Upgrade to remove ads
OB Chapter 13: Labor and Birth Process
Terms in this set (80)
Labor can be indicated by which occurrence?
The client reports back pain, and the cervix is effacing and dilating.
True labor is indicated when the cervix is changing. Contractions occur for weeks before true labor, and may occur close together. Contractions may also occur for a long time before true labor begins. pg 424
A nurse is conducting an in-service program for staff nurses working in the labor and birth unit. The nurse is discussing ways to promote a positive birth outcome for the woman in labor. The nurse determines that additional teaching is necessary when the group identifies which measure?
allowing the woman time to be alone
Positive support, not being alone, promotes a positive birth experience. Being alone can increase anxiety and fear, decreasing the woman's ability to cope. Feelings of control promote self-confidence and self-esteem, which in turn help the woman to cope with the challenges of labor. Information about procedures reduces anxiety about the unknown and fosters cooperation and self-confidence in her abilities to deal with labor. Catecholamines are secreted in response to anxiety and fear and can inhibit uterine blood flow and placental perfusion. Relaxation techniques can help to reduce anxiety and fear, in turn decreasing the secretion of catecholamines and ultimately improving the woman's ability to cope with labor page 435
When teaching a group of nursing students about the stages of labor, the nurse explains that softening, thinning, and shortening of the cervical canal occur during the first stage of labor. Which term is the nurse referring to in the explanation?
The nurse is explaining about effacement, which involves softening, thinning, and shortening of the cervical canal. Dilatation refers to widening of the cervical os from a few millimeters in size to approximately 10 cm wide. Crowning refers to a point in the maternal vagina from where the fetal head cannot recede back after the contractions have passed. Molding is a process in which there is overriding and movement of the bones of the cranial vault, so as to adapt to the maternal pelvis. page 422
A nurse is caring for a client in her fourth stage of labor. Which assessments would indicate normal physiologic changes occurring during the fourth stage of labor? Select all that apply.
decreased intra-abdominal pressure
well-contracted uterus in the midline
mild uterine cramping and shivering
The normal physiologic changes for which a nurse should assess during the fourth stage of labor are a well-contracted uterus in the midline of the abdomen, mild cramping pain and generalized shivering, and decreased intra-abdominal pressure. Hemodynamic changes are due to normal blood loss during birth, causing moderate tachycardia and a slight fall in the blood pressure during the fourth stage of labor. A fall in the pulse rate and increased blood pressure are not normal findings occurring during the fourth stage of labor. page 444
A nurse is performing a vaginal examination of a woman in the early stages of labor. The woman has been at 2 cm dilated for the past 2 hours, but effacement has progressed steadily. Which statement by the nurse would best encourage the client regarding her progress?
"You are still 2 cm dilated, but the cervix is thinning out nicely."
Women are anxious to have frequent reports during labor, to reassure them everything is progressing well. If giving a progress report, the nurse should remember most women are aware of the word dilatation but not effacement. Therefore, just saying, "no further dilatation" is a depressing report. "You're not dilated a lot more, but a lot of thinning is happening, and that's just as important" is the same report given in a positive manner.
A pregnant client wants to know why the labor of a first-time-pregnant woman usually lasts longer than that of a woman who has already given birth once and is pregnant a second time. What explanation should the nurse offer the client?
The cervix takes around 12 to 16 hours to dilate during first pregnancy.
The labor of a first-time-pregnant woman lasts longer because during the first pregnancy the cervix takes between 12 and 16 hours to dilate completely. The intensity of the Braxton Hicks contractions stays the same during the first and second pregnancies. Spontaneous rupture of membranes may occur before the onset of labor during each birth, not only during the first birth. page 440
A nurse is caring for a pregnant client who is in labor. Which maternal physiologic responses should the nurse monitor for in the client as the client progresses through birth? Select all that apply.
increase in heart rate
increase in blood pressure
increase in respiratory rate
When caring for a client in labor, the nurse should monitor for an increase in the heart rate by 10 to 20 bpm, an increase in blood pressure by as much as 35 mm Hg, and an increase in respiratory rate. During labor, the nurse should monitor for a slight elevation in body temperature as a result of an increase in muscle activity. The nurse should also monitor for decreased gastric emptying and gastric pH, which increases the risk of vomiting with aspiration. page 439
A 19-year-old female presents in advanced labor. Examination reveals the fetus is in frank breech position. The nurse interprets this finding as indicating:
the buttocks are presenting first with both legs extended up toward the face.
In a frank breech position, the buttocks present first with both legs extended up toward the face. The full or complete breech occurs when the fetus sits crossed-legged above the cervix. In a footling or incomplete breech one or both legs are presenting.
