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167 terms

MUSIC APP FINAL

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melismatic singing
when many notes or pitches are sung to just one syllable of text.

melismatic singing
polyphonic singing
syllabic singing
rhythm
the organization of time in music.

beat
harmony
rhythm
the ordinary of the mass
the kyrie, gloria, and credo are all parts of:

the ordinary of the mass
the choir
the proper of the mass
paris
the first polyphonic music was written in which european city?

bonn
paris
madrid
london
staff
the grid work of lines and spaces is notated on

tonic
clef
staff
palestrina
a composer who is considered the "savior of church music"

leoninus
dufay
palestrina
an octave
the interval formed by playing, for example, a "C" combined with another "C" eight notes above it is called

an octave
an overtone
a fundamental
beat
an even pulse that divides the passing of time into equal units

harmony
rhythm
beat
bass
the four voices of the choir include alto, tenor, soprano and

castrato
bass
falsetto
the protestant reformation
the council of trent was a meeting of bishops of the catholic church in response to what

castratos
the counter reformation
the protestant reformation
melody
a series of pitches arranged to form a cohesive musical line

beat
melody
staff
mode
whether a scale is major or minor is called its

modulation
mode
character
madrigal
a type of song that was a favorite of elizabeth england

madrigal
motet
mass
tonic
melodies are structured around a central pitch called the

key
mode
tonic
madrigal
a secular renaissance vocal composition that sets a vernacular poem for several voices. usually these are love poems. over 40,000 of them were published.

madrigal
troubadour
motet
machaut
a composer who worked at the cathedral in reims, france

hildegard
machaut
palestrina
pitch
the relative position of a sound high or low is called the

pitch
mode
clef
the bass clef
low voices and instruments usually have their music written on

the bass clef
the tenor clef
the soprano clef
the medieval period
this time period is considered the age of cathedrals

the renaissance period
the medieval period
the baroque period
hildegard
this composer was given to the church as a tithe as a child

josquin
machaut
hildegard
it causes our brain to release mood enhancing chemicals
music changes our mood because

we know the tune
it causes our brain to release mood enhancing chemicals
we associate it with something
regularly
musical sounds vibrate

slowly
quickly
regularly
consonance
notes that, when combined, are generally pleasing to the ear, form that is called

resolution
progression
consonance
1750-1820
the classical musical style period has which dates

1750-1820
1820-1900
1945 to present
homophonic
a musical texture consisting of a single melody accompanied by chords is considered

monophonic
polyphonic
homophonic
1475-1600
the renaissance musical style period has which dates

1600-1750
1880-1920
1475-1600
machaut
a medieval composer who was first to use the four standard voices of the chorus

palestrina
machaut
josquin
gregorian chant
this type of music was composed for 15 centuries

motets
madrigals
gregorian chant
improvisation
classical music does NOT rely largely on

improvisation
preset notation
acoustic instruments
F
the seven pitches of the octave inclue C,D,E,G,A,B and

K
F
O
the renaissance
palestrina is a composer from which musical style period

the classical period
the renaissance
the middle ages
deprez
a composer who commanded high prices for his motets

machaut
palestrina
perotinus
deprez
unaccompanied by an instrument
to sing a cappella means to sing

unaccompanied by an instrument
with others
from the head
a motet
a renaissance composition for choir that is a setting of a latin text on a sacred subject intended to be sung either in a church or in a private chapel

a madrigal
a mass
a motet
melody
a solid tonal center, forward motion, a goal or climax and ultimately, a feeling of repose are also aspects of a good

tonic
melody
composer
moves to another key
modulation happens when the music

changes mode
moves to another key
comes to the end of a melody
many voices
polyphony means

one voice alone
many voices
a choir
troubadour
poet musicians who flourished in the european courts during the middle ages

castratos
troubadour
falsettos
triple
a meter that is divided up into three beats per meter is called

quadruple
duple
triple
dense polyphony
which of the following is not an attribute of the classical style

form
dense polyphony
homophonic texture
haydn
the string quartet was invented by

mozart
bach
haydn
haydn
composer who was trained as a choirboy in vienna

mozart
bach
haydn
vivaldi
composer who worked in an orphanage in venice teaching young girls

