegal logging and also fisheries."
rappel
US for abseil.to go down a very steep slope by holding on to a rope which is fastened to the top of the slope
She abseiled down the rock face.
eg: Field plant expert Steve Perlman has led protection of Hawaii's endangered species for more than 40 years. He is one of the state's first 'rock star' botanists. In the 1970s, he rappelled using ropes around his body to swing down from high cliffs to save the Brighamia insignis. People call this rare Hawaiian plant Alula.
cliff
a high area of rock with a very steep side, often on a coast.
Keep away from the edge of the cliff - you might fall.
the cliff edge.
eg: Field plant expert Steve Perlman has led protection of Hawaii's endangered species for more than 40 years. He is one of the state's first 'rock star' botanists. In the 1970s, he rappelled using ropes around his body to swing down from high cliffs to save the Brighamia insignis. People call this rare Hawaiian plant Alula.

"A lot of the botanists in the old days, at least for the first couple hundred years working in Hawaii, would be able to hike around the ridges and the valleys and find their species. But no one had ever really looked at the cliffs."

Then Mr. Perlman started to use those same methods of climbing and hanging from cliffs to get to other plants.

He is now in his 60s. But he is still rappelling off cliffs to save endangered plants. The rescued plants are varieties, or kinds, that have established themselves in places where hungry animals like goats and pigs could not get them. He says it is worth it to see a species survive.

"We know the Amazon is losing all these species. But Hawaii is losing species. There's an extinction crisis going on here, and we've already had over 100 species go extinct."
eg:Union General Ulysses Grant had been trying to seize Vicksburg for several months. It was not easy.

Vicksburg lay on the east side of the Mississippi River. It was built high above the water on a rocky cliff. As the river flowed past Vicksburg, it turned in sharply at the base of the cliff and then continued on to the gulf of Mexico.

The Confederates had placed cannon all along the sharp turn in the river. Enemy boats sailing past made easy targets.
hike
a long walk, especially in the countryside.
Field plant expert Steve Perlman has led protection of Hawaii's endangered species for more than 40 years. He is one of the state's first 'rock star' botanists. In the 1970s, he rappelled using ropes around his body to swing down from high cliffs to save the Brighamia insignis. People call this rare Hawaiian plant Alula.

"A lot of the botanists in the old days, at least for the first couple hundred years working in Hawaii, would be able to hike around the ridges and the valleys and find their species. But no one had ever really looked at the cliffs."
ridge
a long narrow raised part of a surface, especially a high edge along a mountain
We walked along the narrow mountain ridge.
figurative A ridge (= narrow area) of high pressure will bring good weather this afternoon.
eg:Field plant expert Steve Perlman has led protection of Hawaii's endangered species for more than 40 years. He is one of the state's first 'rock star' botanists. In the 1970s, he rappelled using ropes around his body to swing down from high cliffs to save the Brighamia insignis. People call this rare Hawaiian plant Alula.

"A lot of the botanists in the old days, at least for the first couple hundred years working in Hawaii, would be able to hike around the ridges and the valleys and find their species. But no one had ever really looked at the cliffs."

Then Mr. Perlman started to use those same methods of climbing and hanging from cliffs to get to other plants.

He is now in his 60s. But he is still rappelling off cliffs to save endangered plants. The rescued plants are varieties, or kinds, that have established themselves in places where hungry animals like goats and pigs could not get them. He says it is worth it to see a species survive.

"We know the Amazon is losing all these species. But Hawaii is losing species. There's an extinction crisis going on here, and we've already had over 100 species go extinct."
eg:There were few Confederate soldiers at Lookout Mountain. That end of the line fell easily. The center of the line was along a low hill called Missionary Ridge. It held for a while. Then Union soldiers -- acting without orders -- forced their way to the top of the hill. The Confederate line broke. Southern soldiers threw down their guns and ran for their lives.
pessimistic
thinking that bad things are more likely to happen or emphasizing the bad part of a situation。
The tone of the meeting was very pessimistic.
The doctors are pessimistic (= not hopeful) about his chances of recovery.
eg: "So people now are generally very pessimistic about the future viability of the model."
ransom
a large sum of money which is demanded in exchange for someone who has been taken prisoner, or sometimes for an animal.
n. money that has been paid in order to free someone who has been captured or kidnapped.
a ransom demand/note.
They demanded a huge ransom for the return of the little girl whom they had kidnapped.
eg: West Trades Accusations Over Hostage Ransoms.
consensus
a generally accepted opinion or decision among a group of people.
The general consensus in the office is that he's useless at his job.
Could we reach a consensus on this matter? Let's take a vote.
eg:"Ideally we would have an international consensus so perhaps Western liberal democracies, who are the targets of this type of hostage-taking, could agree to not pay ransoms. But then you run into sovereignty issues and you can't tell other governments how best to protest their citizens."
conception
Artist's conception of NASA's MAVEN arriving at Mars. (NASA)
leave
Transitive verb. [T] If you leave something in a particular condition you do not touch it, move it or act to change it in any way, so that it stays in the same condition.
Leave that chair where it is.
He left most of his dinner (= did not eat much of it).
[+ obj + adj ] The family were left (= became and continued to be) homeless.
I'll have to go back - I think I've left the iron on.
You can leave the window open.
Leave your sister alone (= Stop annoying her).
eg: National Atmospheric and Space Administration officials say MAVEN will study the planet's upper atmosphere. They say it is the first spacecraft designed to do so. NASA scientists say MAVEN will measure the rates at which gases leave the Martian atmosphere. They hope the information it gathers will help them learn how the climate of Mars has changed over time.
acronym
an abbreviation consisting of the first letters of each word in the name of something, pronounced as a word.
AIDS is an acronym for 'Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome'.
American scientists are calling the device MAVEN. That is an acronym -- a name made from a series of letters or parts of a group of words. MAVEN's real name is the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft.
in the lap of luxury
living in very comfortable conditions because you have a lot of money.
eg: This is easier to do when the leader of your country is forced to flee a revolution. Just ask Ukrainians. When Viktor Yanukovych fled to Russia, Ukrainians were finally able to see the lap of luxury in which the former president lived.
opulent
(adj.) very comfortable and very expensive.
This is easier to do when the leader of your country is forced to flee a revolution. Just ask Ukrainians. When Viktor Yanukovych fled to Russia, Ukrainians were finally able to see the lap of luxury in which the former president lived.

Before we tell you more about the property where he once lived, you will need some adjectives, words like opulent, extravagant, palatial and luxurious. Those words even sound expensive!
extravagant
(adj.) very expensive and not necessary.
This is easier to do when the leader of your country is forced to flee a revolution. Just ask Ukrainians. When Viktor Yanukovych fled to Russia, Ukrainians were finally able to see the lap of luxury in which the former president lived.

Before we tell you more about the property where he once lived, you will need some adjectives, words like opulent, extravagant, palatial and luxurious. Those words even sound expensive!
palatial
(adj.) very large and impressive; like a palace.
Ukrainians were shocked when protesters in February forced open the entrance to Mezhigirya (mih-zhi-GEAR-ee-uh), Mr. Yanukovych's private residence. The property is opulent, luxurious and estimated to be worth over one billion U.S. dollars. Such a high estimate only proves what many Ukrainians believed all along - that their country's leaders were corrupt.
appraisal
(n.) the act of judging the value, condition, or importance of something.
Some Ukrainians still do not trust government officials. The man still controlling the estate is commandant Denis Tarahkotelyk. He refuses to surrender the property over to the government.
He says two conditions must be met. First, the officials would need to take inventory, meaning recording details of everything on the grounds. Second is the appraisal, knowing what everything is worth. That way, he says, if something goes missing they will know who is responsible.
custody
the state of being kept in prison, especially while waiting to go to court for trial.
eg: Phil Robertson is the deputy Asia Director for Human Rights Watch. He says many Vietnamese have complained about abuse of detainees by police.

"This is a report about farmers, and businessmen, local merchants, students, and others who ended up in police custody for activities that you or I would not consider to be out of the ordinary and, in fact, where laws were broken these were invariably minor infractions -- yet these people ended up dead or injured from beatings inflicted on them by police while they were being held in police custody."
inflict
to force someone to experience something very unpleasant.
These new bullets are capable of inflicting massive injuries.
The suffering inflicted on these children was unimaginable.
eg: Phil Robertson is the deputy Asia Director for Human Rights Watch. He says many Vietnamese have complained about abuse of detainees by police.

"This is a report about farmers, and businessmen, local merchants, students, and others who ended up in police custody for activities that you or I would not consider to be out of the ordinary and, in fact, where laws were broken these were invariably minor infractions -- yet these people ended up dead or injured from beatings inflicted on them by police while they were being held in police custody."
influx
the arrival of a large number of people or things at the same time.
Turkey is expecting an influx of several thousand refugees over the next few days.
eg: "With the influx of men, women are needed to serve as wives," Ms. Saltman said.
projection
a calculation or guess about the future based on information that you have.
The latest population estimates appear in a report published in Science magazine. The findings replace the most recent U.N. projections, which were released in July.
outpace
to move or develop faster than someone or something else.
John Wilmoth says the pressure of feeding the rising population is likely to be less than might be expected.
"The relatively good news is that the world has been winning the race between population growth and food production. If you look back historically over the last 50 years, certainly for the world as a whole and for many, most individual countries and regions, the increase in food production has outpaced the increase of population."
Caribbean
(also the Caribbean Sea) the sea which is east of Central America and north of South America;
The researchers also believe that North America, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean area will have a total population of below one billion.
contraception
(the use of) any of various methods intended to prevent a woman becoming pregnant
They offer impartial advice on contraception.
What is the most reliable form/method of contraception?
eg:John Wilmoth is director of the United Nations Population Division. He says that in the past, researchers thought population growth in Africa would be similar to that of other areas. They expected slower growth rates as birth control use became more widespread. But he says those estimates were wrong.
"The level of contraception use has continued to increase but slowly - more slowly than expected - and fertility therefore has been falling less rapidly than expected, and the population therefore continues to grow somewhat more rapidly than we expected."
indicative
being or relating to a sign that something exists, is true, or is likely to happen
Resumption of the talks is indicative of an improving relationship between the countries.
And so, I think that's indicative of what I think we're seeing from the Chinese that they see themselves as sort of the heir apparent to the global power that the United States is today.
float
to start selling shares in a business or company for the first time.
Alibaba - have you heard of it, know the name or what it is, or care what it does? Because you might want to.
It's China's largest online shopping empire. It controls 80% of web sales in a nation of 1.4 billion people. It does more trade than Amazon and eBay combined, and its estimated value is $160 billion.
The company is about to be floated on the New York Stock Exchange in what's set to be the biggest debut in history, and it's creator is Jack Ma.
diminutive
very small.Alibaba will float on the New York Stock Exchange in what's set to be the biggest debut in history. Credit: Alibaba
He's a diminutive man and a former English teacher from Hangzhou, in eastern China.
flirtation
a short period of being interested in something or doing something.
That was just a flirtation with the internet. In 1999, his incredible vision then inspired him and 17 friends, all cramped in his one-bedroom apartment, to set up Alibaba.
charismatic
describes a person who has charisma.
Few were able to resist this charismatic and persuasive leader.
rags to riches
used to describe what happens to a person who was poor but becomes rich.
a rags-to-riches story.
eg:Jack Ma's dynamism and boundless scope for ideas "cast a spell on people." That's what Duncan Clark - an investment advisor in China who's known Jack for 15 years - told me.
He's a very charismatic man. The one thing that stands out both in English and Chinese is that he has the gift of the gab.

He can charm a room. He knows how to read a room, whether it's investors or customers or government people.

He knows how to delight people. He's a charmer. He's a chancer.

He's what we all think of as an entrepreneur, with a rags to riches story.
- DUNCAN CLARK SPEAKS TO ITV NEWS
the gift of the gab
the ability to speak easily and confidently in a way that makes people want to listen to you and believe you.
She's got the gift of the gab - she should work in sales and marketing.
eg: Jack Ma's dynamism and boundless scope for ideas "cast a spell on people." That's what Duncan Clark - an investment advisor in China who's known Jack for 15 years - told me.
He's a very charismatic man. The one thing that stands out both in English and Chinese is that he has the gift of the gab.

He can charm a room. He knows how to read a room, whether it's investors or customers or government people.

He knows how to delight people. He's a charmer. He's a chancer.

He's what we all think of as an entrepreneur, with a rags to riches story.
cast a spell
to use words thought to be magic, especially in order to have an effect on someone.
The old woman cast a spell on the prince and he turned into a frog.
figurative At 17 jazz cast its spell on me (= I started to like it very much).
Jack Ma's dynamism and boundless scope for ideas "cast a spell on people.
appalling
1. shocking and very bad.
appalling injuries
Prisoners were kept in the most appalling conditions.
2. very bad
appalling weather
The journey home was appalling.
appallingly.
The number of casualties was appallingly high in both wars.
The whole play was appallingly (= very badly) acted.
eg: The lack of control, lack of worker safety and working environment are appalling. And Turkey is ranked number one in Europe in terms of work accidents, and apparently number three after Algeria and El Salvador in the world. Observers qualify these work accidents as work assassinations.
assassination
the murder of someone famous or important.
an assassination attempt.
the assassination of the opposition leader.
eg: The lack of control, lack of worker safety and working environment are appalling. And Turkey is ranked number one in Europe in terms of work accidents, and apparently number three after Algeria and El Salvador in the world. Observers qualify these work accidents as work assassinations.
knock-off
a cheap copy of a popular product.
But China may not become a military rival for the US for decades to come, says Etzioni. "Many of China's latest military acquisitions are either upgraded knock-offs of old Soviet equipment or purchased from the former USSR—hardly state-of-the-art technologies. Others are unlikely to achieve full operational capability for years to come, including the headline-grabbing Chinese stealth fighter, the J-20. And perhaps the greatest perceived Chinese military threat, anti-aircraft—a.k.a. "carrier-killer"—ballistic missiles, have yet to be publicly tested over water against a maneuvering target."
state-of-the-art
very modern and using the most recent ideas and methods.
a state-of-the-art computer.
eg:But China may not become a military rival for the US for decades to come, says Etzioni. "Many of China's latest military acquisitions are either upgraded knock-offs of old Soviet equipment or purchased from the former USSR—hardly state-of-the-art technologies. Others are unlikely to achieve full operational capability for years to come, including the headline-grabbing Chinese stealth fighter, the J-20. And perhaps the greatest perceived Chinese military threat, anti-aircraft—a.k.a. "carrier-killer"—ballistic missiles, have yet to be publicly tested over water against a maneuvering target."
eg:First of all, I'll say that American education is expensive for Americans. I spent the good part of my twenties working to pay off college loan debt. So, American education is very expensive, but you're getting a high-quality education from some of the best professors in the world with some of the best resources and facilities in the world. American universities have state-of-the-art laboratories, computers, research systems, classrooms and all that is expensive. And also at many U.S. universities, you're learning from leading researchers and people who are at the top of the line in their field so it's also expensive for universities to have those people as professors. So, you're paying for a quality product—that's why it's very expensive.
per capita
If you state an amount per capita, you mean that amount for each person.
France and Germany invest far more per capita in public transport than Britain.
eg:Additionally, China has plenty of domestic affairs to worry about, says Etzioni. It has to address its widening income inequality, environmental degradation and aging population. As the world's second-largest economy, China is "on par with Algeria and El Salvador in per capita terms." It also has "four times more people than the US to feed, clothe, house, and otherwise keep satisfied."
par
on a par (with sb/sth). the same as or equal to someone or something.
As the world's second-largest economy, China is "on par with Algeria and El Salvador in per capita terms.
complex
a large building with various connected rooms or a related group of buildings.
a shopping/sports and leisure complex.
US They live in a large apartment complex.
eg:Indian Space Research Organization scientists and other officials celebrate the success of Mars Orbiter Mission at their Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network complex in Bangalore, India, Sept. 24, 2014.
violent
describes a situation or event in which people are hurt or killed.
violent religious extremists.
cult
a religious group, often living together, whose beliefs are considered extreme or strange by many people.
They should name it as it deserves to be called a cult of terror.
logger
a person who cuts down trees for wood.
An aerial view of a tract of Amazon jungle recently cleared by loggers and farmers near the city of Novo Progresso, Para state, Brazil, Sept. 22, 2013.
jungle
a tropical forest in which trees and plants grow very closely together.
An aerial view of a tract of Amazon jungle recently cleared by loggers and farmers near the city of Novo Progresso, Para state, Brazil, Sept. 22, 2013.
eg:For six months, the two sides fought for control of the island. Historian Samuel Eliot Morrison later described the action this way:

"For us who were there," Morrison wrote, "Guadalcanal is not a name but an emotion. Remembering terrible fights in the air. Fierce naval battles. Bloody fighting in the jungle. Nights broken by screaming bombs and the loud explosions of naval guns."
centimetre
a unit of length equal to 0.01 of a metre.
The country of Brazil is home to the world's largest rainforest - the Amazon. A rainforest is a kind of forest that receives at least 254 centimeters of rain each year. But the Brazilian government recently said the Amazon rainforest is being destroyed faster than had been estimated. Deforestation is the destruction of forests and wooded areas. Brazilian officials say deforestation of the Amazon increased by 29 percent in 2013. That is a large increase after gains that have taken place since 2009.
cubicle
a small space with walls or curtains around it, that is separate from the rest of a room and where you can be private when taking clothes off, etc.
a shower cubicle.
I was getting undressed in one of the cubicles.
In this 2007 file photo, employees of PayPal work in their cubicles in La Vista, Nebraska.
toe
any of the five separate parts at the end of the foot.
If you are sitting down listening to this Health Report, stand up. Move your legs. Touch your toes, if you can. Do anything but sit.
ubiquitous
seeming to be in all places.
Just the opposite, says Peter Katzmarzyk. He is a scientist at the University of Louisiana in the southern United States. He says that sitting is ubiquitous in our lives, meaning it is something we do all the time, everywhere. But, he adds, that does not make sitting good for us.

