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Terms in this set (352)
Which air mass source regions influence the weather of the continental US?
Most weather occurs ________ of air masses.
Along the periphery (boundary)
At the surface, what are signs indicating a front?
Presence of winds, temperature differences, pressure differences
The number of atoms and molecules that make up the layers of the atmosphere changes based on elevation. The first 18,000 feet of the atmosphere contains about ____ of the air molecules.
In the US, the two most common units to measure air pressure are
Millibars, inches of mercury
Air pressure changes with changing elevation but what else influences air pressure?
Radiation (heating) from the sun and weather systems
In the US, what areas generally exhibit the largest and most dramatic changes in air pressure?
Alaska, Northern half of the Continental US
What does PGF stand for?
Pressure gradient force
Which state experiences more hail storms?
Charge separation is a characteristic of which hazard type?
What are forms of lightning?
Intra-Cloud, cloud to cloud, cloud to ground, anvil to ground
On average which state exhibits the most thunderstorm days per year?
Aside from derechos, damages from straight line winds (often mistaken for tornado damage) can also come from severe ____?
Thunderstorms can produce....?
Tornadoes, lightning, high winds, flash flooding, hail, blizzards, ice storm, dust storm (all of them)
When representing pressure systems graphically on, for example, a weather map, a high pressure system is denoted by which letter?
When representing pressure systems, a low pressure system is denoted by which letter?
The wind chill temperature index reflects...
the body's perception of cold temperature when exposed to wind.
What are the ingredients needed for a thunderstorm?
Moisture, unstable air mass, lifting mechanism
(not cool temperatures)
The southeastern US has access to _____ oceanic moisture sources.
What can give air a lift/nudge upward?
Place the life cycle stages of thunderstorm in the correct order: (1) Dissipating Stage (2) Towering Cumulus Stage (3) Mature Cumulus Stage
Which type of thunderstorms tend to produce nearly all significant tornadoes, large hail stones, high winds, and flash flooding?
A EF5 Tornado exhibits winds in excess of.....?
Tornadoes can occur throughout most of the year. However, there is a peak time for tornado occurrence, which is from....
April through June
What is the nickname for the US region with the highest tornado strikes?
What is wind shear?
Change of wind direction (of updraft and downdrafts) with height
T/F. An air mass is a large body of air with generally uniform temperature and humidity.
T/F. A front is the boundary between two air masses.
T/F. A stationary front is the leading edge of a warmer air mass replacing a colder air mass.
T/F. All fronts stretch both horizontally and vertically and exhibit identical slopes independent of front characteristics (cold or warm air mass).
T/F. Typically, cold fronts move faster than warm front.
T/F. Over North America, all weather fronts typically move east to west due to prevalent easterly winds.
T/F. Air pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
T/F. As warm air rises, it cools and eventually the water vapor in the warm air will condense to form clouds.
T/F. Cooler air is denser than warmer air.
T/F. Air always moves away from a high and always towards a low pressure system.
T/F. The deflection of the coriolis force causes air around a high pressure system to move clockwise and around a low pressure system counter-clockwise.
T/F. Hail stones are formed when downdrafts in thunderstorms carry raindrops above the freezing line.
False, not downdrafts
T/F. The cross-section of hailstones show a uniform look and do not exhibit layers of ice.
T/F. How lighting is generated is still not entirely clear.
T/F. If you can hear thunder, you are within striking distance by a lightning bolt.
T/F. The presence of winds that turn clockwise with height provide and ideal condition for the formation of supercells since they are a mechanism for rotation.
T/F. A thunderstorm watch indicates that severe weather has been reported.
T/F. A blizzard is a winter storm associated with heavy snowfall and strong winds.
T/F. Ocean water evaporation into the atmosphere is higher in warm ocean currents (along east coasts of continents) than in cool ocean currents (along west coasts of continents).
T/F. In an unstable air mass, air that is forced upward will continue to rise, and air that is forced downward will continue to sink.
T/F. Derechos are strong squall lines that produce straight-line winds, not tornadoes.
T/F. Cracking open the windows in your home will reduce the damage to your home.