The nurse is determining how often contractions occur measuring from the beginning of the one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction. The nurse documents this finding as:
Frequency refers to how often the contractions occur and is measured from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next contraction. Duration refers to how long a contraction lasts and is measured from the beginning of one contraction to the end of that same contraction. Intensity refers to the strength of the contraction determined by manual palpation or measured by an internal intrauterine pressure catheter. The peak or acme of a contraction is the highest intensity of a contraction.
A pregnant client has come to the labor and birth suite in labor. The nurse reviews the client's medical record and determines that a vaginal birth is favorable based on which finding related to the client's pelvic shape?
Vaginal birth is most favorable with a gynecoid pelvis because the inlet is round and the outlet is roomy. This shape offers the optimal diameters in all three planes of the pelvis. This type of pelvis allows early and complete fetal internal rotation during labor. Although vaginal birth is favorable with an anthropoid pelvis, it is less favorable than a gynecoid pelvis. However, vaginal birth is more favorable with an anthropoid pelvic shape compared with the android or platypelloid shape. page 425
A 32-year-old woman presents to the labor and birth suite in active labor. She is multigravida, relaxed, and talking with her husband. When examined by the nurse, the fetus is found to be in a cephalic presentation. His occiput is facing toward the front and slightly to the right of the mother's pelvis, and he is exhibiting a flexed attitude. How does the nurse document the position of the fetus?
The nurse should document the fetal position in the clinical record using abbreviations. The first letter describes the side of the maternal pelvis toward which the presenting part is facing ("R" for right and "L" for left). The second letter or abbreviation indicates the reference point ("O" for occiput, "Fr" for frontum, etc.). The last part of the designation specifies whether the presenting part is facing the anterior (A) or the posterior (P) portion of the pelvis, or whether it is in a transverse (T) position. page 431
Braxton Hicks contractions are termed "practice contractions" and occur throughout pregnancy. When the woman's body is getting ready to go into labor, it begins to show anticipatory signs of impending labor. Among these signs are Braxton Hicks contractions that are more frequent and stronger in intensity. What differentiates Braxton Hicks contractions from true labor?
Braxton Hicks contractions usually decrease in intensity with walking.
Braxton Hicks contractions occur more frequently and are more noticeable as pregnancy approaches term. These irregular, practice contractions usually decrease in intensity with walking and position changes. pg 423
The nurse should initially implement which intervention when a nulliparous woman telephones the hospital to report that she is in labor?
Ask the woman to describe why she believes that she is in labor.
The nurse needs further information to assist in determining if the woman is in true or false labor. She will need to ask the client questions to seek further assessment and triage information. Having her wait until membranes rupture may be dangerous, as she may give birth before reaching the hospital. She should continue fluid intake until it is determined whether or not she is in labor. She may be in false labor, and more information should be obtained before she is brought to the hospital. pg 424
A client is having a routine prenatal visit and asks the nurse what the birth education teacher meant when she used the term zero station. What is the best response by the nurse?
"The presenting part is at the true pelvis and is engaged."
Zero station is when the fetus is engaged in the pelvis, or has dropped. This is an encouraging sign for the client. This sign is indicative that labor may be beginning, but there is no set time frame regarding when it will start. Labor has not started yet, and the fetus has not begun to move out of the uterus.
During the second stage of labor, a woman is generally:
turning inward to concentrate on body sensations.
Second-stage contractions are so unusual that most women are unable to think of things other than what is happening inside their body. pg 441
Assessment reveals that the fetus of a client in labor is in the vertex presentation. The nurse determines that which part is presenting?
With a vertex presentation, a type of cephalic presentation, the fetal presenting part is the occiput. The shoulders are the presenting part when the fetus is in a shoulder presentation. The brow or sinciput is the presenting part when a fetus is in a brow presentation. The buttocks are the presenting part when a fetus is in a breech presentation. pg 427
Which type of pelvis has a roomy, round inlet and is most favorable for vaginal birth?
The gynecoid pelvis considered the true female pelvis. Its room, round inlet makes it favorable for vaginal birth.
A nurse is assisting a client who is in the first stage of labor. Which principle should the nurse keep in mind to help make this client's labor and birth as natural as possible?
Women should be able to move about freely throughout labor.
Six major concepts that make labor and birth as natural as possible are as follows: 1) labor should begin on its own, not be artificially induced; 2) women should be able to move about freely throughout labor, not be confined to bed; 3) women should receive continuous support from a caring other during labor; 4) no interventions such as intravenous fluid should be used routinely; 5) women should be allowed to assume a nonsupine position such as upright and side-lying for birth; and 6) mother and baby should be housed together after the birth, with unlimited opportunity for breastfeeding.
