ENVS 1126 Johnson Exam 1

During his 8-year career in a New Orleans Saints uniform, running back Pierre Thomas had an average of 4.6 rushing yards per carry, i.e., he ran an average of 4.6 yards towards the end zone every time he carried the football. How many average meters did Pierre Thomas run per carry? (1 inch EQUAL(S) 2.54 centimeters. 1 foot EQUAL(S) 12 inches. 1 yard EQUAL(S) 36 inches. 1 mile EQUAL(S) 1.61 km. 1 mile EQUAL(S) 5,280 ft. )
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Which of the following would most likely cause the greatest harm to wild Giant Panda populations in China?the introduction of beetles that eat bamboo___ is a transitional region between 2 ecosystems that can share species and characteristics of both environmentsEcotoneIn a greenhouse, it would be best to position a plant so that its exposure to sunlight would be:within its optimal rangeThe Cuyahoga River in Ohio had been so polluted that it caught fire repeatedly from 1868-1969, including a 1952 fire that resulted in nearly $1.5 million in damages. Amazingly, over rivers in the United States also caught fire during this period. In 1962, Rachel Carson published her book Silent Spring, which one of the following would have been her most likely reaction to learning of the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire?The river fires illustrate one of the many ways we are polluting our environmentThe advice of Rachel Carson in her book Silent Spring reflectsStewardshipThousands of cases of lung cancer occur in a two-year period in a city outside of Kentucky, at rates that are double that seen in other cities in the United States. Scientists working in that region assume thatthere is something peculiar to the region causing these unusually high ratesIn the Appalachian Mountains, several species of salamander live in or near a stream. The largest species lives in the stream and along its edges, a smaller species lives on land within a meter or two of the stream, and a smaller species lives about 3-5 meters away from the stream. In this region, these three salamander species are usingDifferent niches within the same habitatScientists investigating a drug to cure a disease in birds, such as avian malaria, have conducted experiments. In these experiments, which one of the following most like represents the controls in the experiment?Birds that did not receive the drug being testedAmerican beavers, Castor canadensis, are widespread in North America. Those American beavers living around lakes in northern Minnesota and which can potentially interbreedRepresent one population of American beaversWhich of the following best illustrates sound science?measuring wind velocities to determine the cost-effectiveness of windmills in a region___ is an organism that produces large amounts of offspring and does not tend to them (e.g., does not feed or incubate them)r strategistThe population growth rate is ___the net number of people added in a year divided by the mid-year populationFrom 1950 to 2010, there was a constant and large increase in the numbers of humans on the planet, but during the same time period, there was a decrease in the population growth rate. Remembering the formula for population growth rate, how can these 2 facts be reconciled (i.e., how can they both be true at the same time when they appear to contradict each other)?There was in increase in the numerator, but there was also an increase in the denominatorWhy is a J curve unlikely to happen in nature?Because a population can't grow indefinitely.The combination of all the abiotic and biotic factors that may limit population increase is called ___.Environmental resistanceThis figure best illustrates ___ (bird on top of bull)CommensalismLeafy spurge has spread completely across many US states. If left uncontrolled in these states, leafy spurge, populations will:eventually reach their carrying capacityIntroduced alien species that cause the most harm are those that:become invasiveOver the last 100 years, the number of elk in Yellowstone has varied in part because of the limited availability of winter food sources and many types of predators, including wolves (eliminated in 1926 and reintroduced in 1995), grizzly bears, coyotes, black bears, and golden eagles. The population of elk in Yellowstone:reflects top-down and bottom-up population regulationIn an ecosystem with many similar species, we typically findcompetitors using different resources to minimize interspecific competition.A population would be expected to grow ifimmigration increased and deaths and emigration decreased.Resource partitioningReduces interspecific competition and increases species diversityParasitesMay live inside or outside of their hostThe risk of introducing a natural enemy to control invasive species is thatThe natural enemy might also become a pestA formula accounting for human factors contributing to environmental deterioration and resource depletion is I EQUAL(S) P*A*T. These letters stand for:Impact, population, affluence and consumption, technology of the society___ was a period of time during the 1700's and 1800's during which Americans made major discoveries including the use of fossil fuels to power machines which led to more efficient living (harvesting of crops, building of infrastructure, etc.) but also increased air pollutionIndustrial RevolutionIn general, fertility rates:Decrease as per capita income increasesIn the I EQUAL(S) P*A*T formula that describes our impact on the environment, the I stands for environmental impact, the P stands for (1)___, the A stands for affluence, and the T stands for (2)___.