The Fujita Scale (F Scale) is currently used to estimate wind speeds based on a tornado's damage.
T/F. A tornado is a violently rotating column of air descending from a thunderstorm but not in contact with the ground.
T/F. The US experiences more tornadoes than any other country.
T/F. How tornadoes form is well understood by scientists.
Aside from rain, what other hazards can be present during a sever thunderstorm?
Hail, Lightning, tornadoes, blizzard conditions (all)
Which hazard is more deadly than the other hazards listed?
What Hazard caused the crash of the DELTA L1011 aircraft at the Dallas/Fort Worth airport in 1985?
What hazard causes damage patterns similar to a tornado?
Who is particularly at risk of suffering adverse impacts from a tornado?
Immobile and disabled people, mobile home residents, people unaware of tornado warnings, people staying in exterior rooms with windows (all of the above)
What is a tornado spotter?
A person forwarding tornado information to the National Weather Service
Good sources for receiving timely and accurate warning information in case of severe weather are...
Television, NOAA weather radio
When living in a mobile home, the best way to protect yourself is by...
leaving the home and seeking shelter elsewhere.
What is a Nor'easter?
A mid-latitude cyclone with prevailing winds!!! from the northeast
The "Storm of the Century" (1993) was a...
What event caused ALL major airports along the US east coast to be closed for the first time ever?
The 1993 Storm of the Century had wind speeds comparable to a hurricane of which category?
What key component in emergency management was lacking during the 1978 blizzard compared to the 2007 blizzard?
Official tornado warnings often come too late, on average, only ____ minutes before a twister strikes. And frequently, they are false alarms.
In what state occurred the deadliest tornado on record since 1950?
According to Tim Marshall in "Hunt for the Supertwister", what are the factors that will cause an upswing in the number of tornado fatalities? Please select two factors:
1. Expansion of cities
2. No improvements in housing construction
Today's system relies in part on a network of Doppler radar. Doppler can sense the movement of _____ and _____ in remarkable detail.
Air , Moisture
Only about 20 or 25 percent of supercell thunderstorms produce tornadoes. And only perhaps _____ percent to ____ percent of those produce what we call significant tornadoes, the large ones, the long-track, the ones that do 90 to 95 percent of the damage and fatalities. Select one correct option.
1 percent to 5 percent
"If we can increase warning times by five or ten minutes, that's really significant. If we can push back the forecast of tornado to ______ minutes before the tornado forms, people have ______ minutes to get to their shelters. Small increases of just 10 min, 15 min, 20 min, can have a great impact on the value of that forecast." Quote from NOVA - Hunt for the Supertwister)
The Chinese hail storm of 1986 killed how many people?
How many people lost their life during the tornado outbreak from April 25-30, 2011?
A 250 or 300 mile an hour wind can only be compared to those that might be experienced on the fringes of a nuclear explosion. A 300 miles per hour is not three times as strong as a 100 miles per hour; it is _____ times as strong.
T/F. Looking at all the damages of severe thunderstorms (incl. hail, tornadoes) together, severe weather tends to cause much less damage than hurricanes, floods or earthquakes in terms of monetary losses.
T/F. While strong tornadoes tend to be more deadly, weak tornadoes can still kill people.
T/F. A tornado warning is issued when a tornado has been observed or detected on radar.
T/F. A tornado watch is issued when conditions are favorable for tornado formation.
T/F. SKYWARN is a network of storm chasers.
T/F. A winter storm warning indicates that severe winter conditions have begun or are about to set in throughout the warning area.
T/F. A winter storm watch indicates that severe winter conditions have begun or are about to set in throughout the warning area.
T/F. Hypothermia occurs when the body absorbs too much heat and cannot cool down.
T/F. The presence of La Nina triggered the record-setting tornado activity in 2011.
T/F. Warned by the National Weather Service, the state of Alabama activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) before a single tornado touched down on April 27, 2011.