"Sitting is ubiquitous in our lives today. You know, we sit while we're eating, we sit in the car, we sit while we watch TV. And many of us sit for many hours at work. So on average, Americans report that they sit between four and a half to five hours a day."
mortality
n. the quality or state of being a person or thing that is alive and therefore certain to die.
"This is a relatively new area of study - studies that have assessed the relationship between sitting and mortality or television viewing and mortality are very rare. There's only been a few of them, actually five or six now, in the last four or five years."
Mr. Karzmarzyk and his colleagues used the few rare studies available to them. They found that cutting television time to less than two hours a day could add one-point four years to life.
treadmill
n. an exercise machine which has a large belt that moves around while a person walks or runs on it.
Change is already coming to some offices, especially in the design of desks. A "standing desk" lets people stand while they work. Another new design is called the "treadmill desk." A treadmill is an exercise machine that lets you walk in one place. Even some U.S. schools are beginning to experiment with desks that are part bicycle to keep children moving.
sedentary
involving little exercise or physical activity.
a sedentary job/occupation.
Mr. Katzmarzyk says studying this problem has inspired his team to make a few changes in their own lives.

"As a university professor, you know, it is a very sedentary occupation. We're chained to a desk in terms of writing papers and doing research. We really try to limit the amount of time we spend doing that.".
ingredient
(n.) one of the things that are used to make a food, product, etc.
To satisfy this taste for strange beer, many small, or micro, brewers are trying anything they can to stand out from the crowd - to be different. Some are even making their beer with ingredients that are old -- really, really old. Like 35 million years old.
A brewery, a place that makes beer, in the Washington D.C. area has joined with a couple of scientists to make a beer with a most unusual ingredient. The beer is made using bacteria from a 35-million-year-old bone.
brainchild
a clever and original idea, plan or invention.
The project was the brainchild of one of the students.
This beer is the brainchild of Jason Osborne. Jason is a non-professional, or amateur, paleontologist. For fun, he explores old bones, or fossils, in his free time. He was exploring a swamp in the U.S. state of Virginia when he found a 35-million-year-old- fossilized whale bone.
palaeontology
the study of fossils as a way of getting information about the history of life on Earth and the structure of rocks.
This beer is the brainchild of Jason Osborne. Jason is a non-professional, or amateur, paleontologist. For fun, he explores old bones, or fossils, in his free time. He was exploring a swamp in the U.S. state of Virginia when he found a 35-million-year-old- fossilized whale bone.
whale
a very large sea mammal that breathes air through a hole at the top of its head.
This beer is the brainchild of Jason Osborne. Jason is a non-professional, or amateur, paleontologist. For fun, he explores old bones, or fossils, in his free time. He was exploring a swamp in the U.S. state of Virginia when he found a 35-million-year-old- fossilized whale bone.
voila
used when showing to other people something that you have just made or got and are pleased with.
He thought, why not combine all the things he loves most - - biology, paleontology and beer? So, he took a sample, an example, of the yeast from this really old whale bone. Yeast is the most important ingredient for making beer. And voila! Here it is! A new beer is born.
conceive
1.to imagine something.
I think my uncle still conceives of me as a four-year-old.
He couldn't conceive of a time when he would have no job.
[+ question word] I can't conceive (= It is too shocking to imagine) how anyone could behave so cruelly.
[+ that] I find it hard to conceive (= It is too shocking to imagine) that people are still treated so badly.
eg: He thought, why not combine all the things he loves most - - biology, paleontology and beer? So, he took a sample, an example, of the yeast from this really old whale bone. Yeast is the most important ingredient for making beer. And voila! Here it is! A new beer is born.

"So the idea was conceived, it was basically a brainchild idea of mine to mix molecular biology, paleontology, and beer together. It's three things that I love."
2.to become pregnant, or to cause a baby to begin to form.
eg:Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
ferment
(v.) to go through a chemical change that results in the production of alcohol.
eg: Jason Osborne got help from his microbiologist friend Jasper Akerboom. Mr. Akerboom studies very small life forms and works as a brewing scientist at Lost Rhino. He says at first, he was not sure this was going to work. But, like a good scientist, he decided to experiment.
"We took out 20 samples from all kinds of fossilized materials. This was all done in Calvert Marine Museum in Maryland. And one of the samples started to ferment."
The result was surprising.
"It tastes very good. It tastes very fruity, very earthy. It is very dry."
So the brewers decided to brew a larger amount for buyers.
eg: Mr. Cohen added that many authoritarian governments were able to continue steady economic growth. He said China is no exception. But he added, "The very economic progress leads to the kind of ferment that we are beginning to witness in China."
on tap
1. describes beer which is served from a barrel through a tap.
2. available for use at any time.
Working in a library as I do, I have all this information on tap.
eg:Favio Garcia is also an owner of Lost Rhino. He says the brewery stays innovative by debuting, or introducing, a new kind of beer every couple of weeks. He also says you have to take risks to make progress. But he admits that the risks he takes are calculated risks. He weighs the good with the bad before going forward.

"Well, we have 16 beers on tap right now. You have to take a risk to move forward. So it is a calculated risk. But we are happy to take it and create something new and interesting with it."
strike
1.(struck, struck) If a thought or idea strikes you, you suddenly think of it.
[+ that] It's just struck me that I still owe you for the concert tickets.
Sitting at her desk, she was struck by the thought that there must be something more to life.
2.to discover a supply of oil, gas or gold underground
The first person to strike oil in the US was Edwin Laurentine Drake.
eg:The brewers offered it to the public at a special event at Lost Rhino's drinking room. The debut went well. People buying the beer, the customers, said great things about the taste of Bone Dusters Paleo Ale.

"It is fantastic. It is a pretty courageous move to strike that yeast and kind of develop some[thing] unique."

"I am not usually a yeasty, hoppy beer drinker. But it is really good."

"It is not over hopped; there is not much competing with yeast for flavor. So it really comes through. It's very drinkable."

Mr. Garcia hopes new ideas, or innovations, like this will help Lost Rhino compete in the growing local beer movement.

The brewers at Lost Rhino do not just talk about the importance of science. They put their money where their mouths are. Lost Rhino will give part of the profits made from the sale of Bone Dusters beer to science programs at schools that are lacking money.
eg:The enemy might strike their trail in the morning light.
yeast
(n.) a type of fungus that is used in making alcoholic drinks (such as beer and wine).
The brewers offered it to the public at a special event at Lost Rhino's drinking room. The debut went well. People buying the beer, the customers, said great things about the taste of Bone Dusters Paleo Ale.
"It is fantastic. It is a pretty courageous move to strike that yeast and kind of develop some[thing] unique."
"I am not usually a yeasty, hoppy beer drinker. But it is really good."
"It is not over hopped; there is not much competing with yeast for flavor. So it really comes through. It's very drinkable."
fungus
any of various types of organism which get their food from decaying material or other living things.
Mushrooms and mould are funguses.
Fungus can be poisonous.
hop
hops [plural].
the dried fruits of a climbing plant which are used to give a bitter flavour to beer.
"It is fantastic. It is a pretty courageous move to strike that yeast and kind of develop some[thing] unique."
"I am not usually a yeasty, hoppy beer drinker. But it is really good."
"It is not over hopped; there is not much competing with yeast for flavor. So it really comes through. It's very drinkable."
hoppy
like hops (= dried fruit used to make beer).
"It is fantastic. It is a pretty courageous move to strike that yeast and kind of develop some[thing] unique."
"I am not usually a yeasty, hoppy beer drinker. But it is really good."
"It is not over hopped; there is not much competing with yeast for flavor. So it really comes through. It's very drinkable."
guerrilla
a member of an unofficial military group that is trying to change the government by making sudden, unexpected attacks on the official army forces.
A small band of guerrillas has blown up a train in the mountains.
eg: Missouri, too, would remain in the Union. Missouri and Kentucky -- along with Delaware, Maryland, and eventually West Virginia - were called border states. They all stayed in the Union. But many people in these areas supported the Confederacy. Historian Amy Murrell Taylor says the border states seemed to fight their own civil war.

"We have towns that divide, cities that divide, communities, families that divide from one another." Some of the worst guerrilla violence of the war happened in the border states. As she observed, they were "fought over, fought through, and fought in."
pumpkin
a large round vegetable with hard yellow or orange flesh.
pumpkin pie.
They walked all across the valley. They saw the foot marks of Ichabod's horse as it had raced through the valley. They even found Ichabod's old hat in the dust near the bridge. But they did not find Ichabod. The only other thing they found was lying near Ichabod's hat.
It was the broken pieces of a round orange pumpkin.
jealous
unhappy and angry because someone has something or someone you want, or because you think they might take something or someone that you love away from you.
He had always been very jealous of his brother's good looks.
Anna says she feels jealous every time another woman looks at her boyfriend.
eg: Ichabod was happy dancing with Katrina as Brom looked at them with a jealous heart. The night passed. The music stopped, and the young people sat together to tell stories about the revolutionary war.
monster
any imaginary frightening creature, especially one which is large and strange.
a sea monster.
prehistoric monsters.
the Loch Ness monster.
eg:There, in the dark woods on the side of the river where the bushes grow low, stood an ugly thing. Big and black. It did not move, but seemed ready to jump like a giant monster.
eg:The Virginia could not move fast. It took almost 30 minutes to turn around. Still, there seemed to be no way to stop this iron monster. It already had destroyed two Union warships. And it was coming back for more.

The Union ship chosen to fight the Virginia was the Monitor. It, too, was covered with iron. But it was much smaller than the Virginia. And it carried only two cannons.
burial
the act of putting a dead body into the ground, or the ceremony connected with this.
eg: The valley known as Sleepy Hollow hides from the world in the high hills of New York state. There are many stories told about the quiet valley. But the story that people believe most is about a man who rides a horse at night. The story says the man died many years ago during the American Revolutionary War. His head was shot off. Every night he rises from his burial place, jumps on his horse and rides through the valley looking for his lost head.
rosy
having a colour between pink and red.
Your rosy cheeks always make you look so healthy.
eg:Among the ladies Ichabod taught was one Katrina Van Tassel. She was the only daughter of a rich Dutch farmer. She was a girl in bloom...much like a round red, rosy apple. Ichabod had a soft and foolish heart for the ladies, and soon found himself interested in Miss Van Tassel.
Ichabod's eyes opened wide when he saw the riches of Katrina's farm: the miles of apple trees and wheat fields, and hundreds of fat farm animals. He saw himself as master of the Van Tassel farm with Katrina as his wife.
bulky
too big and taking up too much space.
bulky equipment.
eg:Aimee Hess says the technology of e-publishing enables the Library of Congress to make a book that more people can buy and with more images than a printed version would have.

"If we had done this book in print, I think it likely would have contained fewer than half as many photos and it would have been one of those big, bulky, heavy art books. And, you know, I estimate that would probably sell for about $75."

Ms. Hess says she hopes that, in the future, the iBook will also be available as an eBook. That way, people who do not use Apple computers or other Apple devices will be able to enjoy it.
compelling
very exciting and interesting and making you want to watch or listen.
I found the whole film very compelling.
a compelling story.
eg: The work of some of the most-famous photographers in U.S. history is included in the iBook. But Ms. Hess says most of the pictures are from people like you and me.

"The bulk of the book are these unknown photographers, and their photographic contributions are just as important and just as interesting and compelling as, you know, these, these household names, so I think it's really nice that we're giving them their due."
household name
a famous person that most people know of.
He was a household name in the 1950s.
eg:The work of some of the most-famous photographers in U.S. history is included in the iBook. But Ms. Hess says most of the pictures are from people like you and me.

"The bulk of the book are these unknown photographers, and their photographic contributions are just as important and just as interesting and compelling as, you know, these, these household names, so I think it's really nice that we're giving them their due."
nitpick
to find faults in details which are not important.
Must you nitpick all the time?
eg: Ms. Hess says she expected criticism of her choices -- questions such as "Why did you choose that photograph?" or "Why didn't you include this one?" But they never came.

"You know, you can't please everyone with a book like this -- especially when there's just so much material I could have included. But actually it's been more, the comments have been more positive, just 'Oh wow, these images are amazing.' A lot of readers, you know, have said they had no idea that the Library of Congress had images like this. And so that, that's, you know, exactly what we wanted -- we wanted people to realize that we have these in our collection, and that these images are for everybody, they're for the public. You know, they're, you can use these images. So, it, it's been really positive. Nobody's really complained about, or nitpicked. I think people are just happy that we did it."
impediment
something that makes progress, movement, or achieving something difficult or impossible.
In a number of developing countries, war has been an additional impediment to progress.
eg: to move within the country.
"This is not, no longer a problem. Even though they have that household registration system still in place, but this not a major impediment."
Like most international migrants, immigrants within China are seeking better jobs and richer opportunities.
runoff
[C] a second or final election held when no one got enough votes to win an earlier election.
The political battle ended earlier this week when Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah agreed on a power-sharing deal. The deal requires election officials to keep the results of the June runoff vote secret.
relief
a feeling of happiness that something unpleasant has not happened or has ended.
[+ to infinitive] It was such a relief to hear that Marta was found safe and well.
After the exam, I felt an incredible sense of relief.
"James can't come tonight." "Well, that's a relief!"
to seek/find/provide relief from the heat/cold/pain/noise.
eg: Kate Clark is with the Afghanistan Analysts Network. She has studied Afghan politics for many years. She worries that the deal will not bring good governance and lasting peace to the country.
"There is relief that it's over for now but that is very, very short term relief. There is not a great—there is not a great sense of optimism that this will work out very well. It's felt like people in charge, the politicians are actually more concerned about getting their own seats, getting their own positions than they have been about the future of the country, that's the impression that has been given."
mandate
n. the power to act that voters give to their elected leaders.
the authority given to an elected group of people, such as a government, to perform an action or govern a country.
At the forthcoming elections, the government will be seeking a fresh mandate from the people.

[+ to infinitive] The president secured the Congressional mandate to go to war by three votes.
eg:The African Union approved the task force, but did not provide an order or mandate for it. That means there is no financial support, and donors must provide everything needed.
eg:She also says the large number of voters surprised many critics and angered the Taliban. Gaining popular support is important for defeating rebel groups. But, she says, the power-sharing agreement makes the Taliban less likely to negotiate an end to the war.

"And what we have got now, all that goodwill, that freshness, that motivation, I would say has been lost. I would say at the moment the main problem with getting the Taliban to stop fighting is that whereas earlier on in the year the Afghan state looked like it was going to emerge strong, united with a popular democratic mandate . . .as an opponent that was to be feared. What's instead happened is that the state is a lot weaker, a lot more contested. And if you're the Taliban and you are making a political calculation as to what will suit you best, earlier in the year you might have been thinking about talks, now I am sure you'll be thinking about fighting."
contest
1. If you contest a formal statement, a claim, a judge's decision, or a legal case, you say formally that it is wrong or unfair and try to have it changed.
We will certainly contest any claims made against the safety of our products.
2. a competition to do better than other people, usually in which prizes are given.
a dance/sports contest.
She's won a lot of beauty contests.
eg:She also says the large number of voters surprised many critics and angered the Taliban. Gaining popular support is important for defeating rebel groups. But, she says, the power-sharing agreement makes the Taliban less likely to negotiate an end to the war.