bach
vivaldi
mozart
cadenza
long unaccompanied solo that occurs typically near the end of a concerto movement

coda
cadenza
recapitulation
mozart's a little night music
one of the following was actually intended more as background entertainment for aristocratic gatherings

mozart's a little night music
beethovens late string quartets
chopins etudes
walking bass
a term used to describe a bass line that moves down at a stead, moderate pace

basso continuo
walking bass
figured bass
double exposition
a compositional device used in concertos of the classical period where the first orchestra plays all of the themes and then the soloist enters

sonata allegro
double exposition
ritornello
oboe
the woodwind family consists of the flute, clarinet, bassoon and

french horn
oboe
viola
monteverdi
the composer of the very first grand opera

handel
mozart
monteverdi
minuet
the third movement of a typical classical symphony or string quartet uses

theme and variations
minuet
rondo
corelli
this baroque figure established a technique for the violin

bach
vivaldi
corelli
baroque concerto
in what kind of composition does one find ritornello form

baroque concerto
baroque sonata
fugue
aria
baroque opera consists of basically two types of singing, recitative and

monody
vocal ensemble
aria
recitative
vocal line in an opera or oratorio that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech

recitative
cadenza
aria
mozart
composer who toured europe as a child, playing for the courts or kings and emperors

mozart
haydn
vivaldi
lutheran
the church music of JS bach is a product of the _________ religious tradition

calvinist
catholic
lutheran
crescendo
a term that means to gradually get louder

crescendo
diminuendo
sforzando
bach
baroque composer who spent much of his career as a church musician

josquin
handel
bach
4
how many movements does a classical period symphony have

3
2
4
sonata allegro
the piece you are listening to is a sonata. it is classical. what form do you expect the 1st movement to be in?

rondo
sonata allegro
theme and variations
3
a classical period sonata has how many movements

8
3
4
opera seria
opera that is grandiose and about gods and legends

comic opera
opera seria
opera buffa
vienna
during the classical period this city was used as an administrative center for most of europe

vienna
paris
rome
the church
major source of musical employment during the medieval, renaissance and baroque eras

the church
publishing companies
universities
the piano
the pianoforte is another name for which instrument

the harpsichord
the organ
the piano
haydn
which of the following composers was a servant of prince esterhazy

mozart
bach
haydn
pedal point
a sustained note in the bass of a piece of music is called a

pedal point
fugue
point of imitation
recapitulation
the part of sonata allegro form when all of the themes come back into the tonic key

exposition
development
recapitulation
development
the part of sonata allegro form where the composer gets to be really creative and plays around with the themes in many different ways

exposition
development
recapitulation
exposition
the first part of sonata allegro form where the themes are first introduced

exposition
development
recapitulation
tutti
________ is a term meaning "full orchestra" as in concerto grosso

tutti
cadenza
sinfonia
mozart
composer who died at age 35 of unknown causes

haydn
vivaldi
mozart
string quartet
a classical period piece written for the following instruments: 2 violins, viola and cello

string quartet
symphony
sonata
classical
this time period is also called the age of reason

classical
baroque
renaissance
contrast
repetition, variation and ________ are all used to create form in music

contrast
harmony
recapitulation
subject
which of the follow is NOT a term used to describe sonata allegro form

exposition
subject
recapitulation
to sound
the word sonata means

a touched thing
to sound
flight
bach
this composer was considered a virtuoso organist

mozart
bach
haydn
da ponte
the librettist who worked with mozart

da ponte
salieri
stradiveri
absolute music
music without extra musical or programmatic references

program music
absolute music
art music
idee fixe
berlioz represents the idea of the "beloved" by using

idee fixe
diminution
leitmotif
lawyer
robert schumann went to school to become a

musician
doctor
lawyer
piano
franz liszt was a famous virtuoso for which instrument

violin
guitar
piano
chopin
a composer famous for writing short pieces called "nocturnes" for the solo piano

chopin
liszt
c. schumann
3rd
in beethoven's 5th symphony he used a scherzo form for which movement