What are the stages of hurricane development? (Storm, Hurricane, Depression, Wave)
Tropical Wave, Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm, Hurricane
Associate the basin of origin with the Correct name for a tropical Cyclone. (North Atlantic, Northwestern Pacific, Northeastern Pacific, South Pacific, Indian Ocean)
North Atlantic-Hurricane, Northwestern Pacific-Typhoon, Northeastern Pacific-Hurricane, South Pacific-Willy WIlly or Bauguio, Indian Ocean-Cyclone
List the wind speed ranges with the associated storm category: Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm, Hurrican 1,2,3,4,5...(131-155,less than 38,96-110,greater than 155,111-130,74-95,39-73)
Tropical Depression-Less than 38
5 Hurricane-greater than 155
What are characteristics of a hurricane?
Originates over tropical waters, exhibits organized circulation, draws its energy from the release of latent heat
A tropical cyclone develops over
Water with a temp of at least 80 degrees F.
What is the main source of energy for a hurricane?
Tropical waves tend to develop off the coast of _____ and then move westward
Where in a hurricane do the strongest winds tend to occur?
What weakens a hurricane?
wind shear, friction, cool water
What is the loop current?
a warm ocean current in the gulf of mexico
What hazard does NOT occur in association with a hurricane?
Under what circumstances is the potential for a devastating storm surge the highest?
Gentle slope of the coastline, shallow water, high tide, and very low central pressure
What wind speeds will you experience in the right-front quadrant of a hurricane with sustained winds of 150 mph and a forward motion of 30 mph?
What factors influence the track of a hurricane?
Fronts, Pressure systems, wind belts
When is the North Atlantic hurricane season?
June 1 to November 30
Which region has a year-round hurricane season?
What instruments/tools are used for hurricane observation?
Buoys, Satellites, Aircrafts, Ships
The National Hurricane Center forecasts hurricane tracks by using...
Ensemble runs of computer models
To help reduce public confusion about the impacts of a storm of a certain intensity, the National Hurricane Center has removed which components from the Saffir-Simpson-Scale that used to be associated with each storm category as well?
Storm surge, central pressure
When did the National Weather Service start naming hurricanes?
An analysis by the national institute for building safety concluded that investments made to minimize impacts from earthquakes, flood, and wind yielded more than ______ dollars of benefit for every dollar spent.
What does the abbreviation ITCZ mean?
Intertropical Convergence Zone
What is the "Hadley Cell"?
A tropical Circulation pattern with rising air near the equator and downward air flows in the subtropical zone
The Earth's global circulation pattern consists of three major circulation cells in each hemisphere. Which are those?
Hadley Cell, Ferrel Cell, Polar Cell
Why is the eye of a hurricane cloud free?
Descending air flow
During the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, which named storm had the longest lifespan?
T/F. Hurricanes can originate over land.
T/F. Extratropical cyclones originate over tropical waters.
T/F. In the northern hemisphere, hurricanes spin counterclockwise.
T/F. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone whereas a Nor'easter is an extratropical cyclone.
T/F. A typhoon is a tropical cyclone.
T/F. Hurricanes are generally associated with fronts.
T/F.The term "tropical cyclone" is the generic meteorological term for storms originating over tropical or subtropical waters such as hurricanes, typhoons, etc.
T/F. Aside from warm waters, a tropical cyclone needs unstable air, upward rush of cooling air, as well as little wind shear.
T/F. Tropical depressions tend to be fairly organized in their circulation.
T/F. A tropical depression is a well developed low pressure system.
T/F. In its succession from a tropical wave to a tropical storm, the central pressure of the system continually drops.
T/F. Only once a system reaches tropical storm status will it receive a name.
T/F. There is no difference in wind speeds as experienced on land between the right-front quadrant of a storm and the left-front quadrant.
T/F. The size of a hurricane has nothing to do with its intensity.
T/F. A hurricane watch is issued when hurricane conditions are likely to occur within 36 hours.
T/F. Since hurricanes draw their energy from warm waters, it has been shown that once a hurricane passes over a particular location of the ocean, the water temperature is lower than it was before the storm. The storm has literally sucked the heat out of the water.
T/F. Tropical Cyclones have a purpose: they help regulate the earth's temp.
T/F. The letters Q, U, X, Y, and Z are not included in the list of names for tropical storms.
T/F. The Earth's global circulation patterns, (location of major circulation cells), are static and exhibit no seasonal movements.