"And what we have got now, all that goodwill, that freshness, that motivation, I would say has been lost. I would say at the moment the main problem with getting the Taliban to stop fighting is that whereas earlier on in the year the Afghan state looked like it was going to emerge strong, united with a popular democratic mandate . . .as an opponent that was to be feared. What's instead happened is that the state is a lot weaker, a lot more contested. And if you're the Taliban and you are making a political calculation as to what will suit you best, earlier in the year you might have been thinking about talks, now I am sure you'll be thinking about fighting."
skeleton
1.the frame of bones supporting a human or animal body.
eg:Paleontologists learned to build the skeleton of Spinosaurus. That led to a life-size replica or copy of the ancient creature. Scientists say it grew bigger than a more famous dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus Rex.
eg:Holding a human rib bone in her gloved hand, Baylor University Anthropology Professor Lori Baker notes signs of postmortem damage -- damage done after death.
"This would be indicative of vulture damage."
The bone is part of a skeleton, a set of bones. It was found in the lower Rio Grande River valley of Texas, close to the Mexican border. People dying in the desert, their remains being eaten by scavenger birds such as vultures, are realities of Ms. Baker's work.
nostril
either of the two openings in the nose through which air moves when you breathe.
Spinosaurus had a nostril on the back of its head. That made it possible for the creature to breathe when part of its head was under water. Its long neck and short, powerful back legs helped it swim. But on land, it probably did not walk standing up like other meat-eating dinosaurs.
spine
the line of bones down the centre of the back that provides support for the body and protects the spinal cord.
eg:Its back was topped with spines shaped like sails. These bony structures were connected by skin and measured two meters tall. They stood partly out of the water as Spinosaurus swam after food targets including fish the size of an automobile.
aquatic
living or growing in, happening in, or connected with water.
eg:"It ate sharks. But it probably included all kinds of aquatic animals in its prey. And the size of these aquatic animals is probably one of the factors that drove the evolution of the giant-body size in Spinosaurus."
landmark
n. a structure or object on the land that is easily recognized; a building or other structure that is historically important.

The Waldorf Astoria was named a New York City landmark in 1993. Other landmarks are the Empire State Building and the Brooklyn Bridge.
trade surplus
n. the monetary value by which a country's exports are greater than a country's imports.
China holds about $1.2 trillion dollars in United States treasury securities. While these investments are safe, they do not give high returns, or yields. China has increasingly looked for other ways to invest its huge trade surplus with the U.S.
monetary
relating to the money in a country.
monetary policy.
monetary control.
The monetary unit of the UK is the pound.
grandeur
the quality of being very large and special or beautiful.
the silent grandeur of the desert.
the grandeur of Wagner's music.
Hilton Worldwide is selling the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City to a Chinese company for $1.95 billion. The buyer -- Anbang Insurance Group -- will pay one of highest prices ever for a U.S. hotel. Hilton Worldwide says it will use the money from the sale to buy other hotels in the United States. As part of the deal, Hilton will continue to operate the Waldorf Astoria for the next 100 years.
The Chinese buyer has said it will invest in remodeling the famous property on Park Avenue to bring it back to its "historical grandeur."
boost
when something is boosted.
The lowering of interest rates will give a much-needed boost to the economy.
Passing my driving test was such a boost to my confidence.
eg:At the Waldorf Astoria, Stanley Wong, a Cantonese-speaking senior concierge, says more Chinese tourists will be a boost for retail across the region.
critical of
adj. expressing disapproval.
Human Rights Watch says Mr. Erdogan and his ruling Justice and Development Party are taking steps to control the media and the Internet. It also claims they are clamping down on those who are critical of the government.
clamp down
v. to prevent something, typically in a harsh way.
The government is clamping down on teenage drinking.
eg:Human Rights Watch says Mr. Erdogan and his ruling Justice and Development Party are taking steps to control the media and the Internet. It also claims they are clamping down on those who are critical of the government.
authoritarian
demanding that people totally obey and refusing to allow them freedom to act as they wish.adj. enforcing strict obedience to authority.
an authoritarian regime/government/ruler.
His manner is extremely authoritarian.
Human Rights Watch has warned that Turkey is becoming more authoritarian. The group says the rule of law is slowly breaking down under Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. And it accuses him of launching a campaign against opponents and media freedom.
wield
to hold a weapon or tool and look as if you are going to use it.
She was confronted by a man wielding a knife.
eg:Emma Sinclair Webb studies Turkey for Human Rights Watch. She also wrote the group's new report on the country. She says the changes there are very concerning.
"Basically over the last year, we've seen the Turkish government respond to political opposition with an extremely heavy-handed approach, which basically is willing to sacrifice the rule of law, to erode judicial independence and to really tear up the rule book and wield the stick against political oppositionists."
judiciary
the part of a country's government which is responsible for its legal system and which consists of all the judges in the country's courts of law.
eg:Emma Sinclair Webb says the government wants to have control of judiciary powers -- the courts and judges.
"And they basically have shown signs of wanting to have prosecutors and judges who simply do the government's bidding and simply act according to the government's interests. Once you start creating a judiciary that does that you lose all independence of the judiciary, and you fundamentally undermine the rule of law."
ponder
to think carefully about something, especially for a noticeable length of time.
She sat back for a minute to ponder her next move in the game.
eg:President Obama praised disabled military veterans as he officially opened a memorial in their honor earlier this month. The president said the new memorial recognizes two centuries of Americans who were physically or mentally injured while fighting for the United States.
"From this day forward, Americans will come to this place and ponder the immense sacrifice on their behalf, the heavy burden born by few so that we might live in freedom and peace."
blessing
noun [C] (LUCKY SITUATION) .
something which is extremely lucky or makes you happy.
It was a blessing that no one was killed in the accident.
eg:Ron Hope is head of the group Disabled American Veterans. He says the country's recognition of disabled veterans is a long time coming.
"I think this memorial is going to be a place that not only the disabled veterans themselves, but their families, their survivors, their caregivers, especially their caregivers, and their dependents can come and reflect upon what it cost every day for their blessings and their freedoms in this country."
A blessing is something good that you are grateful for. ⇒ Rivers are a blessing for an agricultural country.
eg: The 1964 Civil Rights Act was a law to help guarantee equal chances for jobs for all Americans. It also helped guarantee equal treatment for minorities in stores, eating places, and other businesses.

When Johnson signed the bill, he said:

JOHNSON: "We believe that all men are created equal. Yet many are denied equal treatment. We believe that all men have certain unalienable rights. Yet many Americans do not enjoy those rights. We believe that all men are entitled to the blessings of liberty. Yet millions are being deprived of those blessings -- not because of their own failures -- but because of the color of their skin."
philanthropist
a person who helps the poor, especially by giving them money.
a donation from a wealthy 19th-century philanthropist.
eg:Philanthropist Lois Pope began campaigning for the memorial almost 20 years ago after she met with soldiers at a rehabilitation center. She is the co-founder of an organization that raised more than $80 million dollars for the memorial. She gave $10 million dollars of her own money to help build the American Veterans Disabled for Life Memorial.
sauté
to cook food in oil or fat over heat, usually until it is brown.
eg: You can also lightly sauté kale with garlic, some hot pepper and a little salt for a simple, delicious and healthy side dish. A side dish is a smaller dish that goes with the main meal.
Sautéed kale with nuts also goes well with fish. Kale is tasty when sautéed with foods like tomatoes or red peppers.
You can mix or drizzle kale with olive oil and bake it for 15 minutes until it gets crispy. These are called kale chips. You can also bake it on top of pizza for a healthy topping.
crispy
describes food that is hard enough to be broken easily.
eg:You can mix or drizzle kale with olive oil and bake it for 15 minutes until it gets crispy. These are called kale chips. You can also bake it on top of pizza for a healthy topping.
seasoning
a substance that is added to savoury food to improve its flavour.
Taste the soup and adjust the seasoning, adding more salt or pepper as desired.
eg: The vegetable kale can be tough or hard. But it keeps more nutrients if you don't cook it too much. Here is a trick. Simply rub or massage the kale leaves with olive oil and seasonings. The leaves will break down and soften. The stems, or stalks, will remain tough. But you can sauté them or place them in soup for added vitamins and taste.
balsamic vinegar
After you massage your kale, add a little more olive oil and sweet balsamic vinegar as a dressing - or your own favorite salad dressing. Add your favorite toppings for a healthy and delicious salad.
dressing
a liquid mixture, often containing oil, vinegar and herbs, which is added to food, especially salads.
eg:After you massage your kale, add a little more olive oil and sweet balsamic vinegar as a dressing - or your own favorite salad dressing. Add your favorite toppings for a healthy and delicious salad.

Steaming kale on the stovetop is a really healthy way of cooking this leafy green vegetable. First boil a pot of water and steam the kale on top in a steamer container.

You can also lightly sauté kale with garlic, some hot pepper and a little salt for a simple, delicious and healthy side dish. A side dish is a smaller dish that goes with the main meal.
drizzle
v. to pour a small amount of liquid onto or over something.
You can mix or drizzle kale with olive oil and bake it for 15 minutes until it gets crispy. These are called kale chips. You can also bake it on top of pizza for a healthy topping.
bleed
[I] to lose blood.
At first, the Confederates pushed Grant's Union army back. But in the thick of the struggle, General Johnston was shot in the leg. The bullet cut through an artery. Johnston bled to death before help arrived.
in the thick of sth
in the most active or dangerous part of a particular situation or activity .
He was always right there, in the thick of it when the fighting started.
She loves being in the thick of the action.
eg:At first, the Confederates pushed Grant's Union army back. But in the thick of the struggle, General Johnston was shot in the leg. The bullet cut through an artery. Johnston bled to death before help arrived.
tantalizing
describes something that causes desire and excitement in you, but which is unlikely to provide a way of satisfying that desire.
I caught a tantalizing glimpse of the sparkling blue sea through the trees.
eg: Spacecraft Sends 'Tantalizing' Information from Mars.
teaser
A short introductory advertisement for a product that stimulates interest by remaining cryptic.
eg:Bruce Jakosky leads the mission. He is a professor in the geological sciences department at the University of Colorado in Boulder. He said Tuesday that seven of the spacecraft's eight instruments are already providing information to scientists. He says much more will be received from the instruments in the next few weeks.
"What we're seeing so far is really just a tantalizing teaser of what's to come."
embryo
n. a human or animal in the early stages of development before it is born.
Some seek local Thai doctors who will create embryos from donors or from a person who wants to become a parent. The embryos are then implanted in young Thai women. These women become paid surrogates. They offer their wombs to carry the babies until they are born.
surrogate
[C] something that replaces or is used instead of something else.
For some people, reading travel books is a surrogate for actual travel.
(also surrogate mother) a woman who has a baby for another woman who is unable to become pregnant or have a baby herself.
She has agreed to act as a surrogate mother for her sister.
eg:Thailand is campaigning against commercial surrogacy, one of the world's most unregulated industries. In this industry, infertile foreign couples pay Thai women to bear children. Experts report that the market is growing. They say the business produces hundreds of millions of dollars a year.
Over the past several months, Thailand has been an uncontrolled base for overseas surrogacy. Childless men and women from around the world use agencies based in Thailand that advertise for surrogates over the Internet.
Some seek local Thai doctors who will create embryos from donors or from a person who wants to become a parent. The embryos are then implanted in young Thai women. These women become paid surrogates. They offer their wombs to carry the babies until they are born.
But in August, police reportedly stopped two same-sex Australian couples and two American couples at a Bangkok airport. The couples were prevented from leaving the country with surrogate babies born to Thai women. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation made the report.
infertile
adjective.An infertile person, animal or plant cannot reproduce.
It has been estimated that one in eight couples is infertile.
Infertile land or soil is not good enough for plants or crops to grow well there.
Poor farmers have little option but to try to grow food on these infertile soils.
eg:Dr. Somsak Lolekha is chairman of the Medical Council of Thailand. He told VOA the proposed legislation will have an immediate effect.
"Most doctors stopped doing this because they worry. It's not clear whether they will be put in jail -- or not -- as a criminal. We have to discuss with the government when they pass a law. It's our duty to help the infertile people to have kids."
genetic
belonging or relating to genes (= parts of the DNA in cells) received by each animal or plant from its parents.
a genetic defect/disease.
eg:Under Thai medical regulations, surrogate mothers are paid only for their expenses. Also, the mother should be a relative of one of the possible parents. Still, medical officials say current medical rules permit surrogacy by a woman unrelated to the genetic parents on a case-by-case basis.
artificial insemination
member of the family of the couple seeking to have a child. No surrogacy by artificial insemination would be permitted for same-sex couples or those who are not married.
fast track
n. a process or way of proceeding that produces a desired result quickly.
eg:Some key government officials are calling for a careful study among interest groups before a new law is passed.
Dr. Somsak Lolekha says if the legislation is put on a fast track, it will affect the future of thousands of babies now carried for foreigners by Thai surrogates.
aboveboard
easily seen, honest, not trying to deceive:
The discussions were completely open and aboveboard.
eg:Caspar Peek is the U.N. Population Fund's representative in Thailand. He says legislation should protect the rights of the child, in his words, "first and foremost." Mr. Peek also said legislation should protect the surrogate mother. And he said the law should protect the people who want to be parents whose genetic material -- or DNA -- is being used.
"(Because) once it becomes commercial then the motivations of women to accept this (commercial surrogacy) will change. You may get the wrong people into this; you may get very young girls, you may get very poor women, you may get women who are undernourished and of course that creates a risk to their health as well. And of course there are people who will make money on this -- and then it's all not aboveboard anymore."
patronage
1.the support given to an organization by someone.
The Conservative Party enjoys the patronage of much of the business community.
2.the power of a person to give someone an important job or position.
Patronage is a potent force if used politically.
eg:John Garnaut spoke with VOA reporter Michael Lipin. He says Mr. Leung is caught between what he calls two "completely different" masters.
"One is in Beijing, who cares primarily about loyalty, who operates in an underground, you know, old underground, revolutionary fashion - all about patronage and secrets, including underhand money dealings. And there is, of course, the Hong Kong people, which is a completely different tier. It is a pluralistic, democratic society, people demanding open representation, and demanding that politicians answer questions. So C.Y. Leung is caught in between these two different systems."
legitimize
make something legal or acceptable.
The government fears that talking to terrorists might legitimize their violent actions.
eg:Another problem facing the new government is the Afghan economy. Some observers say the economy is in serious trouble.
U.S. officials warn that corruption and the illegal drug trade are strong. Andrew Wilder says there is a reason for this.
"What is really going to de-legitimize this government, I think, even more so than a flawed election process will be if it can't pay salaries, can't provide social services and the economy collapses."
flawed
adjective.not perfect, or containing mistakes:
Diamonds are still valuable, even when they are flawed.
His argument is deeply flawed.
flawed beauty.
eg:Another problem facing the new government is the Afghan economy. Some observers say the economy is in serious trouble.
U.S. officials warn that corruption and the illegal drug trade are strong. Andrew Wilder says there is a reason for this.
"What is really going to de-legitimize this government, I think, even more so than a flawed election process will be if it can't pay salaries, can't provide social services and the economy collapses."
eg:Russia, cut off from Western capital by sanctions, will struggle to pay for it. The countries on the route are also cash-strapped, and Brussels is unlikely to provide financing. The EU's energy chief has said the Russian idea is economically flawed and in breach of legally binding contracts.
implode
to fail suddenly and completely and be unable to operate。
Their economy is in danger of imploding.
eg:China's Banks Are Getting Ready For A Debt Implosion.
thrift store
a store that sells used things such as clothes, books, and furniture.
reel
a round wheel-shaped object on which sewing thread, fishing wire, film, etc. can be rolled, or the amount of thread, etc. stored on one of these.
buck
1.a dollar.
Can I borrow a couple of bucks?
He charged me twenty bucks for a new hubcap.
一个新的毂盖他要了我20美元。
2. used in a number of expressions about money, usually expressions referring to a lot of money.
He earns mega-bucks (= a lot of money) working for an American bank.
So what's the best way to make a fast buck (= earn money easily and quickly)?
eg:"It's the combination of this being, I think, dramatic figures speaking at what was really a dramatic time. I mean this is a time period where society is really changing."
bet
[I or T] to risk money on the result of an event or a competition, such as a horse race, in the hope of winning more money.
e regularly goes to the races and bets heavily.
She bet £500 000 on the horse which came in second.
[+ two objects, + (, that, )] I bet you $25 that I'll get there before you.
eg:"It's the combination of this being, I think, dramatic figures speaking at what was really a dramatic time. I mean this is a time period where society is really changing."
shot
an attempt to do or achieve something that you have not done before.
I thought I'd have a shot at making my own wine.
I've never tried bowling before, but I thought I'd give it a shot.
eg:Tim Groeling is chairman of the university's Communications Department. He says the audio, or sound, recordings are from an important period in history.

