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Carbonate

add dilute acid. Result: effervescence

(write word equation)

(write word equation)

Cl-

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate. Result: white ppt

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

Br-

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate. Result: cream ppt

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

I-

acidify with dilute nitric acid, then add aqueous silver nitrate. Result: yellow ppt

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

SO42- Sulfate

Acidify with dilute hydrochloric acid, then add aqueous barium chloride, Result: white ppt

(write symbol equation then word equation)

(write symbol equation then word equation)

Li+

Flame test, Result: red

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

Na+

Flame test, Result: yellow/orange

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

K+

Flame test, Result: Lilac

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

Ca2+

Flame test, Result: brick red

Cu2+

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, Result: light blue ppt insoluble in excess

(write symbol equation)

(write symbol equation)

Fe2+ iron(II)

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, Result: green ppt insoluble in excess

(write symbol equation then word equation)

(write symbol equation then word equation)

Fe3+ iron(III)

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide, Result red-brown ppt insoluble in excess

(write symbol equation then word equation)

(write symbol equation then word equation)

ammonium

Add aqueous sodium hydroxide then warm, Result: no ppt but a nasty smelling gas produced

(write word equation)

(write word equation)