Which storm was the costliest hurricane in US history?
How much did the costliest hurricane in US history cost the nation? More than....
Which was the deadliest storm in US history?
1900 Galveston Island Hurricane
How many people are estimated to have perished in the 1900 Galveston Island Hurricane?
How many people died from Hurricane Ike?
Why was the 1900 hurricane affecting Galveston, so disastrous in its impact?
-No ability to monitor storms at that time
-Barrier Island was only 5 ft above sea level, no protection from surge
-No sea wall to protect residents
-Densely populated area
Which storm is also called "Florida's forgotten storm"?
1928 Okeechobee Hurricane
During the 1928 storm, the topping of levees and subsequent flooding of farmland and the drowning of vulnerable populations is reminiscent of which recent storm?
Which storm triggered the first major US Army Corps flood control project?
1928 Okeechobee Hurricane
The Herbert Hoover Dike surrounds which lake?
The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane is of significance because it is...
one of only three category 5 hurricanes to make US landfall
Name three category 5 hurricanes that made US landfall
-1935 Labor Day Hurricane
What did the 1900 Galveston Island Hurricane and the 1938 Long Island Express Hurricane have in common?
Lack of a timely detection of the storm off-shore.
Which historic hurricane discussed in this session is also referred to as the "stealth" storm?
1938 Long Island Express
Which US regions are at risk from hurricanes?
-Gulf Coast States
-Eastern seaboard states
What type of mitigation measures were adopted after both the 1900 Galveston Island Hurricane and the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane?
Which vulnerable population group was most severely impacted by the 1928 hurricane affecting Lake Okeechobee?
Migrant farm workers
Hurricane Andrew is a good example for a sample storm of...
category 5 intensity
The devastating impacts from Hurricane Andrew revealed serious deficiencies in which areas?
-Building codes and enforcement
-Coordination and response problems
After Hurricane Andrew, the state of Florida improved what aspect of hurricane preparedness, in which it leads the nation today?
Best building practices
Hurricane Katrina rapidly ______- a phenomenon previously observed in hurricane andrew.
Hurricane Katrina made its second landfall near the LA/MS border on August 29th,____?
What category storm was Hurricane Katrina when it made its second landfall?
Why did Hurricane Katrina have such a disastrous impact on Louisiana?
-Mandatory evacuations issued too late
-Lack of preparedness and coordination at all government levels
-Underestimation of social vulnerability by officials
-False sense of security from levees
What was the name of the fictitious, computer modeled hurricane that was the focus of a 2004 disaster exercise held in BR, LA dealing with the likely impacts of hurricanes affecting NOLA?
What is the annual rate at which Louisiana wetlands are vanishing?
20 square miles per year
What was the maximum storm surge height experienced in Bay St. Louis, MS?
How many of its residents did Homestead, FL lose after Hurricane Andrew devastated the area?
According to Ivor Van Heerden, how many people were expected to stay behind and ride Katrina out?
Walter Maestri, the past emergency manager director of Jefferson Parish, implemented the _____ procedures and reduced its staff to the minimum number before Hurricane Katrina hit.
Decades ago, the lower 9th ward had been devastated by another disaster. What was it?
What is the height of the levee in eastern Plaquemines parish that failed during Hurricane Isaac and flooded the neighborhood of Braithwaite?
At the time of the Great Hurricane of 1938 (Long Island Express), the following hurricane tracking tools existed.
-Barometric pressure readings
-wind speed measurements
T/F. Prior to the 1900 hurricane, Galveston Island had never been impacted by a storm before.
T/F. To cope with the high number of fatalitites from the 1900 hurricane, Galvastonians had to cremate their dead.
T/F. After the 1900 hurricane, the entire Galveston Island was elevated by 17 ft. including sewage lines, to reduce the city's vulnerability to storm surge.
T/F. The 1935 Labor Day Hurricane killed 408 people-most of them World War 1 vets-because they were not evacuated in a timely fashion and had no proper shelter to seek refuge from the storm.
T/F. Coastal residents in the New England region tend to have a sense of security when it comes to hurricanes and tropical storms. They are correct because hurricanes and tropical storms can't affect New England.