"It's the combination of this being, I think, dramatic figures speaking at what was really a dramatic time. I mean this is a time period where society is really changing."

The recordings were left in storage areas and forgotten until recently, when Tim Groeling discovered an old tape player by chance.

"I was at a thrift store and saw an old reel-to-reel unit for 20 bucks ($20). That, I'm like, 'I bet that fits with the tapes, and (for) 20 bucks (I) might as well give it a shot."

He bought the tape player from the store. Then he asked a former student, Derek Bolin, to help make digital versions of the recordings.

"I felt very good about doing this because I felt like I was preserving a piece of history."
edge
verb.to move slowly with gradual movements or in gradual stages, or to make someone or something move in this way.
A long line of traffic edged its way forward.
Inflation has edged up to 5% over the last two years.
Those who disagreed with the director's viewpoint were gradually edged out of (= forced to leave) the company.
eg: Stan Greenberg is a public opinion expert for Democrats. He says the president's popularity may have recently increased because of his decision to attack Islamic State militants in Iraq and Syria.
"We'll look at what happened with ISIS and Syria and Iraq, and it might represent a point in which the president edged up nationally."
incumbent
1.officially having the named position.
The incumbent president faces problems which began many years before he took office.
eg:Charlie Cook writes about political campaigns. He says some Democratic senators running for re-election are telling voters they no longer strongly support President Obama.
"What are midterm elections about, particularly second term midterm elections? It is a referendum on the incumbent president. You know, I am going to use a technical political science term here. This is a bummer (bad) environment for Democrats."
2.be incumbent on/upon sb
to be necessary for someone.
She felt it incumbent upon/on her to raise the subject at their meeting.
eg:In the fourth debate, they expressed widely different opinions about whether the United States was making progress. Kennedy believed there had been little progress under Eisenhower and Nixon. He said:

KENNEDY: "Franklin Roosevelt said in 1936 that that generation of Americans had a rendezvous with destiny. I believe in nineteen sixty and sixty-one and two and three, we have a rendezvous with destiny. And I believe it incumbent upon us to be defenders of the United States and the defenders of freedom. And to do that, we must give this country leadership. And we must get America moving again."
broom
a brush with a long handle, used for cleaning the floor.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, center, sweeps an a road with a broom along with civic workers in New Delhi, India, Thursday, Oct. 2, 2014.
garbage
(UK rubbish) waste material or unwanted things that you throw away.
eg:Ministers, lawmakers and school leaders also picked up brooms and trash cans to sweep streets and clear garbage. They hoped to bring attention to the issue of better sanitation. Traditionally in India, cleaning is considered a task to be done by people in a lower social class or caste.
expel
1.to force someone to leave a school, organisation or country.
The new government has expelled all foreign diplomats.
My brother was expelled from school for bad behaviour.
2.to force air or liquid out of something.
She took a deep breath, then expelled the air in short blasts.
When you breathe out, you expel air from your lungs.
eg:Mr. Modi began the "Clean India" campaign on the birth anniversary of Mohandas Gandhi. He had called good sanitation more important than independence. Mr. Gandhi urged his followers not to associate cleaning with something only done by people of a lower class.
Another important part of the campaign will be to build toilets. Studies suggest more than half of Indians expel bodily waste outside. This can spread diseases like diarrhea. And, women are exposed to the risk of sexual attack when they go into the fields after dark. A World Bank study estimates that poor sanitation costs India $54 billion in treatments for illnesses, early deaths and lost work time.
Yankee
US an American who comes from the Northern US.
eg:One Confederate officer, trying to prevent his troops from moving back, pointed to a group led by General T. J. Jackson of Virginia. "Look!" he shouted. "There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!"

The fighting was fierce. The air was full of flying bullets. A newspaper reporter wrote the whole valley was boiling with dust and smoke. A Confederate soldier told his friend, "Them Yankees are just marching up and being shot to hell."
rally
v. gather as a group.
n.a public meeting of a large group of people, especially supporters of a particular opinion.
5000 people held an anti-nuclear rally.
an election/campaign rally
eg: In the first few hours of the battle, Union forces were winning. They attacked with artillery and pushed the Confederate forces back. Some of the southern soldiers began to run.

One Confederate officer, trying to prevent his troops from moving back, pointed to a group led by General T. J. Jackson of Virginia. "Look!" he shouted. "There is Jackson, standing like a stone wall! Rally behind the Virginians!"
admission
when someone is given permission to enter a place, or the money that you pay to enter a place.
Admission to the exhibition will be by invitation only.
How much do they charge for admission.
The admission charge/fee is £2.
There's a notice outside the building which says 'No admission before 12 noon'.
eg:Many foreign students are frightened of the TOEFL because it is risky. Good test results on the TOEFL will open many doors. But a low TOEFL score will limit your choices for financial aid and admission to top schools. The most competitive universities generally expect an Internet-based test score of 90 or above. Others accept lower scores, and some do not require a TOEFL score at all. Most universities do not publicize an actual cutoff score, but a high score will always help.
scholarship
an amount of money given by a school, college, university or other organization to pay for the studies of a person with great ability but little money.
He got/won a scholarship to Eton.
Paula went to the Royal College of Music on a scholarship.
eg:There are two major versions of the TOEFL test. The first is the iBT, or Internet-based Test. It is offered in most of the world and accepted by nearly every university and scholarship program in the United States.

The other version of the test is called the Paper-based Test or PBT. It is still used in some developing countries. Scholarship programs provide money for a student to continue his or her education. Many scholarship programs will accept the PBT results when a student first asks for financial aid. However, they may require students to take the iBT before official admission. The PBT is less costly to take and does not require use of the Internet. Some businesses and government offices use the PBT to test the English language skills of their employees.
phase out
v. stopping something gradually over a period of time in a planned series of steps or phases.
eg:If you have a choice, take the iBT if it is not too pricey. The Paper-based test is being phased out. It will eventually disappear.
eg:It is easy to find study guides for the iBT. Pearson, Barron's, ETS, and Kaplan all produce quality materials. Take a practice test once or twice a month. The best study guides will have explanations in the answer key. PBT study guides are difficult to find because the test is being phased out.
outwit
v. to defeat or trick (someone) by being more intelligent or clever.
eg: The bottom line is, the best way to do well on the TOEFL is to know English well. Do not depend on informal advice or tricks. Do not try to outwit the test maker. Think of reading, listening, speaking, writing, and grammar as a single connected concept-communication. The real goal of the test is to measure how well a student can communicate in English-speaking classroom. Immerse yourself in English on a daily basis and improvement is sure to follow.
enormously
extremely or very much.
She worked enormously hard on the project.
The show was enormously popular.
Blood levels can vary enormously throughout a 24-hour period.
pilot
v. done as a test to see if a larger program, study, should be done.
The new test was tested, or piloted, on thousands of students. The EFSET uses special computer software that makes the questions easier or harder, depending on one's performance. The EFSET measures all English levels, while the IELTS and TOEFL only measure from moderate to advanced.
prohibitive
If the cost of something is prohibitive, it is too expensive for most people. adj. so high that people are prevented from using or buying something.
Hotel prices in the major cities are high but not prohibitive.
eg:For example, it costs $175 to take the TOEFL Internet-based test in Cambodia. The World Bank says the average Cambodian worker earns only about $1,000 per year. That means the cost of taking the TOEFL is about 17.5 percent of the average worker's yearly wages.
It is not just individuals who find the test pricey. Some governments find the costs to be prohibitive.
psychometric testing
psychometric ,designed to show someone's personality, mental ability, opinions, etc.
Mr. Tran believes that EFSET meets the highest values in language testing. The test has been through years of research and psychometric analysis. Psychometrics is the method or process of mental measurement.
groundbreaking
If something is groundbreaking, it is very new and a big change from other things of its type:
His latest movie is interesting, but not groundbreaking.
The EFSET is unique and innovative and really groundbreaking in the sense that it gives free online access very much like a MOOC [Massive Open Online Course] would to anyone who interested in measuring their English proficiency level.
intriguing
very interesting because of being unusual or mysterious.
an intriguing possibility/question.
She has a really intriguing personality.
paralysed
adjective UK (US paralyzed) .
unable to move or act.
The accident left her paralysed from the waist down.
The government seems paralysed by/with indecision.
She was paralysed with fear.
soap opera
a series of television or radio programmes about the lives and problems of a particular group of characters. The series continues over a long period and is broadcast (several times) every week.
eg:"The Young and the Restless," "Days of Our Lives" and "Guiding Light." These are the names of three popular programs in the United States called "soap operas." A soap opera is a television or radio program that tells stories about the lives and problems of a group of people. They are popular in many countries, including Thailand.
Prayuth Chan-ocha is the head of government for Thailand. Recently, he said television soap operas in his country cause fighting, and divide Thai society. He wants scripts for the programs to tell about peaceful ends to conflict.
treason
(the crime of) showing no loyalty to your country, especially by helping its enemies or attempting to defeat its government.
Guy Fawkes was executed for treason after he took part in a plot to blow up the British Parliament building.
eg: President Pierce said the actions of the Free State Party seemed revolutionary. He said that if party members attacked any government property or official, party leaders should be charged with treason. Pierce gave the pro-slavery governor of Kansas control of troops at two army bases in the territory. The situation threatened to turn violent at any time.
eg:Jackson explained that it was his duty, as president, to enforce the laws of the land. Even, as Daniel Feller says, if he had to use force.

"It's going to come to a test of arms, and this I can quote. And it was in italics, underlined, emphasized in the printed version of the proclamation.
'Disunion by armed force is treason. Are you really read to incur its guilt?'"
plenary
describes a meeting at which all the members of a group or organization are present, especially at a conference.
a plenary session of the UN Security Council.
a plenary session of the UN Security Council
eg: International and Zimbabwean non-governmental organizations boycotted a plenary session of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme that opened Monday in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo, in protest of the watchdog organization's failure to deal decisively with human rights issues in Zimbabwe's Marange diamond field.
baton
a thick heavy stick used as a weapon by police officers.
forensic
related to scientific methods of solving crimes, involving examining the objects or substances that are involved in the crime.
eg:Dr. Lori Baker, a forensic scientist at Baylor University, seen here in this Aug. 29, 2003 file photo, launched a project to try to match unidentified remains found along the border.
eg:A team of student volunteers helps Professor Baker. The volunteers take part in the hard, sad work of digging up bodies for the forensics. But they say they also share Prof. Baker's sense of mission.
closure
n. a feeling that a bad experience (such as a divorce or the death of a family member) has ended and that you can start to live again in a calm and normal way.
eg:From January to September of this year an estimated 230 migrants died trying to cross the border from Mexico into the United States. This is according to a new report released by the International Organization for Migration. The organization says that number might be higher.
The exact number of victims is not known. Their names are also not known.
But a university professor in Texas is trying to give closure to families who have lost relatives on the border.
rib
a bone that curves round from your back to your chest.
My son broke a rib when he fell off a ladder.
eg:Holding a human rib bone in her gloved hand, Baylor University Anthropology Professor Lori Baker notes signs of postmortem damage -- damage done after death.
"This would be indicative of vulture damage."
scavenger
n. an organism (as a vulture or hyena) that usually feeds on dead or decaying matter.
eg:Holding a human rib bone in her gloved hand, Baylor University Anthropology Professor Lori Baker notes signs of postmortem damage -- damage done after death.
"This would be indicative of vulture damage."
The bone is part of a skeleton, a set of bones. It was found in the lower Rio Grande River valley of Texas, close to the Mexican border. People dying in the desert, their remains being eaten by scavenger birds such as vultures, are realities of Ms. Baker's work.
cemetery
n. a place where dead people are buried.
eg:Local officials have found hundreds of unidentified bodies in south Texas alone. They have buried them in mass graves in local cemeteries.
Families have no bodies to bury, no graves to visit. To help them get closure, Professor Baker and her students have been digging up bodies to try to identify them.
Lori Baker says that in most cases, the people died of the heat.
eg:South Korean Monk Cares for Cemetery of Enemy Soldiers.
eg:Finally, she remembered a country cemetery they had visited. At the time, her husband had said: "When I am gone, lay my remains in some quiet place like this." So Misses Lincoln decided that the president's final resting place would be in the quiet, beautiful Oak Ridge Cemetery outside their home town of Springfield, Illinois.
smuggler
someone who smuggles.
She says that smugglers often leave immigrants in unpopulated areas where there is no water or shelter. Ms. Baker says that it is hard to know how many have died.
"So there are probably a lot more individuals who have died and just have not been found."
Families in Mexico and Central America have spent many years looking for lost loved ones. Often, officials say, immigrants carry no identification. If they die, they are gone without leaving a trace.
sheriff
in the US, an official whose job is to be in charge of performing the orders of the law courts and making certain that the laws are obeyed within a particular county.
eg:Ms. Baker understands the problems local officials face in rural U.S. counties. They have little money. A coalition of Texas sheriffs-- law officers --says each dead migrant they find costs a county $5,000 to remove, examine and bury.
dignity
calm, serious and controlled behaviour that makes people respect you.
He is a man of dignity and calm determination.
She has a quiet dignity about her.
He longs for a society in which the dignity of all people is recognized.
I think everyone should be able to die with dignity.
eg:It has also become personal for Lori Baker. She says she hopes to give human respect, or dignity, to those who have died trying to cross the border.
"I hope that through the work we do we will be able to restore some human dignity to that person by giving them a name."
Ms. Baker and her volunteers have worked with more than 170 bodies and have identified three. She has spoken to family members of these people and knows firsthand how much it means to them.

The final goal for Lori Baker is to return identified remains to their families. Then at least they can have a burial place where they can say prayers and leave flowers.
as the crow flies
describes a distance when measured in a straight line between two points or places.
crow
a large black bird with a loud unpleasant cry.
eg: as the crow flies
straddle
Something that straddles a line, such as a border or river, exists on each side of it or goes across it.
Our farm straddles the railway line.
eg:IS militants control territory straddling Syria and Iraq. Kobane is one of their strategic objectives, and fierce fighting has raged in the town for weeks, forcing the evacuation of most of its civilian inhabitants.
noble
moral in an honest, brave and not selfish way.
a noble gesture.
His followers believe they are fighting for a noble cause.
eg: Tapping the new spirit, there can be no nobler nor more ambitious task for America to undertake on this day of a new beginning than to help shape a just and peaceful world that is truly humane.
harmonious
adj. not experiencing disagreement or fighting.
eg:people who keep their harmonious attitude in a rage have a high spirit.
eg:Mr. Carter said the end of his presidency was the beginning of a new life of "fighting disease, building hope, and waging peace" as head of the Carter Center.
"I look upon the Carter Center work as an extension of what I tried to do as president. You know, we brought peace between Israel and Egypt. We opened up a harmonious relationship with Latin America with the Panama Canal Treaty. We opened up diplomatic relations with China and things of that kind. And so what I have done since then has been kind of an extension. But I don't think there's any doubt that when I won the Nobel Peace Prize, for instance, it was because of the work of the Carter Center. So, I would be perfectly satisfied to have a legacy based on peace and human rights. I mean, who wouldn't?"
hyperactive
Someone who is hyperactive has more energy than is normal, gets excited easily and cannot stay still or think about their work.
Hyperactive children often have poor concentration and require very little sleep.
eg:Five million American children and teenagers have Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly known as ADHD.
hug
to hold someone or something close to your body with your arms, usually to show that you like, love or value them.
Have you hugged your child today?
eg:His mother, Katherine Ellison, is a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter. She did not understand why he behaved the way he did. And she admits that her behavior was only making the situation worse.
"I was making things worse often by being anxious or being impatient or not understanding him. And I realized at some point that I really hadn't hugged him in a while. And I wasn't smiling when he came into the room because we were just having such a hard time."
humiliating
making you feel ashamed or stupid.
Losing my job was the most humiliating thing that ever happened to me.
The government suffered a humiliating defeat in yesterday's debate.
He found it humiliating to have to ask for money.
eg:She says that like many people with ADD or ADHD life can be a roller coaster ride - a life with many ups and downs, high points and low points.
"I, like many people with ADD, had a roller coaster of a life. For instance, I got sued for 11-million dollars for a reporting error that I made in one of my first years as a newspaper reporter. And two years later, I won a Pulitzer Prize. So these are the kinds of things that often happen when you got this disorder; you're capable of really amazing things and very humiliating, terrible things."
roller coaster
When life has many ups and downs we call it a roller coaster, just like the amusement park ride.
eg: She says that like many people with ADD or ADHD life can be a roller coaster ride - a life with many ups and downs, high points and low points.
"I, like many people with ADD, had a roller coaster of a life. For instance, I got sued for 11-million dollars for a reporting error that I made in one of my first years as a newspaper reporter. And two years later, I won a Pulitzer Prize. So these are the kinds of things that often happen when you got this disorder; you're capable of really amazing things and very humiliating, terrible things."
terrific
very good.
a terrific opportunity.
You look terrific!
eg:So, the mother and son teamed to write a book about their experience. Ms. Ellison says she was happy that ADHD became a project for them instead of a fight between them.