(1) population, (2) technologyWorld population growth over the past 500 years has most resembled the letterJWhat is total fertility rateThe average number of kids each women has in a geographic region over her lifetimeMost of the world population growth in the near future will be in ___.developing countriesAt this point, most species in the world go extinct becauseloss of habitatBecause of the modern environmental movementaverage life expectancy for humans is longerWhich of the following does NOT represent an important aspect of sound science?A scientist accepts funding from an industry and tries to generate data to support their products to treat lung cancer.On June 30, 2016, the population of Leeburg, Louisiana...The birth rate for Frogmouth was ___, the death rate was ___, The population growth rate was ____, and the population growth was ____.8.4 2.3 5.8 1467Which of the following organism has the greatest anthropocentric value?SalmonIn the Proffitt paper, an example of a factor that shifts the populations balance toward biotic potential is _________________, and an example of a factor that shifts the population balance toward environmental resistance is __________.high elk recruitment rates, severe wintersIn the Proffitt paper, which one of the following indicators was NOT one used to determine whether elk females had nearby calves?antler sizeWhy does Jim Sporleder in the Shots Fired video say to not expect police officers to help you get out of the building?Because their first job is to stop the shooter and end the bloodshed.Under what circumstances might it be hard to define a species?Sometimes donkeys and horses interbreed and produce mules, which are infertile.Organisms that feed on other living organisms as a source of their energy and nutrients are called:ConsumersVibrioberg and Vibrioville are 2 new cities that have developed near Baton Rouge. Both cities started with 10,000 people each. After one year, Vibrioberg had a growth rate of 6.2%, and the growth rate was coincidentally the same after year 2 as well. Vibrioville, on the other hand, had a ridiculously high growth rate of 12% after one year. Unfortunately, the growth rate proved to be too much, leading to water and air pollution problems and an infrastructure not prepared for such rapid growth. So, during year 2, Vibrioville's growth rate dropped to only 0.4%. Therefore, after 2 years, Vibrioberg added ________ people, and Vibrioville added ________ people to their respective populations.1,278 1,245A squirrel population in an oak forest in Indiana is limited by hawk predators, the amount of acorns produced annually, nesting sites in the trees, and cold winter temperatures. Which of the following is an abiotic factor limiting this squirrel population?The stress of cold winter temperaturesWhat is 4.32 * 10^9 + 2.16 * 10^8?4.54* 10^9Which one of the following sources of energy is most sustainable?hydroelectric damsMost organisms use water inliquid formWhich of the following best illustrates sustainability?increasing our reliance upon renewable sources of energyMost organisms native to a desert community arewell adapted to the heat and dry environmentUncertain about the best way to keep his new lizard alive, Jerome places a heat lamp at one end of the long lizard cage. Over several days, Jerome notices that the lizard tends to sit in a certain place when the lamp is on. The lizard's selection of a particular place to stay represents itstemperature optimumA new store is constructed in place of a farm field, leading to increased runoff into streams, that leads to mudslides in the surrounding region. This construction resulted in the loss of ecosystem capital, because itincreased erosion in the regionWhich of the following are products of photosynthesis?oxygen and sugarA form of a biome is largely predicted by itsdiversity of plants and animals speciesThe air that we breathe in the troposphere consists of (1) ___, (2) ___, and (3)78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.035% carbon dioxideNatural modes of Nitrogen fixation are:lighting and bacterial fixation in soilsGenerally speaking, what is the main difference between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?photosynthesis converts CO2 and H2O into O2 and glucose, whereas cellular respiration converts glucose and oxygen into CO2 and H2OWhich of the following best illustrates bias in scientific investigations?investigations of health effects of smoking are funded and published by a tobacco companyDriving along a highway, you start noticing plants with tiny blue flowers. Several miles later, these flowers are very abundant. Then even further, the flowers become less abundant, until finally, you