A nurse is caring for a client who is in labor. For which fetal response should the nurse monitor?
decrease in circulation and perfusion to the fetus
When monitoring fetal responses in a client experiencing labor, the nurse should monitor for a decrease in circulation and perfusion to the fetus secondary to uterine contractions. The nurse should monitor for an increase, not a decrease, in arterial carbon dioxide pressure. The nurse should also monitor for a decrease, not an increase, in fetal breathing movements throughout labor. The nurse should monitor for a decrease in fetal oxygen pressure with a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen.
A pregnant client is admitted to a maternity clinic after experiencing contractions. The assigned nurse observes that the client experiences pauses between contractions. The nurse knows that which event marks the importance of the pauses between contractions during labor?
restoration of blood flow to uterus and placenta
The pauses between contractions during labor are important because they allow the restoration of blood flow to the uterus and the placenta. Shortening of the upper uterine segment, reduction in length of the cervical canal, and effacement and dilation of the cervix are other processes that occur during uterine contractions. pg 433
A woman is documented on the labor and birth board to be 7 cm dilated. Her family wants to know how long she will be in labor. The nurse should provide which information to the family?
"She is in active labor; she is progressing at this point and we will keep you posted."
At 7 cm dilated, she is considered in the active phase of labor. There is no science that can predict the length of labor. She is progressing in labor, and it is best not to give the family a specific time frame.
To give birth to her infant, a woman is asked to push with contractions. Which pushing technique is the most effective and safest?
head elevated, grasping knees, breathing out
An important point is to be certain the woman does not hold her breath, as this puts pressure on the vena cava, reducing blood return.
A fetus is in the LST position. The nurse interprets this as indicating which presenting part?
The letter "S" indicates the sacrum or buttocks as the presenting part. The fetal head would be noted by the letter "O," indicating occiput. The fetal chin would be noted by the letter "M," indicating mentum. The fetal shoulder would be noted by the letter "A," indicating the acromion process.
A fetus is assessed at 2 cm above the ischial spines. How would the nurse document the fetal station?
When the presenting part is above the ischial spines, it is noted as a negative station. Since the measurement is 2 cm, the station would be -2. A 0 station indicates that the fetal presenting part is at the level of the ischial spines. Positive stations indicate that the presenting part is below the level of the ischial spines. pg 431
The nurse assesses a client in labor and finds that the fetal long axis is longitudinal to the maternal long axis. How should the nurse document this finding?
The nurse is assessing fetal lie, the relationship of the fetal long axis to the maternal long axis. When the fetal long axis is longitudinal to the maternal long axis, the lie is said to longitudinal. Presentation is the portion of the fetus that overlies the maternal pelvic inlet. Attitude is the relationship of the different fetal parts to one another. Position is the relationship of the fetal denominator to the different sides of the maternal pelvis.
A nurse is caring for a pregnant client with rhythmic uterine contractions. Which feature should the nurse identify as associated with true labor?
increase in frequency of the contractions
The nurse should identify that there is an increase in the duration of the contractions associated with true labor. In true labor, the duration, frequency, and intensity of uterine contractions increase. Position change does not reduce the uterine contractions. In false labor, the uterine contractions often disappear with ambulation and sleep. Also, there is no increase in frequency, duration, or intensity of the contractions, and the cervix fails to dilate any further. page 423
A pregnant client is admitted to a maternity clinic for birth. Which assessment finding indicates that the client's fetus is in the transverse lie position?
Long axis of fetus is perpendicular to that of client.
If the long axis of the fetus is perpendicular to that of the mother, then the client's fetus is in the transverse lie position. If the long axis of the fetus is parallel to that of the mother, the client's fetus is in the longitudinal lie position. The long axis of the fetus being at 45° or 60° to that of the client does not indicate any specific position of the fetus. pg 428
While discussing labor with a client and her partner, the nurse is asked what the best position is for giving birth to the baby. The nurse provides them with information that indicates research has shown which position as the best?
Maternal positioning during labor has only recently been the subject of well-controlled research. Scientific evidence has shown that nonmoving, back-lying positions during labor are not healthy. Women should be encouraged to assume any position of comfort for them pg 434
The nurse is providing care to a client in labor. On examination, the nurse determines the fetus is at -1 station. The nurse interprets this as indicating that the fetus is:
1 cm above the ischial spines.
Station refers to the relationship of the presenting part to the level of the maternal pelvic ischial spines. Fetal station is measured in centimeters and referred to as a minus or plus, depending on its location above or below the ischial spines. When the presenting part is above the ischial spines, the distance is recorded as minus stations. When the presenting part is below the ischial spine, it is recorded as plus stations. Therefore this fetus is 1 cm above the ischial spines. pg 431
Assessment of a woman in labor reveals that the scapula of the fetus is the presenting part. The nurse interprets this finding as indicating which fetal presentation?