"My son and I started out by writing a contract together, which was terrific because it changed the perspective from being a shameful problem that we had to a joint business project. And I also knew that he would cooperate with me. He wanted a percentage of the profits from the book. I was willing to do that because all of a sudden we're partners rather than antagonists."
pediatrician
mainly US for paediatrician.a doctor who has special training in medical care for children.
eg:Peter Levine is a doctor of children's medicine in California. The pediatrician specializes in treating children with ADHD. He says there are many misunderstandings about the disorder.
cope
to deal successfully with a difficult situation.
It must be difficult to cope with three small children and a job.
The tyres on my car don't cope very well on wet roads.
He had so much pressure on him in his job that eventually he just couldn't cope.
eg:Mr. Levine says the first step in dealing with ADHD is getting the facts straight.
"In America, the diagnosis rate in children generally is quoted in the range of about 3 to 7 percent of children. It's more common in boys, by about three to one. This is a highly inheritable disorder. They can't get over ADHD. I mean it's not something that you can make go away. As many as two-third of the children who have problems with ADHD will have difficulties as adults. You can't cure it. You have to find ways of coping with it."
outburst
a sudden forceful expression of emotion, especially anger.
a violent outburst.
an outburst of creative activity.
Her comments provoked an outburst of anger from the boss.
eg: She says she is now paying more attention to her son, spending more time with him, being less judgmental and giving him more positive feedback.

And Buzz is reacting well to these changes. He has fewer outbursts at home and at school. He is more centered on school work. And he has a new interest - playing tennis.
provoke
to cause a reaction, especially a negative one.
The prospect of increased prices has already provoked an outcry.
Test results provoked worries that the reactor could overheat.
Her comments provoked an outburst of anger from the boss.
primitive
relating to human society at a very early stage of development, with people living in a simple way without machines or a writing system.
Primitive races colonized these islands 2000 years ago.
primitive man.
eg:Mr. Lee says the balloon launch is "a primitive humanitarian activity for human rights which opens the eyes, ears and mouths of the North Korean people that have been closed by the North Korean regime."
taxicab
a taxi.
He sat at the table and wrote a letter to Millicent. One of the servants came into the room. "Did you call, sir?" he asked. "No," Mister Mindon replied. "But since you are here, please telephone for a taxi cab at once."
spin
verb .to (cause to) turn around and around, especially fast.
The Earth spins on its axis.
eg:As Mister Mindon read it, he felt as if his mind was spinning out of control. He sat down heavily in the chair near his wife's little writing table.
eg:In the Pacific Ocean, currents collect that plastic into a huge slowly spinning garbage patch where it poses a major environmental threat to sea life.
mercy
n. kind or forgiving treatment of someone who could be treated harshly.
She appealed to the judge to have mercy on her husband.
The prisoners pleaded for mercy.
The gunmen showed no mercy, killing innocent men and women.
eg:Laurence Meysy sat on the edge of the bed and lit a cigarette. "Misses Mindon sent for me," he said. Mister Mindon could not help feeling proud of Millicent. She had done the right thing. Meysy continued. "She showed me your letter. She asks you for mercy." Meysy paused, and then said: "The poor woman is very unhappy. And we have come here to ask you what you plan to do."
eagle
a large strong bird with a curved beak which eats meat and can see very well.
eg: On the 49th ballot, Pierce won the Democratic nomination. He would be the party's candidate for president.

"Pierce was a passionately loyal adherent of the Democratic Party and of its principles of negative governance domestically and spread eagle expansionism in foreign affairs."

Historian Michael Holt wrote a book about Franklin Pierce. Mr. Holt describes Pierce as someone who was like most Democrats at the time. In other words, he did not think the federal government should intervene much in efforts to help build up and develop the nation. But he wanted the United States to play a big and powerful role internationally.
eg:The Apollo nine spacecraft had two vehicles. One was the command module. It could orbit the moon, but could not land on it. The other was the lunar module. On a flight to the moon, it would separate from the command module and land on the moon's surface. Apollo ten astronauts unlinked the lunar module and flew it close to the moon's surface.

After those flights, everything was ready. On July sixteenth, 1969, three American astronauts lifted off in Apollo eleven. On the twentieth, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin entered the lunar module, called the Eagle. Michael Collins remained in the command module, the Columbia.
charming
pleasant and attractive.
We had dinner with our director and his charming wife.
What a charming street this is.
eg:Franklin Pierce was 48 years old when he took office. He was the youngest man yet to be elected president. He was charming and made friends easily.

But those who knew Pierce best worried about him. They knew that under all his friendly charm, he was a weak man. They feared the duties and problems of the presidency would be too great for him to deal with.
eg: Sylvie spent the next day in the forest with the young man. He told her a lot about the birds they saw. Sylvie would have had a much better time if the young man had left his gun at home. She could not understand why he killed the birds he seemed to like so much. She felt her heart tremble every time he shot an unsuspecting bird as it was singing in the trees.

But Sylvie watched the young man with eyes full of admiration. She had never seen anyone so handsome and charming. A strange excitement filled her heart, a new feeling the little girl did not recognize...love.
monolithic
too large, too regular or without interesting differences, and unwilling or unable to be changed.
eg:
monolithic state-run organizations
Political campaigns are urging people across the United States to vote in the November 4th elections. In the Los Angeles area, campaign volunteers are contacting likely voters, including many Asian Americans. Tanzila Ahmed is a voting expert. She says it is overly simplistic to think of Asian Americans as a single group.

"One of the biggest issues, people think Asians are this big monolithic group and we're not. We're so different."
caucus
1.(a meeting of) a small group of people in a political party or organization who have a lot of influence, or who have similar interests.
2. in the US, a meeting held to decide which candidate a political group will support in an election
eg:That is because Asian American voters are having an influence on election results nationwide. California Congresswoman Judy Chu heads the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus.
reluctant
not willing to do something and therefore slow to do it.
I was having such a good time I was reluctant to leave.
Many parents feel reluctant to talk openly with their children.
eg:Morris Levy teaches political science at the University of Southern California. He says many Asian Americans do not identify with any party.
"So even among voters who were voting Democrat in the last few elections, many are reluctant to say 'I identify myself as a Democrat.'"
assimilate
to take in, fit into, or become similar (to).
The European Union should remain flexible enough to assimilate more countries quickly.
You shouldn't expect immigrants to assimilate into an alien culture immediately.
It's hard to assimilate (= learn and understand) so much information.
In this form vitamins can be easily assimilated by the body.
eg:The two main parties are seeking to capture the support of Asian Americans. Shawn Steel is with the Republican National Committee.

"The most successful group of immigrants to have ever assimilated in America, the quickest and the most effective. It's perfect material for the changing Republican Party, not merely to have them vote but to have them lead the Republican Party."
shelf
specialized a flat area of rock under water or on a cliff.
Antarctica is covered with ice that extends past the land and floats on the sea in thick shelves. But those ice shelves are melting quickly. As they melt, the sea level rises, increasing the risk of damaging floods.
hit it out of the park
idiom to be very successful (from baseball, when a player hits a homerun and the ball leaves the ball park).
eg:He hit it out of the park, just by talking about our forty-year friendship and making me seem more human.
play
[T] to compete against a person or team in a game.
Who are Aston Villa playing next week?
eg:The city of San Francisco, California, is home to the Giants Major League Baseball team. The team is playing the Kansas City Royals for the 2014 World Series championship. The best-of-seven-games series begins at Kauffman Stadium in the Midwest state of Missouri.

The fans of both teams are known for their deep and loyal support. For example, two San Francisco radio stations have banned Lorde's song "Royals" from airplay. The stations tweeted that the song is off their playlists until the series is over.

In Kansas City, on the other hand, a pop radio station is doing just the opposite. It says it will play "Royals" every hour until the start of the first game.
major league
in the US, the league of professional sports teams at the highest level, especially in baseball.
eg: The city of San Francisco, California, is home to the Giants Major League Baseball team. The team is playing the Kansas City Royals for the 2014 World Series championship. The best-of-seven-games series begins at Kauffman Stadium in the Midwest state of Missouri.

The fans of both teams are known for their deep and loyal support. For example, two San Francisco radio stations have banned Lorde's song "Royals" from airplay. The stations tweeted that the song is off their playlists until the series is over.

In Kansas City, on the other hand, a pop radio station is doing just the opposite. It says it will play "Royals" every hour until the start of the first game.
bribe
to try to make someone do something for you by giving them money, presents or something else that they want.
He bribed immigration officials and entered the country illegally.
[+ to infinitive] They bribed the waiter to find them a better table.
eg:Later in his term, Buchanan insisted that Congress support a pro-slavery government in Kansas territory. He even offered Congress a bribe to accept the territory's pro-slavery constitution.

But most Kansans did not accept the territory's government or want a pro-slavery constitution. And many in Buchanan's own political party disagreed with his efforts.
deal
n. an official agreement.
eg: Leaders from Russia and Ukraine are still working to reach a deal for the payment of gas supplies for Ukraine.
eg:U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said Wednesday there had been no deal between the United States and North Korea for the release of American citizen Jeffrey Fowle.

North Korea's official news agency said the government released Mr. Fowle from prison after "repeated requests" from President Barack Obama. The news agency also reported that leader Kim Jong-Un ordered the release.
pursuit
an activity that you spend time doing, usually when you are not working.
I enjoy outdoor pursuits, like hiking and riding.
I don't have much opportunity for leisure pursuits these days.
eg:Lincoln answered that the Republican Party was not trying to force the South to end slavery. Nor, he said, did he want political and social equality between whites and blacks. But Lincoln said they both had the natural rights listed in the Declaration of Independence: the rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
possession
[U] when you have or own something.
The possession of large amounts of money does not ensure happiness.
I have in my possession a letter which may be of interest to you.
He was found in possession of explosives.
cheetah
a wild animal of the cat family, with yellowish brown fur and black spots, which can run faster than any other animal.
Cheetahs are mainly found in Africa.
In 1900, about 100,000 cheetahs lived in the world. Today there are only 10,000 of the animals.
stress
great worry caused by a difficult situation, or something which causes this condition.
People under a lot of stress may experience headaches, minor pains and sleeping difficulties.
Yoga is a very effective technique for combating stress.
the stresses and strains of the job.
stress-related illness.
eg: Mr. Wilson says that while this has not affected the number of cheetah cubs being born, it can affect their survival. He remembers seeing a female cheetah in a desert.

"This mom is under stress already looking for food for herself. Then she needs to look for food for her cub. And if she needs to move further and further, the mother is under more strain and then that puts even more strain on the cub.
surge
1.a sudden and great increase.
An unexpected surge in electrical power caused the computer to crash.
There has been a surge in house prices recently.
→ See also resurgence
2. a sudden and great movement forward
At the end of the game, there was a surge of fans onto the field.
A tidal surge (= sudden and great rise in the level of the sea) caused severe flooding in coastal areas.
3.a sudden increase of an emotion
She was overwhelmed by a surge of remorse.
eg: outburst - n. a surge of activity or growth
outburst
n. a surge of activity or growth.
eg: John Wilson took part in the cheetah research. He says cheetahs can easily deal with those energy outbursts.
physiology
(the scientific study of) the way in which the bodies of living things work.
eg:It appears that the cheetah is vulnerable to attacks by other animals because of its physiology -- the way its body operates. The cat simply burns a lot of calories -- the energy produced by food.

"Because these cheetahs have a fast metabolism - they have huge lungs and a strong heart -- their resting metabolic rate is really high. So just the act of walking already for a cheetah is pretty expensive. And then the longer they look for food, the more energy they need to invest in finding the food."
metabolism
all the chemical processes in your body, especially those that cause food to be used for energy and growth.
Exercise is supposed to speed up your metabolism.
metabolic,adjective,
The athletes had taken pills to stimulate their metabolic rate (= the speed at which their bodies used energy).
eg: It appears that the cheetah is vulnerable to attacks by other animals because of its physiology -- the way its body operates. The cat simply burns a lot of calories -- the energy produced by food.
"Because these cheetahs have a fast metabolism - they have huge lungs and a strong heart -- their resting metabolic rate is really high. So just the act of walking already for a cheetah is pretty expensive. And then the longer they look for food, the more energy they need to invest in finding the food."
sprinting
v. running or going very fast for a short distance.
eg: Just about everyone knows that cheetahs are fast. Some studies have measured their speed at about 95 kilometers an hour over distances of about 366 meters. So it seems reasonable that all that sprinting would rob the wild cheetah of some of its energy. It seems that all that exercise would make the big, spotted cat a likely target of attack. But until recently no one ever really measured how much energy a cheetah uses up.
blistering
extremely fast.
The runners set off at a blistering pace.
eg:John Wilson took part in the cheetah research. He says cheetahs can easily deal with those energy outbursts.
"Like any cat, basically, they rest for most of the day. And they have only brief periods of activity. So, for example, a cheetah would only hunt in the morning for a few hours - in the afternoon for a few hours. We assume they expend a lot of energy during these chases. They offset those high-energy expenditures by resting for most of the day. So these blistering speeds that they run for short periods do not really have an effect on the cheetahs over the entire day."
motion
to make a signal to someone, usually with your hand or head.
eg: Still smiling, the man opened the door of his house and motioned to me. I went inside and could not believe my eyes. I had been living for weeks in rough mining camps with other gold miners. We slept on the hard ground, ate canned beans from cold metal plates and spent our days in the difficult search for gold.
rug
a piece of thick heavy cloth smaller than a carpet, used for covering the floor or for decoration.
My dog loves lying on the rug in front of the fire.
eg:I saw a bright rug on the shining wooden floor. Pictures hung all around the room. And on little tables there were seashells, books and china vases full of flowers. A woman had made this house into a home.
pat
when you pat a person or animal.
I gave the little boy a pat on the head.
eg:One of the pictures on the wall was not hanging straight. He noticed it and went to fix it. He stepped back several times to make sure the picture was really straight. Then he gave it a gentle touch with his hand.

"She always does that," he explained to me. "It is like the finishing pat a mother gives her child's hair after she has brushed it. I have seen her fix all these things so often that I can do it just the way she does. I don't know why I do it. I just do it."
seashell
the empty shell of a small sea creature, often one found lying on the beach.
eg: Here in this little house, my spirit seemed to come to life again.