do not see them at all. The regions with just a few of these plants represented the plant's___?zones of stressOn land, the carbon used today in photosynthesis to form carbon atoms of plant tissues is mostly returned to the air because ofrespiration in plants, animals, and organisms in the soil.The muddy Mississippi River, transporting soils that have eroded from farm fields, represents a mixing of thelithosphere and hydrosphereBiodiversity is important becauseit is necessary to maintain stability of ecosystemsIf rivers were catching fire today in 2012, what group would most likely be involved to investigate the situation and apply federal laws?Environmental Protection AgencyIn most ecosystems, the producers are the _____.green plantsAs global climate change warms certain mountain ranges, the temperature optimum for the insect species living on the mountain is causing these insects toMove higher up the mountainOn a vacation, you spend much of the day walking along the water's edge on an ocean beach soaking up the sun. The place where you are walking is a good example of aecotoneAll scientific investigations are initially founded upongood observationsThe S curve that describes growth in a population of organisms flattens out because of carrying capacity of that ecosystem; however, a more realistic depiction is a curvy line that fluctuates above and below the carrying capacity because ____.The population is balanced by biotic potential and environmental resistance, e.g., increased prey followed by increased predatorsA population of bullfrogs in a pond produces many thousands of eggs each spring that hatch out into tadpoles. However, only about 1% of the tadpoles survive to reproduce. This population of frogs is experiencinglow levels of recruitmentSome beetles escape from a ship and fly to a small island covered with grass but with no trees or beetle predators. As the beetles feed, they destroy all the grasses. But with abundant food, the beetle population soars, doubling in size every month. After about a year the population crashes as thousands of beetles have destroyed almost all of the plants and there is little left to feed the large population. This scenario best illustratesexponential growth followed by a population crashWhich one of the following illustrates interspecific competition?caterpillars of 2 different species of moth are feeding on the same plant's leavesJess' cats, Sampson and Thompson, run to the kitchen when they smell food. Jess places the bowl of food on the floor. Sampson gets greedy and tries to push Thompson out of the way. The cats fight and the bowl of food tips over spoiling their meal leaving them both hungry. What type of Interaction is this?competitionI have an English Mastiff and a Standard Poodle who both think they are lap dogs, and they are always fighting for my attention. I usually have to compromise and let one sit on the left side of my lap and the other sit on the right side of my lap. The fighting between them is (1)___, and the compromise is (2)___.(1) intra-species competition, (2) resource partitioningSome biologists have identified symbiotic relationships in which it appears that one organism gains from the relationship while the other organism is unaffected. After further research, however, the researchers find out that both members of the relationship actually benefit. The researchers therefore realize that what they at first thought was an example ofcommensalism is really an example of mutualismWhich one of the following illustrates intraspecific competition?male red-winged blackbirds defending nesting sites from other malesThe relationship between the moose and wolf populations on Isle Royale revealstop-down and bottom-up population regulationA group of frogs in a rain forest represents a population if the frogslive in the same region and can potentially reproduce with each otherInvasive species are dangerous becausethe native species have not evolved and adapted to these organismsA stable population would remain at equilibrium ifbirths and deaths increased by the same number of organismsIf organisms are unable to generate enough genetic diversity to survive in a changing environment, they__?sometimes go extinctA keystone specieshas a disproportionately large impact on the stability of an ecosystem.In logistic growth (an S-shaped curve), how does population growth change as the population nears its carrying capacity?population growth decreasesWhich of the following represents a type of top-down regulation for rattlesnakes living in Arizona?the number of snake-eating hawks in the regionWhich of the following represents a type of top-down regulation for wildflowers living in a forest?herbivores in the regionWhich of the following represents a type of mutualism?A honeybee feeds on nectar at a flower on an orange tree and pollinates the flower.Why AND-OR under what conditions might the term ''commensal bacteria'' when referring to the human body be considered a misnomer?Commensalism is a + & 0 relationship in which species A benefits while species B is unaffected. ''Commensal bacteria'' is a misnomer when the human benefits from protection