The three main fetal presentations are cephalic or vertex, with the head as the presenting part, breech, with the pelvis as the presenting part, and shoulder, with the scapula as the presenting part. pg 428
A client has just given birth to a healthy baby boy, but the placenta has not yet delivered. What stage of labor does this scenario represent?
Stage three begins with the birth of the baby and ends with delivery of the placenta.
There are four essential components of labor. The first is the passageway. It is composed of the bony pelvis and soft tissues. What is one component of the passageway?
The cervix and vagina are soft tissues that form the part of the passageway known as the birth canal.
A postbirth complete blood count (CBC) has noted an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count of 22,000/mm3. Which rationale is accurate regarding the elevated WBC count?
This is a normal variation due to the stress of labor.
An elevation of WBC up to 30,000mm/3 can be normal variation for any woman after birth. This is related to the stress on her body from labor and birth. Antibiotics are not indicated as this is a normal response to intense stress. The increase in WBC is not related to cesarean birth. Retesting would be wasteful as it is known that this is a normal response to any stress.
When teaching a group of nursing students about the different types of pelvis, the nurse describes which features of a gynecoid pelvis? Select all that apply.
dull ischial spines
wide pubic arch
The features of a gynecoid pelvis are oval-shaped inlet, dull ischial spines, and wide pubic arch. The birth of a baby is easiest in a gynecoid pelvis. Straight sacrum and convergent side walls are seen in an android pelvis
A nurse is coaching a woman during the second stage of labor. Which action should the nurse encourage the client to do at this time?
Push with contractions and rest between them.
Make sure the woman pushes with contractions and rests between them. Holding the breath during a contraction could cause a Valsalva maneuver or temporarily impede blood return to her heart because of increased intrathoracic pressure, which could then also interfere with blood supply to the uterus. It is important for women to understand they should not bear down with their abdominal muscles to push until the cervix is fully dilated, which is 10 cm, not 8 cm. Panting limits the ability to push and is to be encouraged only when it is desirable to delay labor, such as when a nuchal cord is present.
A client in her third trimester of pregnancy arrives at a health care facility with a report of cramping and low back pain; she also notes that she is urinating more frequently and that her breathing has become easier the past few days. Physical examination conducted by the nurse indicates that the client has edema of the lower extremities, along with an increase in vaginal discharge. What should the nurse do next?
Continue to monitor the client.
The nurse knows that the client is experiencing lightening. Lightening occurs when the fetal presenting part begins to descend into the maternal pelvis and may occur 2 weeks or more before labor. The uterus lowers and moves into a more anterior position. The client may report increased respiratory capacity, decreased dyspnea, increased pelvic pressure, cramping, and low back pain. She may also note edema of the lower extremities as a result of the increased stasis of blood pooling, an increase in vaginal discharge, and more frequent urination. The nurse would continue to monitor the client as this is a normal progression of pregnancy.
A client experiencing contractions presents at a health care facility. Assessment conducted by the nurse reveals that the client has been experiencing Braxton Hicks contractions. The nurse has to educate the client on the usefulness of Braxton Hicks contractions. Which role do Braxton Hicks contractions play in aiding labor?
These contractions help in softening and ripening the cervix.
Braxton Hicks contractions assist in labor by ripening and softening the cervix and moving the cervix from a posterior position to an anterior position. Prostaglandin levels increase late in pregnancy secondary to elevated estrogen levels; this is not due to the occurrence of Braxton Hicks contractions. Braxton Hicks contractions do not help in bringing about oxytocin sensitivity. Occurrence of lightening, not Braxton Hicks contractions, makes maternal breathing easier.
A nurse is caring for a pregnant client in labor in a health care facility. The nurse knows that which sign marks the termination of the first stage of labor in the client?
dilation of cervix diameter to 10 cm
The first stage of labor terminates with the dilation of the cervix diameter to 10 cm. Diffused abdominal cramping and rupturing of the fetal membrane occurs during the first stage of labor. Regular contractions occur at the beginning of the latent phase of the first stage; they do not mark the end of the first stage of labor.
When explaining to a class of pregnant women why labor begins, the nurse will include the fact that there are several theories that have been proposed to explain why labor begins, although none have been proven scientifically. Which idea is one of those theories?
change in estrogen-to-progesterone ratio
One of the theories suggests that labor is initiated by a change in the estrogen-to-progesterone ratio. The number of oxytocin receptors have been noted to increase. Estrogen levels also increase, which in turn increases myometrial sensitivity to oxytocin. Prostaglandin levels also increase, which in turn leads to myometrial contractions.