I saw a bright rug on the shining wooden floor. Pictures hung all around the room. And on little tables there were seashells, books and china vases full of flowers. A woman had made this house into a home.
sigh
to breathe out slowly and noisily, expressing tiredness, sadness, pleasure, etc.:
She sighed deeply and sat down.
[+ speech] "I wish he was here," she sighed (= she said with a sigh).
If the wind sighs, it makes a long, soft sound as it moves through trees:
I lay on my back, listening to the sound of the wind sighing in the trees.

eg: "Where is she now?" I asked.
"Oh, she is away," the man sighed, putting the picture back on the little black shelf. "She went to visit her parents. They live forty or fifty miles from here. She has been gone two weeks today."
eg:Sylvie gave a long sigh. She knew the wild bird's secret now. Slowly she began her dangerous trip down the ancient pine tree. She did not dare to look down and tried to forget that her fingers hurt and her feet were bleeding. All she wanted to think about was what the stranger would say to her when she told him where to find the heron's nest.
logging
the activity of cutting down trees for wood.
logging companies.
eg:Marco Lambertini is the WWF's International Director-General. He spoke to VOA about the report.

"This is about losing natural habitats. This is about converting forests, grasslands, and wetlands into agriculture mainly, and it is about unsustainable use of wildlife. So, wildlife traffic, hunting, and unsustainable hunting practices like that. Poaching, as you mention, has been actually increasing over the last 10 years and is definitely a driving force for extinction, particularly of large species. But, also as you mention, there are dimensions to poaching that are related to timber, illegal logging and also fisheries."
fishery
an area of water where fish are caught so they can be sold.
an offshore fishery.
eg: Marco Lambertini is the WWF's International Director-General. He spoke to VOA about the report.

"This is about losing natural habitats. This is about converting forests, grasslands, and wetlands into agriculture mainly, and it is about unsustainable use of wildlife. So, wildlife traffic, hunting, and unsustainable hunting practices like that. Poaching, as you mention, has been actually increasing over the last 10 years and is definitely a driving force for extinction, particularly of large species. But, also as you mention, there are dimensions to poaching that are related to timber, illegal logging and also fisheries."
vertebrate
having a spine (= back bone).
The WWF says it is worried about the loss of and damage to Earth's environment. The report provides information about more than 10,000 animal populations from 1970 to 2010. These populations are called "vertebrate species," or animals with backbones -- like fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles.
The report says these populations have dropped by 52 percent in just 40 years. It says freshwater species have fallen by 76 percent. That is almost twice the loss of land and ocean species. Most of these losses are in the tropics. The report says the biggest drop has been in Latin America.
mammal
any animal of which the female gives birth to babies, not eggs, and feeds them on milk from her own body.
Humans, dogs, elephants and dolphins are all mammals, but birds, fish and crocodiles are not.
eg:The WWF says it is worried about the loss of and damage to Earth's environment. The report provides information about more than 10,000 animal populations from 1970 to 2010. These populations are called "vertebrate species," or animals with backbones -- like fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles.
The report says these populations have dropped by 52 percent in just 40 years. It says freshwater species have fallen by 76 percent. That is almost twice the loss of land and ocean species. Most of these losses are in the tropics. The report says the biggest drop has been in Latin America.
amphibian
an animal, such as a frog, which lives both on land and in water but must produce its eggs in water.
These populations are called "vertebrate species," or animals with backbones -- like fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles.
reptile
an animal that produces eggs and uses the heat of the sun to keep its blood warm.
eg:The WWF recently released its 10th Flagship Living Planet Report. The group warns the condition of the world's animals is worse than its earlier reports showed. It says worldwide action is needed.

The WWF says it is worried about the loss of and damage to Earth's environment. The report provides information about more than 10,000 animal populations from 1970 to 2010. These populations are called "vertebrate species," or animals with backbones -- like fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles.
emit
to send out a beam, noise, smell or gas.
The alarm emits infra-red rays which are used to detect any intruder.
eg:The report also notes what it calls the world's "Ecological Footprint." That is the effect of human activities on the planet. Mr. Lambertini says there has been an increase in carbon dioxide gases and the pouring of nitrogen into oceans and rivers from fertilizers used in agriculture. He says this cannot continue.

"So, we are consuming on average every year about the equivalent of about 1.5, one-and-a half times the resources available to the planet. That means we are cutting trees more quickly than they can be restored. We are fishing the oceans more quickly than fishing stocks can reproduce, and we are emitting in the atmosphere more CO2 than the natural systems can actually absorb. This is clearly not sustainable."

Mr. Lambertini warns climate change affects almost everyone on the planet. He says whole species may disappear if the world does not reduce the effects of humans on the climate.
oil spillages
Extinction of many rare plant and animal species and substantial reduction in number of wildlife species cause concern. Many of these species are in great danger. Some species become objects of poaching such as lions or rhinos.
Human population is more and more increasing. It consume too much food than animal and fish populations. Many environmental changes are the result of human activity. Oil spillage and toxic chemicals lead to the pollution of habitats.
poverty-stricken
describes a person or place suffering from the effects of being extremely poor.
Some beggars are neither poverty-stricken nor homeless.
There are few jobs for the peasants who have flooded into the cities from the poverty-stricken countryside in search of work.
eg: Since the poverty-stricken countries are facing serious civic problems, The human right institutions should particularly focus on addressing the difficulties in these countries.
commuting
to make the same journey regularly between work and home.
eg:
PM2.5 refers to the diameter measured in microns of particulates such as ammonia, carbon, nitrates and sulfate -- which are small enough to pass into the bloodstream and cause diseases such as emphysema and cancer.
The WHO data echoes an earlier study this year which found that air pollution in New Delhi is now worse than Beijing.
No Chinese cities ranked in the top 20 most polluted cities, despite thick, gray smog filling its cities and millions of residents commuting behind surgical masks. Beijing reported 56 micrograms of PM2.5. This year, Chinese leaders have declared "war on pollution."
apocalypse
[S or U] a very serious event resulting in great destruction and change.
The book offers a vision of the future in which there is a great nuclear apocalypse.
the Apocalypse [S],
in the Bible, the total destruction and end of the world.
guardian
a person who has the legal right and responsibility of taking care of someone who cannot take care of themselves, such as a child whose parents have died.
The child's parents or guardians must give their consent before she has the operation.
eg: Today we tell about the Statue of Liberty. The huge, green statue celebrates American freedom. It has served as the guardian of New York Harbor for more than a century.
foster
to take care of a child, usually for a limited time, without being the child's legal parent.
Would you consider fostering (a child)?
eg:Carol Emig operates Child Trends, a child research and information center. She supports Ms. Sandigo's efforts. But she says Ms. Sandigo cannot provide all that the children need.

"She is not able, in her situation I think, to provide the kinds of protection that a well-functioning child welfare system would provide. So, there isn't a case worker who is checking on the well-being of the kids with the foster parents or the guardian."
well-being
n. the state of being happy, healthy, or successful.
eg:The federal government will provide the children with financial support if they stay in the United States. But Ms. Sandigo says sometimes caregivers of these children left in the U.S. are afraid to seek help from government agencies.

Carol Emig operates Child Trends, a child research and information center. She supports Ms. Sandigo's efforts. But she says Ms. Sandigo cannot provide all that the children need.

"She is not able, in her situation I think, to provide the kinds of protection that a well-functioning child welfare system would provide. So, there isn't a case worker who is checking on the well-being of the kids with the foster parents or the guardian."
reigning
being the most recent winner of a competition.
She's the reigning champion at Wimbledon.
eg:Reigning men's singles world and Olympic champion Zhang Jike kicked an advertising hoarding next to the court, breaking it, after beating fellow Chinese player Ma Long in the Liebherr Men's World Cup final in Dusseldorf on Sunday.

He than ran to the opposite side of the arena and shattered a second advertising board with a flying kick, before stripping off his shirt and throwing it into the crowd.

Zhang fought back from three games down to overcome Olympic teammate Ma in a seven-game match, handing Ma his first defeat this year.
shatter
[I or T] to (cause something to) break suddenly into very small pieces.
The glass shattered into a thousand tiny pieces.
His leg was shattered in the accident.
resolute
determined in character, action or ideas.
Their resolute opposition to new working methods was difficult to overcome.
She's utterly resolute in her refusal to apologise.
eg:Resolute Occupy protesters raise umbrellas to commemorate firing of tear gas.
commemorate
to remember officially and give respect to a great person or event, especially by a public ceremony or by making a statue or special building.
Gathered all together in this church, we commemorate those who lost their lives in the great war.
A statue has been built to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the poet's birthday.
eg:Resolute Occupy protesters raise umbrellas to commemorate firing of tear gas.
humble
ordinary; not special or very important.
At that time she was just a humble mechanic.
humorous Welcome to our humble abode (= our home).
eg:A month after humble item became their shield and symbol, protesters hold them up for 87 seconds to mark firing of 87 rounds of tear gas
volley
a large number of bullets (seeming to be) fired at the same time.
eg: Occupy protesters in Admiralty observe an 87-second silence to mark a month since police fired 87 volleys of tear gas.
contemplate
to spend time considering a possible future action, or to consider one particular thing for a long time in a serious and quiet way.
[+ -ing verb] I'm contemplating going abroad for a year.
You're not contemplating a change of job, are you?
It's too awful/horrific/dangerous to contemplate.
eg: Protest leaders hope the ceremonies will inject fresh momentum into their civil disobedience campaign and reverse its loss of direction and leadership. Protesters on the ground are also contemplating what to do, with most determined to stay put.
dub
to give something or someone a particular name, especially describing what you think of them.
She was dubbed by the newspapers 'The Angel of Death'.
eg:Yesterday, silence descended on the sites in Admiralty, Causeway Bay and Mong Kok at 5.57pm - the time when riot police fired the first canisters of tear gas in Admiralty on September 28 after extensive use of pepper spray failed to bring protesters under control.
At the time, protesters used umbrellas to shield themselves, turning the humble item into the symbol of Occupy Central and prompting overseas media to dub it the "umbrella movement".
eg:Alternative schemes include a gas connector between Greece and Bulgaria, and a project, dubbed "Eastring,'' to connect southeastern Europe to Slovakia's gas network via Ukraine and Romania.
chant
to repeat or sing a word or phrase continuously.
The crowd were chanting the name of their football team.
Demonstrators chanted anti-government slogans in the square.
eg:You are listening to Muk-gai beating on a drum and chanting. He says the sounds will ease the suffering of the spirits that he says visit the cemetery. He beats his small drum as he walks past the headstones. The remains of 769 North Korean soldiers are buried on the grounds. The soldiers came to fight South Korea. But Muk-gai does not think of them as enemies.

The monk says once they are dead, we should forgive everything they did in life. He says that is an Eastern tradition.
choreography
the skill of combining movements into dances to be performed.
a flamboyant style of choreography.
choreograph
The ballet was choreographed by Ashton.
eg: The atmosphere was more festive at the other two sites. About 80 protesters sang and danced around the occupied section of Yee Wo Street, Causeway Bay, while onlookers in Nathan Road, Mong Kok, were treated to an umbrella dance choreographed by Mui Cheuk-yin.
constituency
(the group of people who can vote belonging to) any of the official areas of a country that elect someone to represent them nationally.
cover
to report the news about a particular important event.
She's covering the American election for BBC television.
eg:Also yesterday, a 50-year-old man turned himself in to police and was arrested over an assault in Tsim Sha Tsui on Saturday. Four journalists were attacked while covering an anti-Occupy rally. The man, suspected to have pulled the tie of a TVB reporter, was in custody last night. Two other men arrested in connection with the case have been released on police bail.
haul
to pull something heavy slowly and with difficulty.
They hauled the boat out of the water.
She hauled herself up into the tree.
eg: A miner uses a shovel to haul dirt at the Atunso Cocoase small-scale mine in Atunso, Ghana, Oct. 16, 2014.
excavator
n. earth-moving equipment; a person who digs up things that have been buried for a long time .
eg: The rivers in Ghana's Ashanti area have a sickly brown color. The land has gashes, holes cut by excavators. The air is filled with the sound of mining equipment.

Small mining operations are a common sight in central Ghana. Here, mine workers dig deep into the earth in search of bullion. But not everyone returns alive.
undeniably
adj. clearly true; impossible to deny.
eg: Sebastian Aduko has worked in the mining business for 13 years. He says the risk is undeniably dangerous, but can be lessened if mines are built the right way.
cage
a space surrounded on all sides by bars or wire, in which animals or birds are kept.
eg:Sebastian Aduko has worked in the mining business for 13 years. He says the risk is undeniably dangerous, but can be lessened if mines are built the right way.

"The moment we are all rushing to collect what we all wanted from the ground there. So definitely it will collapse. So that's why we can explain that the other side, we heard that maybe this hole have collapse, maybe three, 10 people have died through there. Because, if we are watching that, there's not anything that look like a cage that we are using like here."
entrepreneurial
someone who starts their own business, especially when this involves seeing a new opportunity.
He was one of the entrepreneurs of the eighties who made their money in property.
eg:The cabinet includes technical experts, business people and a few others credited with being reformers. Keith Loveard is with Concorde Consulting, a company that advises businesses. He describes the cabinet appointments as a "wait and see" cabinet.

"The tone of the cabinet, certainly there are some elite members there and there are some people with questionable human rights backgrounds, as one would expect in Indonesia. But there is also this new blood as it were, a new spirit of entrepreneurial talent," he said.
rector
US the person in charge of a university or school.
eg: A number of observers have praised the nomination of Pratikno as State Secretary. He has served as the rector, or head, of Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta. The president chose the rector at Paramadina University, Anies Baswedan, as the Minister of Primary and Secondary Education.
return
1.(Of an electorate) elect (a person or party) to office:
the city of Glasgow returned eleven Labour MPs.(MP stands for Member of Parliament).
At the first election for a Legislative Assembly in 1856 he was returned for the electorate of Murrumbidgee.
eg: Half of the legislature's 70 seats are returned by functional constituencies, mostly based on trades and professional sectors.
To pass, any motion initiated by lawmakers must receive majority support from both geographical constituency and functional constituency legislators.
2.to give, do or get something in exchange.
The terrorists started shooting and the police returned fire (= started shooting back).
eg: They crossed to the Italian mainland. The Germans fought hard, returning bullet for bullet. And for some time, they prevented the allied troops from breaking out of the coastal areas.
hatred
an extremely strong feeling of dislike.
What is very clear in these letters is Clark's passionate hatred of his father.
The motive for this shocking attack seems to be racial hatred.
eg: Religious and Ethnic Hatred Seen as Biggest Threat
Protestant
a member of the parts of the Christian Church which separated from the Roman Catholic Church during the 16th century.
eg:Ms. Cesari compared current religious and ethnic tensions in the Middle East to conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland in the late 20th century.
footing
n., kind of relationship.
eg: Ms. Cesari compared current religious and ethnic tensions in the Middle East to conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Ireland in the late 20th century.

"We have now knowledge that it was not about belief, it was something about being part of the same nation on an equal footing."
jealousy
a feeling of unhappiness and anger because someone has something or someone that you want.
He broke his brother's new bike in a fit of jealousy.
She was consumed by/eaten up with jealousy (= She was very jealous) when she heard that he had been given a promotion.
The team has performed very badly this season due to petty jealousies (= feelings of jealousy about unimportant things) among the players.
eg:Mr. Ross studied ethnic-related conflict in Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. He said international observers there identified the presence of intense hatred. But when researchers spoke to people one-on-one, the subjects did not often describe feelings of hatred. Instead, Mr. Ross found, they talked about a number of feelings, including jealousy, pride and hopelessness.
petty
not important and not worth giving attention to.
Prisoners complain that they are subjected to too many petty rules and restrictions.
eg:The team has performed very badly this season due to petty jealousies (= feelings of jealousy about unimportant things) among the players.
lottery
a game, often organized by the state or a charity in order to make money, in which tickets with numbers are sold to people who then have a chance of winning a prize if their number is chosen.
eg:US 'Green Card Lottery' Ending November 3
solicit
to ask someone for money, information or help.
to solicit donations for a charity.
It is illegal for public officials to solicit gifts or money in exchange for favours.
eg:Mr. Cooper says if people get a letter or an e-mail stating they have won, and asking for money, it is not from the U.S. government. He says the State Department does not contact winners that way. He says although winners must pay for their visa and related costs, they do not have to pay money to enter the lottery.