and food-degrading abilities of bacteria while the bacteria receive protection and nutrients from the human.A farmer has 17 sheep. All but 9 of them are eaten by wolves. How many sheep does he have left, and what do you call this type of interaction?9, top-down controlTransgenic plants are generally different from traditional hybrid plants produced hundreds of years ago, because transgenic plants mayhave new traits not found in their ancestral species.In the past 40 years, pesticide use has tripled yet pests still cause extensive damage to crops. Why has this increased use of pesticides not been more effective?the widespread use of pesticides has resulted in the evolution of pesticide resistant pests.Food safety issues of transgenic crops includethe promotion of antibiotic resistance in pathogensOne ongoing concern about transgenic crops that produce pesticides is that this trait may:kill other insects that are not pestsPeople most concerned about the side effects of bioengineering would more likely acceptcrops produced by marker-assisted breeding.Maintaining sustainable human exploitation of ecosystem capital will be increasingly difficult because of__?growing pressure from human population on Earth.Which one of the following does NOT fix nitrogen?cellular respirationWhich one of the following would be an ecological example of restoration?using sediment from rivers to build wetlands in coastal LouisianaUnlike developed countries, children in developing countries often die fromCommon ailments such as diarrheaHow might cutting down trees negatively impact the movie industry?Fewer trees --> less CO2 sequestration --> more CO2 in atmosphere --> more CO2 absorbed in ocean --> decreased pH --> unhappy zooxanthellae --> coral bleaching --> coral death --> no attachment sites for sea anemone --> no hiding places for Dory the Blue Tang (fish) --> no movie dealsWhich one of the following would be an ecological example of conservation?Preventing the capture of more than two endangered Redfish in the state of LouisianaWith respect to ecological succession, what is the difference between primary succession and secondary succession?secondary succession starts out with pre-existing soil.Regarding the carbon cycle, how frequently does a single atom of carbon cycle from the atmosphere through 1 or more living things and then back into the atmosphere?every 2,190 daysTo promote crop growth, a farmer is most likely to apply fertilizers to the soil that containnitrogen or phosphorus.Why are we discussing Coca-Cola in an environmental sciences class?because the carbonic acid in the carbonated water that makes sodas acidic is the same molecule that makes the ocean acidic.If fertilizer makes plants grow, and photosynthesis is so good for the environment, then why is using fertilizer so maligned in this class?because overuse of fertilizer can cause water pollutionJake is camping out with friends at the local park. He decides to go relax after a long day setting up camp by practicing some blindfolded fire juggling in the middle of the forest. Surprisingly, the trees around him catch fire and the forest rangers are able to put out the fire before it spreads to far. All the vegetation in a 40 yard radius burned down leaving a clearing in the forest. The soil remains intact. What do you think will colonize this now empty plot of land first?grasses/shrubsIn 1988, fires cleared approximately 1.2 million acres of Yellowstone Park. However, the trees eventually grew back and the wildlife returned to its habitat. This is an example of ___.Secondary SuccessionWhich one of the following is NOT a potential way that fire might be beneficial to a Slash Pine forest? (Slash Pine trees have tall trunks and most of their limbs and leaves in the upper canopy layer, i.e., in the tops of the trees.)removal of animals that live in Slash Pine treesWhat is one way to describe the relationship between development in urban areas and coral bleaching?increased development --> increased deforestation --> decreased removal of CO2 from the atmosphere -->increased CO2 in the ocean --> decreased pH --> increased acidity in ocean --> loss of symbiotic algaeHuman impacts on the carbon cycle do not include:use of nuclear energyIn general, high poverty tends to producehigh fertility and greater environmental damageWhich one of the following is not a major source of invasive species in the world?escape from zoos and animal parksIf a subdivision is built by clearing several portions of a large wooded region, we might see an increase in thenumber of jays or cowbirds in the regionEndemic species areLimited to just one location, such as an islandSome drugs that are currently used with great success to treat cancer and viral infectionsare derived from wild plantsThe greatest threat to global biodiversity ishabitat destructionIt was once said that a squirrel could climb a tree in New Jersey and reach the Mississippi River without ever touching the ground. This is no longer the case. What is the most likely reason why?ConversionHuman interactions between wildlife, homes, and highways___.is an increasing problem as humans populations increase and spread