4th
3rd
1st
express four different characters
the singer in schubert's erlking has to use his voice to

express four different characters
imitate birds
to be heard in the back of the concert hall
a riff
a melodic fragment used to build melodies and themes, as in the first four notes of beethoven's 5th is called

a riff
a motive
a germ cell
paganini
which of the following was so good at playing the violin that people thought he was from the devil

liszt
chopin
paganini
liszt
this composer established the format for the modern day piano recital

liszt
chopin
verdi
wagner
widely regarded as germany's leading opera composer

schubert
wagner
brahms
a signature tune
a leitmotif is

a signature tune
rubato
double counterpoint
r. schumann
a romantic period composer who did a great deal to promote other composers of the time by publishing the "New Journal of Music"

brahms
r. schumann
berlioz
concert etude
a _______ is a virtuosic instrumental piece that also serves as a technique exercise

nocturne
lied
concert etude
beethoven
the composer who is considered to be the iconic image of the musician as an artist

liszt
mozart
beethoven
harriet smithson
the real life person that was the inspiration for symphonie fantastique

george sand
aurore dudevant
harriet smithson
art
the romantics considered life, and how they lived it, to be

drama
art
opera
c. schumann
a composer who stopped composing because she felt it was not right for a woman to compose

r. schumann
c. schumann
harriet smithson
r. schumann
this composer fell in love with his piano teacher's daughter

chopin
beethoven
r. schumann
chopin
composer referred to as the poet of the piano

beethoven
liszt
chopin
brahms
who is considered beethoven's symphonic successor

brahms
r. schumann
berlioz
program music
the concert overture, the symphonic poem, and program symphony are all examples of

piano pieces
program music
absolute music
five
symphonie fantastique by berlioz has how many movements

four
none
five
paganini
which of the following was not a famous piano virtuoso

liszt
chopin
paganini
vienna
in the romantic period, in which city would you have been able to attend a schubertiad

london
vienna
paris
romantic era
instrumental music's literary and programmatic associations began to be more important in the

baroque era
classical era
romantic era
they are connected
in beethoven's fifth symphony, what is unusual about the 3rd and 4th movement

nothing
they are connected
there is a haunting oboe solo
piano
the romantic period is characterized by the importance of which instrument

violin
organ
piano
night music
the word nocturne means

a special court dance
for solo piano
night music
coda
in beethoven's pathetique sonata he brings back the material from the slow intro in both the development and the

coda
exposition
recapitulation
bel canto opera
"la traviata" is an example of

a german music drama
lied
bel canto opera
brahms
a romantic period composer of absolute music

brahms
liszt
berlioz
carmen
the first realistic opera

la traviata
tristan and isolde
carmen
verdi
a composer who was rejected from the conservatory in milan due to being too old and not having good piano technique

verdi
schumann
brahms
total art work
gesamtkunstwerk means

total art work
music drama
signature tune
gregorian chant
the dies irae, used by berlioz in symphonie fantastique is an example of

an idee fixe
gregorian chant
chorales
beethoven
a classical period composer who went deaf

beethoven
berlioz
brahms
brahms
this composer owed his success to the promotional efforts of the schumanns

beethoven
brahms
mozart
beethoven
bridge composer between classical and romantic eras

haydn
mozart
beethoven
shostakovich
bartok's broken intermezzo, from his concerto for orchestra, is in part a parody of the musical style of the russian composer

shostakovich
mussorgsky
stravinsky
w.c. handy
blues composer who influenced gershwin's rhapsody in blue

bessie smith
w.c. handy
louis armstrong
louis armstrong
_____________ was jazz's first superstar

duke ellington
louis armstrong
benny goodman
expressionism
freud is said to have influenced this

expressionism
impressionism
romanticism
west side story
broadway musical that is an american urban adaptation of the romeo and juliet story

west side story
oklahoma
cats
debussy
the impressionist painter monet is often linked with the composer

bizet
debussy
copland
romantic era
nationalistic sentiments first began to be suggested in music of the european classical tradition during the ____________

baroque era
classical era
romantic era
william grant still
first african american composer to have a work performed by a major symphony orchestra

william grant still
duke ellington
nathaniel dett
new york
first american city to support regular opera performances

boston
new york
new orleans
new orleans
american city recognized as the birthplace of jazz

chicago
new orleans
kansas city
minimalism
a style of post-modern music that takes a very small musical unit and repeats it over and over again to form a composition