T/F. The damage along the Mississippi coast was mostly caused by the direct impact of storm surge associated with Katrina.
T/F. Purchasing insurance is an example of structural mitigation.
T/F. Referring to Katrina, the storm surge experienced in NOLA was as high as the storm surge along the Miss Gulf Coast.
T/F. It took Homestead, FL about 10 years to get back to "normal" after Hurricane Andrew.
T/F. Despite the devastating impacts from Hurricane Andrew and the subsequent population loss, today's population of Homestead, FL is about four times larger than it was before Andrew.
T/F.Mayor Ray Nagin issued NOLA's first mandatory evacuation order ever in light of Hurricane Katrina.
T/F. NOLA had a plan to deal with flood waters in case of failing flood walls and levees prior to Hurricane Katrina.
T/F. Nola didn't experience category 3 storm surge-and the levees still failed despite the levees having been certified as capable to withstand category 3 storm surge.
T/F. With Waves between 30 and 50 ft, the impact of the storm surge from the 1938 Great Hurricane was so powerful that it was actually recorded on the earthquake seismograph at Fordham U. in NYC.
Def: The speed at which water moves through a channel at a given point. The rate of water flow is measured in feet per second.
Def: The volume of water passing a given point in a river per unit of time (ft^3/s)
Def: The gauged height of the water level in a river
Def: Any predefined stretch along a river
Def: Any branch of a river
Def: The slope of a river between two defined points (Grade measured by the ratio of drop in elevation of a stream per unit horizontal distance)
Def: The vertical distance between water surface and stream bed (ft)
Def: Movement of water from land to the oceans-generally through rivers, lakes, and streams (excludes evaporation and infiltration).
Runoff (generated through precipitation)
Math with warning:
Flood is possible, flood is occurring, flash flooding is possible, flash flooding is occurring. (flash flood watch, flood watch, flood warning, flash flood warning)
-Flood is possible:flood watch
-Flooding is occurring:flood warning
-Flash flooding is possible:Flash flood watch
-Flash flooding is occurring:flash flood warning
In the United States, around 200 people die annually from flooding. On average, most flood deaths occur from what type of flooding?
In the United States, annual flood losses exceed $1____?
A hydrological classification is applied to streams and tributaries:in the upperreaches of a drainage sub-basin, you find what type of streams?
A flood with a 5% annual chance of occurrence is also caled a _____?
A river with multiple channels is called a ______.
Which type(s) of flooding has (have) a seasonality to it?
Riverine, storm surge, ice-jam
In today's world, which type(s) of flooding can occur rapidly and without warning?
Flash flood, levee failure
What influences flooding?
Vegetation, amount of rainfall, topography, saturated soil, urbanization, flood control, agriculture
During the life of a 30-year mortgage, the homeowner statistacally has a _____% chance of getting flooded.
What can lead scientists to changing flood designations (100-year flood) in an area or changing the magnitude estimates for a flood event?
-Urbanization and development
-Construction of dams and levees
-Collection of more or new data
The 1993 Mississippi River flood was _____ than the 1973 Mississippi flooding.
What factors influence the amount of damage caused by flooding?
Flood depth, velocity of flood waters, duration of flooding, amount of sediment in flood waters
The use of retention ponds causes the ______ of peak discharge.
What is the specific term for a chart that illustrated discharge of a river?
T/F. Floods can occur in any state and virtually at any time of the year.
T/F. Flooding refers to the overflow of water unto land that is normally dry.
T/F.A drainage basin is the same as a drainage divide.
T/F. All rivers gather their water from runoff.
T/F. A drainage basin refers to the area directly adjacent to the river that becomes inundated during flooding.
T/F. A floodplain is the area of adjacent land that becomes inundated when the river floods.
T/F. First order streams do not have tributaries.
T/F. Every river has one specific hydrograph.
T/F. When flooding in a river occurs quickly, the hydrograph has a steep rising limb.
T/F. A river's flood crest always occurs simultaneously with the rainfall. There is never a delay between rainfall and flooding.
T/F. Major flooding is rare in the United States. Since 1965 only a few US countries have experienced multiple major flood events.