"No cost whatsoever. They will never receive any solicitation for any money by mail or e-mail from the U.S. government. All of this is done through that website -- at dvlottery.state.gov. They will have a registration number that they will use to check the status of their case themselves from that website. And we'll never send them anything saying 'Congratulations you've been accepted,' or 'Send us some money here.' It's all gotta be through that website and they'll be protected in that way."
documentary
n., a movie or television program that tells the facts about actual people and events.
eg:The documentary film, "To Singapore, with Love" tells about political dissidents from Singapore. The official website says the film explores the stories of nine people who left Singapore between the 1960s and the 1980s. It says they fled to escape persecution by the government -- first, from Singapore's British colonial rulers and, later, by the Singapore government.
appeal
a request especially to a court of law to change a previous decision.
The case went to the court of appeal/the appeal court.
He won his appeal and the sentence was halved.
She has lodged (= made) an appeal against the severity of the fine.
eg: The film's director, Tan Pin Pin, has asked the Media Development Authority to lift the ban. Ms. Pin Pin told VOA in an e-mail that she has not agreed to any private screenings of the film in Singapore, "because the film is under appeal."
surpass
v., to be better or greater than (someone or something).
eg: But young people in mainland China are pushed harder to compete. The reason: their parents and schools. Tony Phoo is an economist in Taipei. He says Taiwan now risks being surpassed by China. China is already a less costly manufacturing base and a larger consumer market.
being a sheep
n., a person who follows or copies others, without thought.
eg:In October, a Taiwan negotiator to China warned that Taiwanese lacked what he called aggressiveness and an enterprising spirit. He warned against "being a sheep" -- following others -- in the face of fast-growing China.

The rarely heard criticism by a public official points to growing concern in Taiwan that young people are more likely to prefer a safe job to starting their own business. This way of thinking is different from that of their parents and modern mainland Chinese.

This preference for safe jobs threatens new business startups on the island. Officials say such businesses are important for Taiwan's future as an exporter of goods from plastics to electronic products. Officials want Taiwanese to keep inventing and investing so they can remain competitive against other areas.
civil service test
In Taiwan, the number of people taking the civil service test for first-time government jobs nearly doubled between 2002 and 2012. About half a percent of those who took the first exam last year were offered employment.
pirate
a person who sails in a ship and attacks other ships in order to steal from them.
eg:'Fishing Without Nets,' Somali Pirates Story.
eg:Hollywood directors often make films about people who get persuaded to take part in a crime because they need money. There is a new look to this old story in a film called Fishing Without Nets. This time, the central character is a Somali fisherman who cannot support his family. And the crime is piracy - attacking ships on the high seas.
eg: Many American citizens protested, too. They called President Roosevelt a pirate. They said he had acted shamefully. Some members of Congress questioned the administration's deal with the French canal company in Panama. Several investigations examined the deal.

Theodore Roosevelt did not care. He was proud of his success in getting the canal started. He said: "I took the canal zone and let Congress debate. And while the debate goes on...so does work on the canal."It took ten years for the United States to complete the Panama Canal. The first ship passed through it in August, 1914.
audacious
showing a willingness to take risks or offend people.
He described the plan as ambitious and audacious.
an audacious remark/suggestion.
eg:Cutter Hodierne directed the film. It is his first full-length movie. News about Somali piracy in the Indian Ocean had caught his interest. He was especially fascinated by the subject from the viewpoint of the gunmen.
"I just was so intrigued by what would lead somebody to that point of doing something so desperate and also so kind of audacious."
labourer
US laborer.
In 2010, at age 24, Cutter Hodierne went to Kenya and made a shorter version of Fishing Without Nets. He used Somali refugees to play the parts. These untrained actors included day laborers, fishermen and truck drivers. They were all living in Mombasa, Kenya at the time.

"We would set up these informal auditions in restaurants and just like hangouts where Somalis would sit around and chew khat and drink tea, and we would audition people there."
audition
a short performance that an actor, musician, dancer, etc. gives in order to show their ability and suitability for a particular play, film, show, etc.
His audition went well and he's fairly hopeful about getting the part.
The director is holding auditions next week for the major parts.
eg:In 2010, at age 24, Cutter Hodierne went to Kenya and made a shorter version of Fishing Without Nets. He used Somali refugees to play the parts. These untrained actors included day laborers, fishermen and truck drivers. They were all living in Mombasa, Kenya at the time.

"We would set up these informal auditions in restaurants and just like hangouts where Somalis would sit around and chew khat and drink tea, and we would audition people there."
grand jury
In 2010, at age 24, Cutter Hodierne went to Kenya and made a shorter version of Fishing Without Nets. He used Somali refugees to play the parts. These untrained actors included day laborers, fishermen and truck drivers. They were all living in Mombasa, Kenya at the time.

"We would set up these informal auditions in restaurants and just like hangouts where Somalis would sit around and chew khat and drink tea, and we would audition people there."

The short film won a Sundance Festival grand jury prize. At that point, Vice Media provided two million dollars to finance a feature-length version of the film.
improvise
to invent or make something, such as a speech or a device, at the time when it is needed without already having planned it.
I hadn't prepared a speech so I suddenly had to improvise.
eg:
It was filmed again in Mombasa with many of the same Somali non-actors. Again, they invented their own speeches. Mr. Hodierne used a translator - a language expert - to tell them only basic facts about what should happen in each scene.

"So, they knew what was going to happen within a scene, and then they would improvise all the dialogue (talk) within that scene, so that it was in their voice. And they were amazing at that; they added so much to it that I couldn't have written on a page, so I consider them almost co-writers of the movie."

Mr. Hodierne likes to describe Fishing Without Nets as an action film for theaters that show artistic films. He says the "unlikely combination of suspense and reflectiveness" works well.

One critic described the movie with words like "powerful, deliberate and absolutely beautiful."

The full-length film won a grand jury directing award at the Sundance Festival earlier this year. It will be released to some theaters in the United States and then available on video-on demand.
suspense
the feeling of excitement or nervousness which you have when you are waiting for something to happen and are uncertain about what it is going to be.
She kept him in suspense for several days before she said that she would marry him.
eg:The short film won a Sundance Festival grand jury prize. At that point, Vice Media provided two million dollars to finance a feature-length version of the film.

It was filmed again in Mombasa with many of the same Somali non-actors. Again, they invented their own speeches. Mr. Hodierne used a translator - a language expert - to tell them only basic facts about what should happen in each scene.

"So, they knew what was going to happen within a scene, and then they would improvise all the dialogue (talk) within that scene, so that it was in their voice. And they were amazing at that; they added so much to it that I couldn't have written on a page, so I consider them almost co-writers of the movie."

Mr. Hodierne likes to describe Fishing Without Nets as an action film for theaters that show artistic films. He says the "unlikely combination of suspense and reflectiveness" works well.

One critic described the movie with words like "powerful, deliberate and absolutely beautiful."

The full-length film won a grand jury directing award at the Sundance Festival earlier this year. It will be released to some theaters in the United States and then available on video-on demand.
trauma
(a) severe emotional shock and pain caused by an extremely upsetting experience.
the trauma of marriage breakdown.
He had psychotherapy to help him deal with his childhood traumas.
eg:"One important concern was the fact that more than 50 percent of girls and more than 90 percent of boys feel very hard [difficult] to tell about situations of violence; they don't tell to anybody, they keep it to themselves and the trauma just keeps growing. And this is one of the reasons why in so many places we see the intergenerational transmission of violence.".
eg: Sometimes writing a fictional work can help the writer deal with painful trauma. That was Variny Yim's experience when she wrote her first novel, The Immigrant Princess.

Yim is Cambodian-American. Her book tells about three generations of women from Cambodia's ruling family who try to rebuild their lives in the United States.
iceberg
a very large mass of ice that floats in the sea.
eg: So the tip of the iceberg that we know about is very frightening, and it is not different from region to region. But in this particular region we are encouraged by a number of factors. Most countries have been giving to this topic a very high attention in policies that are being put in place."
repeal
adj. to officially cancel a law.If a government repeals a law, it causes that law no longer to have any legal force.
eg:If Republicans do gain control of both houses, the president could face new disputes over his health care reform law. Millions of people receive health insurance under the plan. However, Republicans have called for the law to be repealed. They say it gives the government too much control over health care.
pilgrim
a person who makes a journey, which is often long and difficult, to a special place for religious reasons.
eg:Hundreds of thousands of Shi'ite pilgrims are in the holy Iraqi city of Karbala. They are gathered there for the annual Ashura observance. They have done so even though there is a continuing threat of Sunni extremist attacks.

Iraq's security forces have deployed tens of thousands of troops to protect the travelers, or pilgrims. They are observing the 7th century death of Prophet Muhammad's grandson, Hussein. He is one of Shi'ite Islam's most respected people. His death marks the split between Shi'ite and Sunni Islam.
captor
a person who has captured a person or animal and refuses to release them.
eg:Human Rights Watch said the boys described beatings given to anyone who tried to escape or did anything their captors considered misbehavior. The boys were also barred from speaking Kurdish, forced to pray five times a day and to watch videos of captives being killed.
partisan
strongly supporting a person, principle or political party, often without considering or judging the matter very carefully.
The audience was very partisan, and refused to listen to her speech.
partisan politics.
eg:This will create much more difficulty for President Obama to make the kind of progress that he's wanted to see in both the Iranian negotiations -- Iran's nuclear negotiations -- and the Israeli/Palestinian peace process. Both of those issues have regrettably been used over the years as a partisan football on Capitol Hill.
eg: At the end of March, 1968, the president spoke to the American people on television. He told of his proposal to end American bombing of North Vietnam. He told of the appointment of a special ambassador to start peace negotiations. And he told of his decision about his own future:

LYNDON JOHNSON: "I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan causes or to any duties other than the awesome duties of this office -- the presidency of your country. Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
regrettable
making you feel sad and sorry about something.
eg:This will create much more difficulty for President Obama to make the kind of progress that he's wanted to see in both the Iranian negotiations -- Iran's nuclear negotiations -- and the Israeli/Palestinian peace process. Both of those issues have regrettably been used over the years as a partisan football on Capitol Hill.
prospect
the possibility that something good might happen in the future.
Is there any prospect of the weather improving?
There seems little prospect of an end to the dispute.
eg:Many Senate Republicans say they will not support an agreement that permits Iran to continue enriching any uranium. Enriched uranium can be used to make nuclear weapons. However, President Obama already has the power to end, or waive, sanctions without approval from Congress. Justin Logan is a foreign policy expert at the Cato Institute, a research group. He says Republicans could take that power from the president.

"There's some prospect that a large Republican wave and takeover of the Senate could raise the prospect of sanctions bills against Iran without that waiver authority. But that requires Congress to sort of take responsibility for the policy and leave its fingerprints on the policy. And historically they've been very wary of doing that."
eg: Nevertheless, as long as there is a prospect the route will be built, it will hamper rival projects by creating uncertainty that will make it harder to attract investors to fund them.
wary
adj. not having or showing complete trust in someone or something that could be dangerous or cause trouble.
I'm a bit wary of/about giving people my address when I don't know them very well.
eg:Many Senate Republicans say they will not support an agreement that permits Iran to continue enriching any uranium. Enriched uranium can be used to make nuclear weapons. However, President Obama already has the power to end, or waive, sanctions without approval from Congress. Justin Logan is a foreign policy expert at the Cato Institute, a research group. He says Republicans could take that power from the president.

"There's some prospect that a large Republican wave and takeover of the Senate could raise the prospect of sanctions bills against Iran without that waiver authority. But that requires Congress to sort of take responsibility for the policy and leave its fingerprints on the policy. And historically they've been very wary of doing that."
contentious
causing or likely to cause disagreement.
a contentious decision/policy/issue/subject.
eg:I think on the security side, you're likely to see Senator McCain taking over the Armed Forces Committee in the Senate, and I think that that may be contentious in terms of defense spending and, and some of our military activities in the Middle East and elsewhere.
coverage
The coverage of something in the news is the reporting of it. ⇒ Now a special TV network gives live coverage of most races.
eg:The U.S. has started to train the Syrian rebels and give them military equipment. But Mr. Logan says Republicans want the Obama administration to do more.

"There's a program in place. It's not being conducted the way Senator McCain would like it to be conducted. So I think the, the change here might really be how the conversation goes, what sorts of hearings happen, and how Republicans in the Senate can affect, sort of, the press coverage -- what's said about the president's policies."
sort of
in some way or to some degree.
I was sort of hoping to leave early today.
It's sort of silly, but I'd like a copy of the photograph.
eg:
The U.S. has started to train the Syrian rebels and give them military equipment. But Mr. Logan says Republicans want the Obama administration to do more.
"There's a program in place. It's not being conducted the way Senator McCain would like it to be conducted. So I think the, the change here might really be how the conversation goes, what sorts of hearings happen, and how Republicans in the Senate can affect, sort of, the press coverage -- what's said about the president's policies."
marijuana
a usually illegal drug made from the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant, which produces a feeling of pleasant relaxation if smoked or eaten.
eg:Marijuana Becomes Legal in the Nation's Capital and in Oregon
unaccountable
adj. not required to explain actions or decisions.
eg:The U.S. business magazine Forbes has again named Russian President Vladimir Putin the most powerful person in the world. He was the magazine's choice last year as well.
The magazine said candidates included President Barack Obama, Chinese President Xi Jinping, Pope Francis and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Forbes described Mr. Putin as "the undisputed, unpredictable and unaccountable head of an energy-rich, nuclear-tipped state, no one would ever call him weak."
nuclear-tipped
Forbes described Mr. Putin as "the undisputed, unpredictable and unaccountable head of an energy-rich, nuclear-tipped state, no one would ever call him weak."
whipping
the punishment of being hit by a whip.
eg:Harriet Smith said her owners treated her well. But she heard about slaves who were mistreated.

"Yes, I know of times they, when, when they mistreated people, they did, and I hear our folks talk, you know, about them whipping, you know, till they had to grease their back to take the holes from the, the back."

Some slaves were beaten so badly, she said, they had to repair the holes in their backs with grease.
grease
animal or vegetable fat that is soft after melting, or more generally, any thick oily substance.
The dinner plates were thick with grease.
eg:Harriet Smith said her owners treated her well. But she heard about slaves who were mistreated.

"Yes, I know of times they, when, when they mistreated people, they did, and I hear our folks talk, you know, about them whipping, you know, till they had to grease their back to take the holes from the, the back."

Some slaves were beaten so badly, she said, they had to repair the holes in their backs with grease.
fugitive
a person who is running away or hiding from the police or a dangerous situation.
Thousands of fugitives are fleeing from the war-torn area.
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid were fugitives from justice (= they ran away to avoid being tried in court).
eg:
The Compromise of 1850 made escaping slavery even harder. One of the bills Congress passed was the Fugitive Slave Act. It said anyone who helped a fugitive -- that is, an escaped slave -- would be fined. And, it said fugitive slaves must be returned to their owner, even if they had escaped to a free state.

Fugitive slaves had no right to a trial. Because they could not defend themselves in court, even freed blacks could be kidnapped and enslaved.
eg:He proposed that no more slaves be sold in the District of Columbia for use outside the federal district. But he also said that slavery should not be ended in the district unless its citizens and those of Maryland approved. Clay said a better law was needed for the return of fugitive slaves to their owners.
mansion
a very large expensive house.
The street is lined with enormous mansions where the rich and famous live.
eg:Historian Harlow Giles Unger has written more than 20 books, including one about James Monroe. Mr. Unger says Monroe was one of America's most beloved presidents. He had been secretary of state and secretary of war at the same time under President Madison. He had also been a diplomat under President Thomas Jefferson and helped carry out the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the country. And, Monroe had fought in the Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812.

"So Monroe came out of the War of 1812 as a hero. And he and his wife, his beautiful wife Elizabeth, moved into what was the blackened hulk of a presidential mansion. And workers slathered on, really slathered on these thick, thick coats of white paint, and really, so thick that it gleamed white."
eg: Everyone tried to get in at once. Clothing was torn. Glasses and dishes were broken. Chairs and tables were damaged. Never had there been a party like this at the president's mansion.
hulk
the body of an old ship, car or very large piece of equipment, which is broken and no longer used.
Here and there the rusted hulk of an abandoned car dots the landscape.
eg:So Monroe came out of the War of 1812 as a hero. And he and his wife, his beautiful wife Elizabeth, moved into what was the blackened hulk of a presidential mansion. And workers slathered on, really slathered on these thick, thick coats of white paint, and really, so thick that it gleamed white.
slather
to spread something thickly on something else.
She slathered lotion on/all over her body.
She slathered her toast with butter.
eg: So Monroe came out of the War of 1812 as a hero. And he and his wife, his beautiful wife Elizabeth, moved into what was the blackened hulk of a presidential mansion. And workers slathered on, really slathered on these thick, thick coats of white paint, and really, so thick that it gleamed white.
coat
a layer of a particular substance that covers something.
eg:Historian Harlow Giles Unger has written more than 20 books, including one about James Monroe. Mr. Unger says Monroe was one of America's most beloved presidents. He had been secretary of state and secretary of war at the same time under President Madison. He had also been a diplomat under President Thomas Jefferson and helped carry out the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the country. And, Monroe had fought in the Revolutionary War and in the War of 1812.