atonalism
serialism
minimalism
prokofiev
a composer who composed in the neo-classical style

prokofiev
ives
schoenberg
sprechstimme
a vocal technique that requires the vocalist to declaim the text more than just sing it

bel canto
atonality
sprechstimme
schoenberg
the composer who invented the 12 tone composition

ives
copland
schoenberg
dissonance
music of the 20th century is marked by the emancipation of _______

the scale
tonality
dissonance
dvorak
bohemian composer whose american experiences and the writings of henry wadsworth longfellow served as inspiration for one of his famous symphonies

dvorak
smetana
martinu
napoleon bonaparte
the orginal dedicatee of beethoven's symphony no. 3 "eroica"

archduke rudolf
napoleon bonaparte
goethe
impressionism
a movement that rose in france in opposition to the german romantic music.
impressionist art
monet, renoir, degas

painting focused on light brush strokes of color rather than clearly defined objects.
impressionist music
not focused on form, rhythm, melody or harmony but rather on washed of sound that create an "impression" of a scene or mood
claude debussy
the most famous impressionist composer. came from a small town outside of paris. neither of his parents were musical but debussy became a pianist and started study at the paris conservatory at age 10. in 1884 he won the famous prize de rome composition prize and went to rome to study and write. he was happy to return to paris.

used chromatic scale (all twelve pitches) and pentatonic scale (five pitches). also a "whole tone scale" - uses all whole steps, no half. similar to chromatic. it is neither major or minor. uses parallels.
symbolism
poetry style when the sound of the word and the associations it might produce is more important than its actual meaning. stephane mallerme is famous for this. (he and debussy come together in "prelude to the afternoon of a faun"
modernism in russia and eastern europe
russian revolution leads to establishment of the communist soviet union in 1922. led to cold war which dominated western foreign policy for years.

artists working under stalin had difficulty. wealth was taken away from the well to do, anything "elitist" was suspect, the govt thought all music should be easily understood and enjoyed by the public at large. they wanted patriotic music-- furthered the agenda of communism.

if you were a composer and your music was labeled "formalist", it was like a death sentence. the challenge was for the composers to be true to one's artistic vision but remain alive.
subversives
composers that were approved by stalin's rules. they were a list of composers who used atonal, 12 tone styles.
sergey prokofiev
son of a well to do farm administrator. known as the "bad boy" of the st. petersburg conservatory. fled the russian revolution in 1917 to return later to communist russia. wrote 7 symphonies, 6 operas, 6 ballets, 5 piano concertos, and 9 piano sonatas. most remembered for his lighter works, such as the "classical symphony". rome and and juliet dance of the knights was the tragic love story with a HAPPY ending!

his life ended unhappily. he had to work strictly controlled by stalin. his performances were banned and he had to publically renounce formalism. his wife was arrested for espionage and sent into exile for 20 years. he died within a few minutes after stalin but noone noticed. there weren't any floweres left to bring to his funeral.
dimitri shostakovich
a few years younger than prokofiev. born to a musical family. showed a great deal of talent at an early age and was an accomplished pianist by the age of 11. studied at the st. petersburg conservatory. first real success, 1925 symphony no. 1. gained him international acclaim at age 19. in 1934 he again received world-wide attention for his opera lady macbeth of the mtsenk district. stalin attended this opera and walked out 3/4 of the way through. his music was then denounced by the papers as chaos, not music.

throughout his career he fell in and out of favor. his international stature made if difficult for the govt to execute him. when he was in favor he won the stalin medal of service, and served as the face for the spirit of russian resistance in the war with hitler's germany. his music was also twice denounced formalistic. after these, he would hide his most progressive scores and turn to tuning down the modernist components in the works he presented.
bela bartok
his music is modern but tends to be distinctly different from the russians and the composers of the secon viennese school. even though he employed atonality, he used tuneful melodies as well as folk melodies in his rhythms. (folk music from his home, hungary) he was born there, and attended the academy of music in budapest. he studied composition and piano. he gained a reputation as a concert pianist as well as composer of modernist music. His music had already been banned. Bartok was very interested in musical research, specifically Eastern Europe folk music. He traveled around Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and North Africa using the new recording machine of Thomas Edison. His ear became saturated with the driving rhythms and odd-numbered meters of peasant dances, as well as the unusual scales that the folk melodies were based. He incorporated these things into his compositions.