T/F. A flood with a .05% annual chance of occurrence is less severe than a flood with a 1% annual chance.
T/F. If rainfall is concentrated over multiple tributaries, flooding can occur downstream where the tributaries merge into the main channel.
T/F. The size and extent of a floodplain never changed.
T/F.Development in a floodplain causes the floodplain to widen.
T/F. Urbanization increases runoff.
T/F. The hydrograph for a community that is downstream from several levees looks similar to the urban hydrograph.
T/F. The term "100-year flood" means that this type of flooding occurs only once in a hundred years.
T/F. Everyone living in a floodplain is required to have flood insurance.
T/F. Flood insurance is a federal program.
T/F. As of now, the National Flood Insurance Program has transferred flood losses from the homeowner to the taxpayer.
T/F. Levees increase flooding downstream.
T/F. Levees create a false sense of security.
T/F. It is safe to cross a flooded road in a car.
T/F. The terms discharge and streamflow have the same meaning.
T/F. THere is a uniform building code for the levees along the MS River.
T/F. When you look at a river profile, the downstream elevation is higher than the upstream elevation.
T/F. Flooding magnitude and frequency are easy to predict on most streams because of the abundance of historical records and limited changes to land use.
T/F. A 500-year flood is more severe than a 100-year flood.
During the 1927 flood, the National Guard was called in to do what?
Keep African American sharecroppers from evacuating and finding work elsewhere
Whats the name of the FEMA director in charge during the 1993 MS flood disastor?
James Lee Witt
The 1889 Johnstown, PA disaster is an example for what type of flooding?
Which are the years of the major flood events along the MS River discussed in class?
1927, 1993, 2008
Floods can occur....
at any time of the year, in any part of the country, at any time of the day
During the 1927 MS river flood, officials tried to save Nola from flooding by doing what?
Dynamiting a levee south of the city
What flood event contributed significantly to the exodus of African Americans from the South to the North?
1927 MS River flood
The 1927 MS river flood affected an area the size of...
The 1927 MS river flood was the impetus for what policy act?
Flood Control Act
Which flood event is known as the largest and most significant in US history?
1993 Midwest Floods
What weather conditions enabled the severity of the 1993 Midwest floods?
Heavy rainfall in 1992 and 1993, heavy snowmelt in the spring of 1993, almost stationary jet stream
The 1993 Midwest floods lasted multiple...
What color(s) represent flood areas on the satellite image shown for the 1993 midwest flood?
Dark blue and black
Which non-structural mitigation measure was employed more widely after the 1993 midwest flood than ever before or after?
How many miles downstream was the city of Johnstown from the South Fork Dam?
About how many years did it take johnstown to recover from the dam failure?
Where did the worlds worst dam disaster occure?
What was the key reason for the failure of the Vaiont Dam?
What happened to James Gooden on July 7, 1927?
He was shot in the back by a white policeman for refusing to return for a day shift
After the 1993 midwest flood, Grafton, IL worked on a buy-out plan because they had been flooded how many times in the last 20 years?
Who was the famous hazard geographer and flood advisor to presidents featured in the ABC piece?
GIlbert F. White
How fast did the 40 foot wall of water rush through Johnstown in 1889?
How did the courts rule on the negligence lawsuits against the South Fork Club in Johnstown?
against the victims ruling it an 'Act of God'
What broke out after the South Fork Dam waters had rushed through Johnstown?
The amount of rainfall within FOUR hours in the Big Thompson Creek flash flood was equivalent to the area's average rainfall for....
The response efforts for the Big Thompson Creek flash flood by the US Arms saved how many people from roof tops, canyon walls, rivers?
What did Larimer COunty implement after the Big Thompson Creek tragedy?
Reverse 911 emergency system
How many people died in the Big THompson Creek flash flood?
144 (139 died and 5 missing)
Which spillways/floodways were open during the 2011 flood along the MS river and its tributaries?
Morganza Spillway, Bonnet Carre Spillway, Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway
In terms of peak discharge values, the 2011 flood along the MS riverways equivalent to which historic flood?
The last time the Birds Point Floodway was "opened" was in...?