"So Monroe came out of the War of 1812 as a hero. And he and his wife, his beautiful wife Elizabeth, moved into what was the blackened hulk of a presidential mansion. And workers slathered on, really slathered on these thick, thick coats of white paint, and really, so thick that it gleamed white."
worship
[T] to have or show a strong feeling of respect and admiration for God or a god.
In the various regions of India, Hindus worship different gods and observe different religious festivals.
eg:Mr. Unger says they extended American territory into the northwest edge of the continent, to what are now the states of Washington and Oregon. In other words, he says, Monroe moved the American frontier to the Pacific Ocean.

"He really stretched the nation into an empire that reached from sea to shining sea."

With the new growth of the nation, tens of thousands of people began moving west. They built houses, started farms, and created towns.

"And it was the first time in world history, really, that any sovereign state had granted so much land to people that were not of noble birth. And this expanded the strength of the Americans population. For the first time now thousands, tens of thousands, of Americans became landowners. With ownership of land, these people were now Americans. Thousands of them were able to vote for the first time, were able to run for office for the first time, and really direct the course of their communities and their nations. It empowered the American people and they absolutely worshiped Monroe for his efforts."
doctrine
a belief or set of beliefs, especially political or religious, taught and accepted by a particular group.
Christian doctrine.
eg:The king of Spain did not want the United States to recognize the colonies' independence. And, Spain asked European countries to help it put down the rebellions.

Britain wanted no part of the Spanish proposal. It was trading heavily with these new Latin American countries. Spanish or even French control of this area would destroy or limit this trade.

So Britain proposed a joint statement with the United States to say that neither country wanted any of Spain's territory in the New World. Britain also wanted the United States to join in opposing the handover of any of Spain's American territories to any other power in Europe.

Most of President Monroe's advisers urged him to accept the British offer. Secretary of State Adams opposed it. He did not believe the United States should tie itself to any European power, even Britain.

Monroe accepted the advice of his secretary of state. He included Adams' ideas in his message to Congress in December 1823. This part of the message became known as the Monroe Doctrine.
eg: South Carolina refused to pay the tax. Calhoun wrote a long statement defending South Carolina's action. In the statement, he developed what was called the Doctrine of Nullification. The doctrine declared that the power of the federal government was not supreme.
heron
n. a large bird that has long legs and a long neck and bill.
eg:"So Sylvie knows all about birds. Maybe she can help me then," the young man said. "I saw a white heron not far from here two days ago. I've been looking for it ever since. It's a very rare bird, the little white heron. Have you seen it, too?" He asked Sylvie. But Sylvie was silent. "You would know it if you saw it," he added. "It's a tall, strange bird with soft white feathers and long thin legs. It probably has its nest at the top of a tall tree."
breeze
a light and pleasant wind.
a warm/cool breeze.
She let the gentle breeze cool her face.
eg:She had never before been alone in the forest as late as this. The air was soft and sweet. Sylvie felt as if she were a part of the gray shadows and the silver leaves that moved in the evening breeze.
tremble
to shake slightly, usually because you are cold, frightened, or very emotional.
When he came out of the water, he was trembling with cold.
eg:"Hello, little girl," a young man called out cheerfully. "How far is it to the main road?" Sylvie was trembling as she whispered "two miles." She came out of the bushes and looked up into the face of a tall young man carrying a gun.
clumsy
awkward in movement or manner.
eg:Sylvie's bare feet and tiny fingers grabbed the tree's rough trunk. Sharp dry branches scratched at her like cat's claws. The pine tree's sticky sap made her fingers feel stiff and clumsy as she climbed higher and higher.
slender
thin and delicate, often in a way that is attractive.
He put his hands around her slender waist.
The plant's leaves are long and slender.
eg:Suddenly Sylvie's dark gray eyes caught a flash of white that grew larger and larger. A bird with broad white wings and a long slender neck flew past Sylvie and landed on a pine branch below her. The white heron smoothed its feathers and called to its mate, sitting on their nest in a nearby tree. Then it lifted its wings and flew away.
feature
a special article in a newspaper or magazine, or a part of a television or radio broadcast, that deals with a particular subject.
eg: Television programs such as Saturday Night Liver feature satirical comedy that pokes fun at modern society.
confiscate
to take a possession away from someone when you have the right to do so, usually as a punishment and often for a limited period, after which it is returned to the owner.
Miss Edwards has confiscated my comics till the end of term!
His passport was confiscated by the police to prevent him from leaving the country.
eg:n this May 15, 2014 file photo, confiscated ivory is displayed at a chemical waste treatment center in Hong Kong.
eg:Atilla Yesilada is a political expert in Turkey. He says Turkish and foreign investors are worried about the possible effects of the legislation. He says they are worried about the government having the power to seize property and money before an individual or company is found guilty.

"The burden of proof has almost shifted from the prosecutor to the defendant, simply because it takes just reasonable suspicion for the court to confiscate assets, for maybe years."
conspire
to plan secretly with other people to do something bad, illegal or against someone's wishes.
He felt that his colleagues were conspiring together to remove him from his job.
As girls, the sisters used to conspire with each other against their brother.
eg: In a report the environmental watchdog says Chinese-led criminal gangs conspired with corrupt Tanzanian officials to traffic huge amounts of ivory,
be supposed to
to have to; to have a duty or a responsibility to.
The children are supposed to be at school by 8.45 a.m.
What are you doing out of bed - you're supposed to be asleep.
You're not supposed (= allowed) to park here.
eg: Ivory trafficking - the illegal trade - follows established trade routes. It usually begins in the country's own reserves, or wildlife areas, that are supposed to be protected.
outnumber
to be greater in number than someone or something.
In our office, the women outnumber the men 3 to 1.
eg:On November 9th, 1989, days of protests resulted in crowds gathering on both sides of the Berlin Wall. Border guards were outnumbered, and for the first time since 1961, Berliners from East and West mixed freely.
mural
a large picture that has been painted on the wall of a room or building.
eg:At the German embassy in Moscow, a photographic exhibit explores the meaning of the Berlin Wall. Among the artists showing work there is Dmitry Vrubel. He painted one of the most famous graffiti murals on the Berlin Wall. He calls it, "My God, Help Me to Survive This Deadly Love."
prudent
avoiding risks and uncertainties; careful.
[+ to infinitive] It's always prudent to read a contract properly before signing it.
eg:Mr. Xi told Mr. Abe that China hopes Japan will continue the path of peaceful development and accept what he called prudent military and security policies. China's Xinhua news agency reported his comment.
eg:And that was probably the right position from the standpoint of prudence, political prudence or maybe diplomatic prudence. But it was the wrong position from the standpoint of where the American people were politically at that time.
commando
(a member of) a small group of soldiers that are specially trained to make attacks on enemy areas which are very dangerous or difficult to attack.
eg:In addition to holding the North Korean soldiers who died during the Korean War, the cemetery also has the remains of men who came to fight the South many years later. They include the "commandos" who attempted to take the life of South Korea's president in 1968.
demolish
1.to completely destroy a building, especially in order to use the land for something else.
A number of houses were demolished so that the supermarket could be built.
2. to say or prove that an argument or theory is wrong.
He completely demolished all her arguments.
eg: A woman takes a photo of a fire that was set to demolished huts at Taghyeer (Change) Square, where pro-democracy protesters had camped to demand a regime change in 2011, in Sana, Yemen.
hut
a small, simple building, usually consisting of one room.
a mountain hut.
a row of beach huts.
eg:A woman takes a photo of a fire that was set to demolished huts at Taghyeer (Change) Square, where pro-democracy protesters had camped to demand a regime change in 2011, in Sana, Yemen.
meadow
a field with grass and often wild flowers in it.
There was a path through the meadow to the village.
eg:A horse walks in the early morning at meadow in Luehnde near Hannover, northern Germany.
karate
a sport originally from Japan in which people fight using their arms, legs, hands and feet. The level of skill a person has is shown by what colour belt they wear.
eg:4 Turkey's team competes in the third-place fight at the Men's Kata Team competition at the 22nd Karate World Championships in Bremen, Germany.
commonwealth
a country or part of a country that is governed by its people or representatives elected by its people.
formal, a group of countries with the same political or economic aims
eg: Judith Zoungnana, a Burkina Faso policewoman, smiles during a graduation ceremony from a security training course that included participants from several African and Commonwealth countries in Cairo, Egypt.
amateur
1.taking part in an activity for pleasure, not as a job.
an amateur astronomer/boxer/historian.
He was an amateur singer until the age of 40, when he turned professional.
→ Compare professional adjective
2.relating to an activity, especially a sport, where the people taking part do not receive money.
amateur athletics.
eg:Oyuna Batuyeva, right, 23, of Buryatia and Anna Schelukhina, 20, of Krasnoyarsk region, prepare backstage before the final show of the 8th Miss Asia-Siberia international amateur beauty and talents contest in Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
mausoleum
a building in which the bodies of dead people are buried.
eg:People attend a ceremony at the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the Turkish Republic's founder, marking the anniversary of his death in Ankara, Turkey.
skylight
a window built into a roof to allow light in.
Putting in a skylight made the attic seem big and bright.
eg:Light shines through the skylight above the pavilion entrance of the Fulton Center transit hub on the day of its official opening in New York City.
ape
an animal like a large monkey which has no tail and uses its arms to swing through trees.
eg:Gibbons - a kind of ape - call across the 2,400 hectares of protected forest. Their voices sometimes can be heard joining with those of rare birds and other endangered animals.
snare
to catch an animal using a snare.
We used to snare small birds such as sparrows and robins.
<figurative>She grew up in the days when a woman's main aim was to snare a rich husband.
eg: They both got snared again by poachers. So that's the main issue in Cambodia is the hunting. It's just the forests aren't safe at the moment for releasing bears. And in the forests which probably, we might be able to ((release animals)) are full of mines.
scaly anteater
Pangolins are often called scaly anteaters. They are sometimes hunted for food and medicine. Those abilities have led them to become the most often seized mammal in Asia's wildlife trade. The Worldwatch Institute says that has caused a great loss of their populations in Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos.
captivity
when a person or animal is kept somewhere and is not allowed to leave.
All the hostages, when released from captivity, looked remarkably fit and well.
Animals bred in captivity would probably not survive if they were released into the wild.
eg:The Phnom Tamao Rescue Center is home to about 100 sun bears. That is the largest population of sun bears in captivity. A number of moon bears also live there.

One expert says the whole protected area would support only a single bear in the wild. That is the opinion of Anuradha Jayasinghe, technical adviser with a group called Free the Bears.Two bears were set free after they regained their health over time in another part of the country. They did well for about three months. But then:

"They both got snared again by poachers. So that's the main issue in Cambodia is the hunting. It's just the forests aren't safe at the moment for releasing bears. And in the forests which probably, we might be able to ((release animals)) are full of mines."
homicide
(an act of) murder.n. the act of killing another person.
He was convicted of homicide.
The number of homicides in the city has risen sharply.
eg:A South Korean court has found the captain of a passenger boat guilty of negligence in a deadly sinking in April. The court sentenced Lee Jun-Seok to 36 years in prison.

The Sewol sank in April while carrying hundreds of people, mostly schoolchildren. Video recovered later showed members of the Sewol crew leaving the sinking boat while many schoolchildren were still on board. 295 bodies have been recovered in the seven months since the sinking.

Judges cleared the captain of a homicide charge that could have resulted in the death penalty. The ferry's chief engineer was found guilty of homicide for not helping two injured crew members. He received a sentence of 30 years in prison. Another 13 crew members received sentences from five to 20 years.
chilly
adjective (COLD) .
(of weather, conditions in a room, or parts of the body) cold.
The bathroom gets chilly in the winter.
I felt a bit chilly so I put on a jacket.
a chilly October day.
eg: Swimmers enter the water for a mid-October chilly swim at Alki Beach in Seattle.
trade
verb [T] (EXCHANGE) .
to exchange something, or to stop using or doing something and start using or doing something else instead.
The children traded comics.
[+ two objects] I'll trade you some of my chocolate for some of your ice cream.
I wouldn't trade you for the world (= I do not want a different partner).
eg: Increased numbers of swimmers are trading warm, calm pool water for exercise in open water. These people are known as "wild swimmers."
involuntary
not done by choice; done unwillingly, or without the decision or intention of the person involved.
A sharp tap on the knee usually causes an involuntary movement of the lower leg.
eg:It is not unusual to see people swimming in the height of summer in Seattle, Washington. But this is autumn. The salt water of Puget Sound is 13 degrees Celsius. And, the air is not much warmer. That is why you can hear the involuntary sounds at the start of a group swim.
kayak
a light narrow canoe with a covering over the top.
eg:More than 10 swimmers are in the group. They follow an orange kayak for a one and a half kilometer salt-water swim. Guila Muir paddles the first of the support boats.

"A swim excursion is not a race. That's the primary differentiation (first difference). It's an expedition. It's an adventure."
camaraderie
a feeling of friendliness towards people that you work or share an experience with.
When you've been climbing alone for hours, there's a tremendous sense of camaraderie when you meet another climber.
eg:She questions why anyone would pay to swim in a community pool.

"Why pay to swim when you just can go down and jump in yourself? It's for the camaraderie. As, you can see the incredible enthusiasm, the feeling of support..."

She spoke during a stop at a beach. There the group gathered around a small fire to warm up after their swim. They ate fish and chips and drank hot chocolate.

The establishment of Ms. Muir's business three years ago shows the increased interest in open water swimming in the northwest United States.

Kelly Reynolds of Seattle is one of the newest converts to the sport. She says she swam in college two years ago. But she does not want to race in swimming pools anymore. She says she does not want to see how slow she is.
civilian
a person who is not a member of the police or the armed forces.
The bomb killed four soldiers and three civilians.
The army has been criticized for attacking the unarmed civilian population.
eg:In the movie "The Last Patrol," filmmaker Sebastian Junger travels with two war veterans and a photographer who has worked in war zones. The four men walk 640 kilometers from Washington, D.C. to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The film shows how difficult it is for former soldiers to return to civilian life.
snap
noun (BREAKING NOISE) .
[C usually singular] a sudden loud sound like something breaking or closing.
She broke the stick over her knee with a loud snap.
eg:In the movie "The Last Patrol," filmmaker Sebastian Junger travels with two war veterans and a photographer who has worked in war zones. The four men walk 640 kilometers from Washington, D.C. to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The film shows how difficult it is for former soldiers to return to civilian life.

"Until you hear the snap of a bullet go by your head, there is nothing like it."
outpost
a place, especially a small group of buildings or a town, which keeps going the authority or business interests of a government or company that is far away.
a police/military/colonial outpost.
eg:"You're just there at an outpost getting shot at with those guys."
He says that kind of closeness is difficult to find when soldiers return to the United States.
sergeant
a soldier of middle rank.
eg:r. Roels does not yet know what to do as a civilian. Brendan O' Byrne also served in the armed forces, as an army sergeant. He, too, is still looking for purpose in civilian life. Sebastian Junger says Mr. O'Byrne was a good soldier and leader.

"And then he comes home to the United States and he's a mess -- drank way too much, very self-destructive. But when we started doing 'The Last Patrol,' all of a sudden, I would see the old Brendan that I remembered from Afghanistan."
ghetto
an area of a city, especially a very poor area, where people of a particular race or religion live closely together and apart from other people.
As a child she lived in one of New York's poorest ghettos.
eg:But what exactly is home? And how can war veterans feel good about returning to the United States? That is one of the reasons Mr. Junger and the three men went on their long walk. The movie shows them sleeping and cooking in the woods, bathing in rivers and dealing with changing weather conditions.

"(The) thing about (a) railroad line is, it goes straight through farms, woods, ghettoes, suburbs, inner city, industry -- it goes straight through the middle of everything. And on the way we were asking Americans that we met, how America was doing. 'How do you think America is doing? What's the thing you like best about this country? What do you like worst about it?' And we just did this 400-mile assessment of where my country's at right now, and where we are at."

Here, Mr. Junger speaks to a crowd.

"We're trying to figure out what the best thing about America is. What do you think? What do you think is the best thing ab