A nurse sees a pregnant client at the clinic. The client is close to her due date. During the visit the nurse would emphasize that the client get evaluated quickly should her membranes rupture spontaneously based on the understanding of which possibility?
increased risk of infection
After the amniotic sac has ruptured, the barrier to infection is gone, and an ascending infection is possible. In addition, there is a danger of cord prolapse. The spontaneous rupture does not hasten labor, although it might signal the beginning of labor. The client may have placenta previa with the membranes intact.
The nurse is teaching a prenatal class the signs and symptoms of true labor. What is the appropriate response by the class that shows an understanding of true labor contractions?
increase even if I relax and take a shower
True labor contractions do not stop; they continue and strengthen, as well as increase in frequency. If the contractions subside while taking a shower or relaxing, then they are not labor contractions. The discomfort over the top of the uterus is normal for full term pregnancy.
The nurse is working with a client in labor. She is happy and cheerful and states she is "ready to see her baby." What stage or phase of labor would she anticipate the client to be in right now?
The woman in labor undergoes numerous psychological adaptations during labor. During the latent phase, she is often talkative and happy, and yet anxious. During transition, the client may show fear and anger. During stage two she may remain positive, but the work of labor is very intense.
A pregnant client is admitted to a maternity clinic for birth. The client wishes to adopt the kneeling position during labor. The nurse knows that which to be an advantage of adopting a kneeling position during labor?
It helps to rotate fetus in a posterior position.
The advantage of adopting a kneeling position during labor is that it helps to rotate the fetus in a posterior position. Facilitating vaginal examinations, facilitating external belt adjustment, and helping the woman in labor to save energy are advantages of the back-lying maternal position.
A nurse is explaining to a pregnant client about the changes occurring in the body in preparation for labor. Which hormone would the nurse include in the explanation as being responsible for causing the pelvic connective tissue to become more relaxed and elastic?
As the pregnancy progresses, the hormones relaxin and estrogen cause the connective tissues to become more relaxed and elastic and cause the joints to become more flexible to prepare the mother's pelvis for birth.
The third stage of labor is considered to be expulsion of the placenta. This stage can last anywhere from five to 20 minutes. What is a sign that the placenta is separating from the wall of the uterus?
globular shape to the fundus
Signs that indicate the placenta is separating from the uterine wall include a gush of blood, lengthening of the umbilical cord, and a globular shape to the fundus.
A client the nurse cares for in labor asks what causes labor to begin. Which statement is a possible explanation?
Prostaglandins may be the causative factor of labor.
The cause of labor is unknown, but prostaglandin release is theoretically one of the possible causes for onset of labor. It is unknown whether progesterone, estrogen, or calcium have any effect on labor.
The nurse is reviewing the laboratory test results of a client in labor. Which finding would the nurse consider normal?
increased white blood cell count
The nurse should identify increased white blood cell count as the hematological change occurring in a client during labor. The increase in the white blood cell count can be attributed to physical and emotional stress during labor. During labor there could be a decrease, and not increase, in the blood coagulation time. There is an increased, and not a decreased, plasma fibrinogen level during labor. Blood glucose levels are decreased during labor.
A nurse is teaching a group of nursing students about the mechanism of labor when the fetus is in a cephalic presentation. Given in random order are a series of events that take place in a cascade to end with the birth of the baby. Arrange the series of events in the most likely sequence they occur. All options must be used.
The sequence of normal mechanism of labor involves flexion, internal rotation, extension, restitution, and external rotation. Following descent, the baby's head encounters resistance and flexes so that the chin touches the chest. During internal rotation, the occiput is rotated 45° anteriorly so as to lie beneath the symphysis pubis. The baby's neck is twisted in internal rotation. Following internal rotation, the delivery of the head is by extension. Once the head is born by extension, there is external rotation, in which it turns 45° more so that the shoulders lie anterior posteriorly. pg 431
After teaching a pregnant client who is in her last weeks of pregnancy about the signs and symptoms of approaching labor, which signs or symptoms if identified by the client would indicate effective teaching? Select all that apply.
The signs of approaching labor include lightening, bloody show, and backache. Lightening is the falling forward of the pregnant uterus due to settlement of the fetal head into the maternal pelvis. Backache associated with pelvic cramping pain, which is regular and increases in the intensity, is suggestive of impending labor. Bloody show is the expulsion of the cervical mucus plug tinged with blood, and occurs due to cervical effacement and dilatation. Weight loss and diarrhea are other signs of impending labor. Weight gain and constipation are not signs of impending labor.
The five "Ps" of labor are:
passageway, passenger, position, powers, psych.
The five "Ps" are passageway (birth canal), passenger (fetus and placenta), position (maternal), powers (contractions), and psych (maternal psychological response).