How many out of the 1091 non-federal levees failed or were topped during the 1993 Midwest flood?
How many out of the 275 federal levees failed or were topped during the 1993 Midwest flood?
How high was the flood crest of the MS river at St. Louis on August 1,1993?
How many people died in the 1976 Big Thompson Creek flash flood?
T/F. In April 1926, the Army Corps of Engineers declared that the levee system along the MS River will prevent future floods.
T/F. It is local land use policies that allow homeowners to build behind levees as well as in floodplains.
T/F. The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for the maintenance of federal as well as non-federal levees.
T/F. Every homeowner living behind a levee is required to purchase flood insurance.
T/F. The failure of the South Fork Dam in 1889 can be blamed on heavy rainfalls and poor maintenance of the dam.
T/F. Climbing to higher ground is the best way to escape a flash flood.
T/F. The Big Thompson flash flood was the impetus for a nationwide effort to establish flash flood early warning systems.
T/F. NASA satellites showed bare soil and plowed land in green, vegetation in red, and water black after 1993 MS river flood.
T/F. After the 1984 flood in Tulsa, OK the floodplain is now a park, reducing what can be damaged in a flood.
T/F. The Johnstown disaster killed one in four of the city's residents.
T/F. The Birds Point-New Madrid floodway is an earthen levee.
A drought is a deficiency in ______ over an extended period of time.
Aside from precipitation, what other factors can have an influence on drought conditions?
Temp, Evaporation, Vegetation, Soil Conditions
The hydrological cycle is driven by which force?
Solar energy balance
The hydrological cycle refers to the constant exchange of ______ with the Earth's hydrosphere.
A tipping bucket is used to measure _____.
Which descriptions refer to drought types?
Insufficient water for crops and pastures, insufficient water causes impacts on society, below normal evapotranspiration
The Palmer Drought Index is used to...
monitor drought conditions
A Palmer Drought Index between -3 and -3.99 indicates
severe drought conditions
Which drought type can impact areas that are not affected by a drought themselves?
Which index discussed in the lecture is used for the assessment of short-term drought conditions?
Crop Moisture Index
The streamflow mapon slide #19 shows which region of the US with lower than normal streamflow?
The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index monitors...
Health of vegetation
What characteristics distinguish droughts from most other hazards?
Slow speed of onset, severity often underestimated, broad and mostly indirect impacts on society and economies
Droughts are a deadly hazard in...
What are indirect losses?
Increase fire hazard, damage to wildlife and fish habitats, unemployment
Droughts can be associated with what other hazards?
Wildfires, Dust Storms, Heat Waves
Which population groups tend to be most severely affected by heat waves?
Children, the Elderly
What factors does the heat index take into account?
Air temp, humidity
What are adverse health effects from exposure to heat?
Cramps, exhaustion, stroke
What is not a heat transfer process?
T/F. Two main causes for drought occurrence are 1) a change in general weather patterns and 2) high-pressure systems that stall and barely move for extended periods of time
T/F. Precipitation= Runoff+ evapotranspiration+ change in storage is the water balance eq.
T/F. Precipitation is the only primary source of water input into the system.
T/F. Evapotranspiration refers to the water that is transpired out of the leaves of plants and the water that is evaporated out of the system.
T/F. If the simplified water balance equation is positive then we are in a state of drought.
T/F. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is calculated based on temperature and precipitation charts.
T/F. The Palmer Drought Index is also referred to as the US Drought Monitor.
T/F. According to the US Drought Monitor from Sep. 14, 2010, some ares of northern Louisiana are in a state of severe to extreme drought.
T/F. There are two control systems for thermoregulation: the behavioral system and the physiological system.
T/F. The cooler the body gets, the more blood the heart pumps, and the more blood vessels get dilated.
T/F. Once air temperature is above body temperature, there will be heat gain and thermoregulation has to set it to maintain the internal body temperature.
T/F. The higher the humidity, the higher the cooling effect from sweating.
T/F. The National Weather Service issues a heat watch when conditions are favorable for heat to meet or exceed local warning criteria in the next 12 to 24 hours.
T/F. Drought is the same as aridity.
