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87 terms

biochemistry q4

DIFS, QTR4, Chem 2
STUDY
PLAY
carbohyrdrate
denoted by suffix- OSE
Monosaccharide
simplest carbohydrate; building blocks of carbs
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, & galactose are examples of
monosaccharide hexose formula
C6H12O6
aldose
carbohydrate with a aldehyde group
ketose
carb witha ketone group
carbohydrate energy
4 calories per gram
glucose
examples are dextrose, grape sugar, blood sugar
Fructose
levulose, fruit sugar are examples of
galactose
carbohydrate associated with brain and nerve tissue
disaccharides
2 saccharide groups
disaccharide formula
C12H22011
sucrose
disaccharide; cane sugar, table sugar are examples of
sucrose
constituents- glucose & fructose; upon hydrolysis => glucose & fructose
maltose
disaccharide; malt sugar
maltose
consituents- glucose & glucose; upon hydrolysis=> 2 glucose
lactose
disaccharide; milk sugar
lactose
constituents- glucose& galactose; upon hydolysis=>glucose & galactose
polysaccharides
most complex of all carbohydrates; MANY saccharide groups
starch
a polysaccharide; found in plantssuch as tubers, & grains
starch
most important polysccharide to MAN; upon hydrolysis=>glucose molecules
glycolgen
found as a stored polysaccharide in the liver of man and other animals; how our bodies store sugars for later use
cellulose
polysaccharide; found in makeup of many plants; NOT digestable to humans; used as bulking agent
carbohydrates
hydrolyzation end products => monosaccharides
monosaccharide
canNOT be further hydrolized
oxidation of carbohydrates
animal METABOLISM of carbs
oxidation of carbohydrates
this is the chief source of body energy; end products =>co2 & h2o
oxidation of carbs/ metabolism
opposite of photosynthesis
photosynthesis
process by which plants convert co2, h2o, & solar energy into carbs and o2, while in the presence of the catalyst chlorophyll.
fermentation
1.the anaeobic breakdown of organic compounds (carbs) by microorganisms into simpler products, releasing co2. 2. the oxidative decomposition of complex substances (carbs) through the action of enzymes produced by microorganism
lipids/ fats
substances able to yield fatty acids when hydrolyzed
lipids/ fats
as a group sometimes called glycerides
esters
organic lipid or fat compunds are also called?
lipds/ fats elements
carbon, hydogren, oxygen & may contain nitorgen and phosphorus
lipids/ fats
is comprised of glycerol (glycerine) & fatty acids
lipids/ fats
tristearin & adapose (example of?)
fatty acids
stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid (examples of?)
lipids
these are insoluable in water, but are soluable in organic solvents such as ethers, benzene, chloroform, and some alcohols
lipids energy
9 calories per gram
lipids
may be stored, prevents dehydration of cells, used as insulation, and cushions body organs
lipids
oxidation of ______=> co2, h2o, energy
lipids
under normal hydrolysis of_________=> glycerol & fatty acids
saponification
the alkaline hydrolysis of a lipid; the natural process of body decomposition; alkaline substance usually used- NaOH (sodium hydroxide)
saponification
___________=> glycerine & soap
soap
the product formed when an alkali reacts with a fatty acid
adipocere or grave wax
product formed from the saponification of fatty acids in the dead human body by calcium containing compounds ( more like soap than wax)
waxes
lipids that are esters of fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols other than glycerol
compound lipids
a lipid which, when hydrolyzed, will yeild fatty acids, and alcohol and some other compound
proteins
fundamental constituents of all living matter; the building blocks of living things
proteins
the most complex of organic compounds; they have extremely large & complex structures
protein
this is important for new cell growth, synthesis of enzymes, synthesis of hormones, production of hemoglobin
protein
elements- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen- may be present- sulfur, phosphorus, iodine, iron
proteins
_______ are made up of amino acids
amino acids
an organic acid containing nitrogen; the building blocks of proteins; have amphoteric properties
amino acid
glycine & alanine are examples of ?
amphoteric properties
possess the properties of an acid & a base; have characteristics of substances that ionize as both acids & bases in solutions; allows proteins to act as buffers in body metabolism when in solution
imbibition
ability to absorb water
coagulation
reaction of formaldehyde with proteins; the insoluable state of a protein produced by heating or contact with a chemical
formaldehyde
this forms a peptide bond to denature proteins; denaturing proteins is a toxic reaction
formadehyde
this causes the peptide linkage of proteins to coagulate and become firm
one to one basis
if decomposition has begun the amino acids will react with formaldehyde on what basis?
not reversible
decomposition of proteins is____________
hydrolysis of proteins
end product=> amino acid(s)
oxidation of proteins
end product=> CO2, H2O, nitrogenous wastes (such as urea & ammonium salts)
deamination
the process by which the amino group is removed from an amino acid as part of the catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids
deamination process
the amino group is converted by the liver into ammonium salts and urea which are highly soluable & may be excreted by the kidney in urine
putrifaction
decomposition of proteins
putrifaction
this yeilds=> ammonia containing compounds; putrecine cadaberine (ptomaines), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
enzymes
organic catalyst; are proteins by nature( all that applies to proteins also applies)
catalyst
alters the speed of a chemical reaction
substrate
the substance upon which an enzyme will act
specificity
each enzyme will only react upon only ONE given substrate
enzyme
is denoted by the suffixes "ase" or "in"
carbonhydrase
enzymes that act on carbohydrates
protease
enzymes that act on proteins
lipase
enzymes that act on lipids & fats
autolytic enzymes
self digesting enzyme
autolysis
self digestion being apart of decomposition
variable Ph
the optimum Ph range for enzyme activity
normal body temperature
temperature range for enzyme activity
50 Celcius or 122 F
high temperature which enzymes coagulate
influencing factors on enzymes
1 concentration of the enzyme 2 consentration of the substrate 3 nature & concentration of products 4 effects of light and other physical factors
metabolism
the result of both the destructive and constructive chemical reactions in a living cell or organism, by which food is transformed into living protoplasm, reserve materials are stored, and wastes are eliminated
catabolism & anabolism
2 parts to metabolism
catabolism
the conversion of complex substances into simpler compounds; destructive aspect of metabolism; example is digestion
anabolism
the process which build complex substances from simpler compounds; constructive aspect of metabolism; example is storing glycogen by the liver
digestion
it results in the breaking down of complex foods into simple soluable compounds, whose molecules are small enough to pass through mambrades and thus be absorbed by the cells of the body