Place the cardinal movements of labor in the order in which they occur from first to last. All options must be used.
engagement, then descent
A nurse performs an initial assessment of a laboring woman and reports the following findings to the primary care provider: fetal heart rate is 152 bpm, cervix is 100% effaced and 5 cm dilated, membranes are intact, and presenting part is well applied to the cervix and at -1 station. The nurse recognizes that the client is in which stage of labor?
Because the cervix is dilating (5 cm) and has fully effaced (100%), the woman appears to be in active labor, which is characterized by cervical dilation of 4 to 7 cm. Regular uterine contractions are effective in facilitating fetal descent through the pelvis because the presenting part is well applied on the cervix and at -1 station. Second stage of labor begins when the cervix is 10 cm dilated. The first latent phase is characterized by the onset of regular contractions and cervical dilation of 0 to 4 cm. Third stage of labor is from birth of the infant to completed delivery of the placenta.
A client gave birth to a child 3 hours ago and noticed a triangular-shaped gap in the bones at the back of the head of her newborn. The attending nurse informs the client that it is the posterior fontanelle. The client is anxious to know when the posterior fontanelle will close. Which time span is the normal duration for the closure of the posterior fontanelle?
8 to 12 weeks
The posterior fontanelle is a triangular-shaped area at the back of the skull. The nurse should inform the client that the posterior fontanelle normally closes by 8 to 12 weeks after birth, and if there is delay the primary health care provider should be notified.
The nurse has been asked to present information to a group of civic leaders concerning women's health issues. In preparing the information, the nurse includes what goal from Healthy People 2020 related to women in labor?
Reduce the rate of cesarean births among low-risk births.
Healthy People 2020 has two goals related to cesarean births in the United States. They are to reduce the rate of cesarean births among low-risk women and reduce the rate of cesarean births among women who have had a prior cesarean birth. Immunizations and genetic counseling are not associated with women in labor.
A petite, 5-foot tall, 95-pound woman who is 28 years old is about to give birth to her first child and would like to have a vaginal birth. She has two sisters, both of whom have given birth vaginally. She has gained 25 pounds during a normal, uneventful pregnancy. What type of pelvis would a nurse expect this woman to have upon assessment of the client?
cannot be determined
Pelvis shape cannot be determined by the information included in the statement. Early in the pregnancy, particularly if a woman has never given birth to a baby vaginally, the practitioner may take pelvic measurements to estimate the size of the true pelvis. This helps to determine if the size is adequate for vaginal birth. However, these measurements do not consistently predict which women will have difficulty giving birth vaginally, so most practitioners allow the woman to labor and attempt a vaginal birth.
A pregnant woman comes to the emergency department because she thinks she is in labor. The nurse determines that the client is in true labor when assessment of contractions reveals which finding?
radiating to the front of the abdomen from the back
Contractions that begin in the back and then radiate to the front are typical of true labor. Contractions that slow when a woman walks or changes position suggest false labor, as do irregular contractions. Contractions lasting 30 seconds or less commonly suggest Braxton Hicks contractions and are associated with false labor.
A multigravid client has been in labor for several hours and is becoming anxious and distressed with the intensity of her frequent contractions. The nurse observes moderate bloody show and performs a vaginal examination to assess the progress of labor. The cervix is 9 cm dilated. The nurse knows that the client is in which phase of labor?
The woman is likely in transitional labor (first stage, transition phase) as evidenced by her increasing anxiety and distress, intense frequent contractions, and cervical dilation of 9 cm. The amount of bloody show indicates remarkable cervical changes. Cervical dilation in the transition phase is 8 to 10 cm. The latent and early phase is the same phase of labor in the first stage and characterized by positive coping, mild contractions, and cervical dilation of 1 to 4 cm. The active phase is characterized by increased anxiety but cervical dilation of 4 to 7 cm.
The nurse is working with a client in labor. She is happy and cheerful and states she is "ready to see her baby." What stage or phase of labor would she anticipate the client to be in right now?
The woman in labor undergoes numerous psychological adaptations during labor. During the latent phase, she is often talkative and happy, and yet anxious. During transition, the client may show fear and anger. During stage two she may remain positive, but the work of labor is very intense
The nurse is assessing a client who has given birth within the past hour. The nurse would expect to find the woman's fundus at which location?
at the level of the umbilicus
After birth, the fundus is located midline between the umbilicus and symphysis pubis but then slowly rises to the level of the umbilicus during the first hour after birth. Then the uterus contracts, approximately 1 cm (or fingerbreadth) each day after birth.
A woman is told she has an anthropoid pelvis. This means her pelvis:
is narrow transversely.
A gynecoid pelvis is the best shape for birth. An anthropoid pelvis is usually narrow. A "male" pelvis is termed an "android pelvis."