T/F. A conceptual definition of drought helps people identify the beginning, end, and degree of severity of drought.
T/F. Society's vulnerability to drought is determined by a wide range of factors, both physical and social.
The 1930's Dust Bowl consisted of how many distinct drought periods?
What happened on the Black Sunday of April 1935?
Dust storm- people thought the world was ending
What agricultural and economic conditions aggravated the devastating impact of the 1930's drought?
Weak economy, poor land management, extensive farming even of sensitive agricultural lands
The Dust Bowl Palmer Drought Severity Index map shows areas with a PDSI below...
Which was the costliest US drought event?
What other hazards can occur along with droughts?
Dust storms, heat waves, wildfires
Droughts are frequent in the Sahel region and occur when the West African Monsoon shifts...
The Sahel Region has a strong______ gradient in rainfall and high interannual rainfall variability.
On what continent is the Sahel Region?
In the wake of the Sahel drought, which countries saw changes in their political leadership?
Which was not a result of the Sahel drought?
What heat wave is credited with triggering the most research and knowledge advancement in regards to vulnerable populations?
1995 Chicago heat wave
Which population groups were the most susceptible to the impacts of the 1995 Chicago heat wave?
Elderly, men working outside, poor people
What makes a person not vulnerable to suffering adverse impacts from a heat wave?
At what point of the heat wave does mortality tend to be the highest?
The beginning stages
What factors contributed to the severity of the Chicago heat wave in 1995?
no public education or early warning by city officials, power failures, lack of medical resources
What recent disaster had strong parallels to the Chicago heat wave like social vulnerability?
2005 Hurricane Katrina
Which European country was hardest hit by the 2003 heat wave?
What differences did the 2003 European heat wave have than ones in the US?
Different built environment, A/C not standard there, no heat health warning system
What area in Niger was affected the worst by the drought?
In 1995, Chicago's hot weather emergency plan was how long?
Prior to 1995, the City of Chicago focused emergency planning on what weather phenomena?
At the height of the heat wave in Chicago in 1995, the city's water consumption _____ because of opened fire hydrants.
How many people died form the Chicago heat wave in 1995?
The 2003 Heat wave in Europe set the stage for massive wildfires in Portugal. How much of Portugals forests burnt down that summer?
Since the Chicago morgue was full, the city brought in how many refrigerator trucks?
Herder Haji Adamou Haroun from Niger has 200 cows before the start of the Sahel drought, how man survived?
WHat was the record high in Chicago on July 13, 1995?
T/F. According to the Hot Spot research by CIESEN, the majority of past drought related deaths have occurred in Asia.
T/F. The urban heat island effect refers to the fact that surrounding rural areas tend to cool slower and are therefore warmer than urban/suburban areas.
T/F. During the dust bowl years, heat records were set of which some still stand today.
T/F. Aside from heat, drought, and soil erosion, insects were another problem during the Dust Bowl years.
T/F. The 2010 drought in Niger was so severe that even camels and donkeys-the most drought resistant animals-died.
T/F. During the 1995 Chicago heat wave, even policemen brought in dead bodies to the coroner's office.
T/F. The Drought of 1988-1989 affected or impacted approximately 56% of the United States.
T/F. By the end of August 2007, about 29% of the contiguous U.S. was categorized of being in a
"moderate to extreme" drought state based upon the Palmer Drought Index.
False. Moderate to extreme was 44% and severe to extreme was 29%
The 2003 European Heat Wave was responsible in claiming (i.e., killing) an estimated 35,000 people.
T/F. The Drought of 1988-1989 is ranked as the fourth most expensive disaster in U.S. history behind Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Sandy (2012)
T/F. Eleven U.S. western states are experiencing "drought" conditions to start the 2014 year as
indicated by the NBC video.
T/F. The NBC meteorologist said a dominant low pressure system is the key component of causing the "drought" conditions in the western part of the U.S.
False. High Pressure
T/F. The drought conditions in the Western U.S. have also been further exacerbated by the lack of snowpack melt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains which is a major water resource for the region as well.
T/F. The 2015 India heat wave is considered to be the second-deadliest heat wave on record for India and fifth-deadliest in world history
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