A nurse is educating a group of nursing students about the molding of the fetal skull during the birth process. What would the nurse include as the usual cause of molding?
poorly ossified cranial vault
Molding is an adaptive process in which there is overriding and movement of the bones of the cranial vault to adapt to the maternal pelvis. The poorly ossified bones of the cranial vault, along with loosely attached membranous attachments, allow for the process of molding in the fetal skull. The bones of the face and the base of the skull are completely ossified and united. Hence they cannot allow for movement or overriding. The membranous attachments are loosely bound to the cranial vault and not tightly, which allows for molding of the fetal skull.
A client is in the first stage of labor and asks the nurse what type of pain she should expect at this stage. What is the nurse's most appropriate response?
pain from the dilation or stretching of the cervix
In the first stage of labor, the primary source of pain is the dilation of the cervix. Hypoxia of the contracting uterine muscles, distension of the vagina and perineum, and pressure on the lower back, buttocks, and thighs may occur in the first stage but are more significantly associated with the second stage of labor.
During a prenatal visit a pregnant client asks the nurse how to tell whether the contractions she is having are true contractions or Braxton Hicks contractions. Which description should the nurse mention as characteristic of true contractions?
begin irregularly but become regular and predictable
felt first in lower back and sweep around to the abdomen in a wave
increase in duration, frequency, and intensity
True contractions begin irregularly but become regular and predictable; are felt first in the lower back and sweep around to the abdomen in a wave; continue no matter what the woman's level of activity; increase in duration, frequency, and intensity; and achieve cervical dilatation. False (Braxton Hicks) contractions begin and remain irregular; are felt first abdominally and remain confined to the abdomen and groin; often disappear with ambulation or sleep; do not increase in duration, frequency, or intensity; and do not achieve cervical dilatation.
A nurse is assigned the task of educating a pregnant client about birth. Which nursing interventions should the nurse perform as a part of prenatal education for the client to ensure a positive birth experience? Select all that apply.
Provide the client clear information on procedures involved.
Encourage the client to have a sense of mastery and self-control.
Encourage the client to have a positive reaction to pregnancy.
To ensure a positive birth experience for the client, the nurse should provide the client clear information on procedures involved, encourage the client to have a sense of mastery and self-control, and encourage the client to have a positive reaction to pregnancy. Instructing the client to spend some time alone is not an appropriate intervention; instead, the nurse should instruct the client to obtain positive support and avoid being alone. The client does not need to change the home environment; this does not ensure a positive birth experience.
A nurse is conducting a presentation for a group of pregnant women about labor and the importance of being well prepared and having good labor support. The nurse determines that additional discussion is needed when the group identifies which possible outcome as the result of being prepared?
need for someone to control the situation
Prenatal education teaches the woman about the birth experience and increases her sense of control. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the well-prepared woman, with good labor support, is less likely to need analgesia or anesthesia and is unlikely to require cesarean birth.
A 37-year-old woman in the final weeks of her first pregnancy visits the health care provider's office for a scheduled check-up. What might a nurse note as a sign of labor in speaking with the woman prior to the examination?
Nesting is the activity or burst of energy women often experience prior to the onset of labor. The client could express this in her words or by what her activities had been at home. Dilation, effacement, and cervical ripening are all observable by the provider on exam.
A pregnant woman calls her provider's office to report she thinks she is in labor. The client reports contractions have been fairly strong and at these times: 12:05, 12:10, 12:15, and 12:20. What information is gathered based on this data?
The frequency of the contractions is every 5 minutes.
Based on the information, the nurse knows the contractions are regular and every 5 minutes apart. This is the only data gathered based on the information given, but it is very useful to the provider.
A client in labor is agitated and nervous about the birth of her child. The nurse explains to the client that fear and anxiety cause the release of certain compounds which can prolong labor. Which compounds is the nurse referring to in the explanation?
Fear and anxiety cause the release of catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine, which stimulate the adrenergic receptors of the myometrium. This in turn interferes with effective uterine contractions and results in prolonged labor. Estrogen promotes the release of prostaglandins and oxytocin. Relaxin is a hormone that is involved in producing backache by acting on the pelvic joints. Prostaglandins, oxytocin, and relaxin are not produced due to fear or anxiety in clients during labor.
Place the following stages of labor in order from what occurs first to last. All options must be used.
A woman is in the second stage of labor and is crowning. Which diameter of the fetal skull that is smallest should align with the anteroposterior diameter of the mother's pelvis, which is the narrowest diameter at the pelvic inlet?
The anteroposterior diameter of the pelvis, a space approximately 11 cm wide, is the narrowest diameter at the pelvic inlet, so the best presentation for birth is when the fetus presents a transverse (biparietal) diameter (the narrowest fetal head diameter, at 9.25 cm) to this. The other diameters of the fetal skull that are listed are all larger.
Which assessment finding in a client reporting uterine contractions would be most consistent as an indicator of approaching labor?
rupture of amniotic membranes
The nurse should identify the rupture of amniotic membranes as the best indicator of approaching labor. In labor the client experiences increased vaginal secretions, increased duration of contractions, and also loss of mucous plug.
When teaching a group of nursing students about uterine contractions, which of the following would the instructor include as a typical feature?
Retracting of the lower segment
The nurse should identify retraction of the lower segment of the uterus as a feature of typical uterine contractions. As labor progresses the uterine contractions become stronger. The upper segment of the uterus contracts more actively than the lower segment. The lower segment retracts, pulling up the cervix. The upper segment thickens with time and the lower segment thins.
A client in the third stage of labor has experienced placental separation and expulsion. Why is it necessary for a nurse to massage the woman's uterus briefly until it is firm?
to constrict the uterine blood vessels
The nurse must massage the client's uterus briefly after placental expulsion to constrict the uterine blood vessels and minimize the possibility of hemorrhage. Massaging the client's uterus will not lessen the chances of conducting an episiotomy. In addition, an episiotomy, if required, is conducted in the second stage of labor not the third. The client's uterus may appear boggy only in the fourth stage of labor not in the third stage. Ensuring that all sections of the placenta are present and that no piece is left attached to the uterine wall is confirmed through a placental examination after expulsion.
The skull is the most important factor in relation to the labor and birth process. The fetal skull must be small enough to travel through the bony pelvis. What feature of the fetal skull helps to make this passage possible?
The cartilage between the bones allows the bones to overlap during labor, a process called molding that elongates the fetal skull thereby reducing the diameter of the head.
A new OB/GYN care provider has just finished evaluating her one hundredth client. In reviewing the documentation from all clients thus far, which types of pelvis would the nurse assume the care provider has seen the most and the least?
gynecoid and platypelloid, respectively
The gynecoid is the typical female pelvis shape; platypelloid pelvis is the least common type of pelvis in women. Women with anthropoid pelvic shapes are able to give birth normally one third of the time and are somewhat rare. An android pelvis is similar to a male pelvis and is seen in 16% of nonwhite women.
If a fetus is in an ROA position during labor, the nurse would interpret this to mean the fetus is:
in a longitudinal lie facing the left posterior.
ROA (right occiput anterior) means the occiput of the fetal head points toward the mother's right anterior pelvis; the head is the presenting part.
Dilation follows effacement in the primiparous mother. To be fully dilated, the cervix should have a distance of what measurement?
8 to 10 cm
Full dilation of the cervix is 8 to 10 cm.
One of the theories about the onset of labor is the prostaglandin theory. While not being conclusively proven that the action of prostaglandins initiate labor, it is known that prostaglandins do play a role in labor. What is an action of prostaglandins?
The prostaglandin theory is another theory of labor initiation. Prostaglandins influence labor in several ways, which include softening the cervix and stimulating the uterus to contract. However, evidence supporting the theory that prostaglandins are the agents that trigger labor to begin is inconclusive.
When educating a group of nursing students about the different types of pelvis, the nurse describes one type as being flat, having a wider transverse diameter than anterior-posterior diameter, with ischial spines that are wide apart, and a short sacrum. The students are correct when they identify this description with which type?
Platypelloid pelvis is a flat pelvis with a wider transverse diameter than anterior-posterior diameter, ischial spines are wide apart, and the sacrum is short. In a gynecoid pelvis, the inlet is oval, the pubic arch is wide, it has dull ischial spines, and the sacrum has no anterior or posterior inclinations. In an android pelvis, the inlet is heart shaped, the ischial spines are prominent, and the sacrum is straight. In an anthropoid pelvis, the anterior-posterior diameter is longer than the transverse diameter, ischial spine is somewhat prominent, and the sacrum is inclined posteriorly.
A client in labor has been admitted to the labor and birth suite. The nurse assessing her notes that the fetus is in a cephalic presentation. Which description should the nurse identify by the term presentation?
part of the fetal body entering the maternal pelvis first
The term presentation is the part of the fetal body that is entering the maternal pelvis first. Relationship of the presenting part to the sides of the maternal pelvis is called the position. Attitude is the term that describes the relation of the different fetal body parts to one another. Relation of the fetal presenting part to maternal ischial spine is termed the station.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ricci, Kyle & Carman: Maternity and Pediatric Nurs…
Chapter 13 prep u
Chapter 13: Labor and Birth Processes NCLEX
Chapter 13: Labor and Birth Processes NCLEX
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Comprehensive HESI Review Exit
ATI RN Predictor Study 2019- Me
Hesi exit 20019
HESI Exit 7