He employs pentatonic scales, switches meter back and forth between an even 2/4 and an odd 5/8, used a Hungarian nationalist song and borrows from Shostakovich. After arriving in New York in 1940, Bartok tried to build a career in the states but had little success. He died of Leukemia in New York's West Side Hospital.
bartok concerto orchestra
was commissioned by the conductor of the Boston Symphony for 1,000 dollars in 1943. In this piece each instrument is spotlighted at different times as well as different combinations of instruments being used to display their unique tonal qualities. There are 5 movements. The fourth movement is titled Broken Intermezzo.
igor stravinsky
La Sacre Du Printemps (Rite of Spring) piece that incited a riot.. plot on page 359. 3 very important ballet scores. Finebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring. Usec percussive use of the orchestra with an enlarged percussion section. Used irregular accents.
emancipation of dissonance
dissonance was now liberated from the requirement that it move to a consonance.
arnold schoenburg
Viennese man most radical school of the music modernism and the 2nd Viennese school. He evolves atonality into a 12 tone system, all 12 tones are used in a fixed pre-determined order. All pitches used in that order before are being used again. A row can be backward (retrograde) upside down (introversion) or backward upside down (retrograde introversion). This emphasizes the equality of all the pitches.
2nd viennese school
schoenburg, allen burg, arton weber
pierrot lunare
based 21 poems off Allen Giraud. White faced clown form Italian pantomime transformed into an alienated modern artist. uses sprechstimme.
atonality
fully chromatic music with no tonality. Has no key center, and is very disjunctive and very dissonant.
american music
American is a pluralistic society. With many influences due to immigration and the mixing of cultures. American composers of high art music have always had a great deal of freedom to express themselves in new ways. The influence of American popular music is also exceedingly rich.
charles ives
original, even radical composer of American music. Born in Danbury, Connecticut, his father was a band leader. He taught him in an unusual way and had him learn to "stretch his ears." He went to Yale but could not fit in with the more conservative teaching there. He had a D+ average. After school, he did not pursue a career in music, but went on to found and run an insurance company which was very successful. he knew that the music that was in his head would not go over well with the audiences. Most of his music was never heard in his lifetime. Now he is considered one of the greatest American composers. music uses: atonality, polymeter, polyrhythm, tone clusters, new quarter-tone music, collage art.
aaron copland
born in Brooklyn to Jewish immigrant parents. He started music study in New York, went on to study in Paris. Many artists working in Paris at the time, " all of us discovered America in Paris". Decided to compose in a distinctly American style. Used early jazz, cowboy songs. Wrote a great deal of music about the American West. His music is still associated with the West.
postmodernism
after WWII- All art is of equal potential. There is a new concept that there is no high or low art. All are considered equal. Two minds to consider.
edgar varese
early landmark in electronic music. "Poeme Electronique"- composed to be played in the Phillips Radio Corporation's Pavilion at the 1958 World's fair. The poem is just organized noise.
john cage
born in LA. Invented the prepared piano, partially due to his love of percussion instruments. Chance music. why not leave the organization of sound to chance? He wrote music by throwing dice, darts, drawing cards, etc. He developed his own musical philosophy. What is music? What is sound? Why do we call some sound music and others noise? Etc.
john adams
composer of minimalism. Minimalism takes a very small unit of music and repeats over and over to form a composition. He won a Pulitzer in 2003 for "On the Transmigration Souls" - about people who died in 911. Also won a Grammy for this same work. He was famous for his operas using stories from recent history such as his opera about Nixon's famous 1972 visit to China, hence the opera "Nixon in China" and the latest Adam's Opera called "Dr. Atomic", about the Manhattan Project.
louis armstrong
earliest "superstar" of jazz. First great jazz trumpet virtuoso/improviser in jazz history. He was also pioneer of "scat-singing" - vocal improvisation using nonsense syllables, attempt at imitating an instrument. Big hits- popular fame. 1920's recordings with Hot Five and Hot Seven.
wiliam grant still
Music comes out of the Harlem Renaissance, a movement that evolved in African American Community in the 1920s and 30s to promote racial advancement through artistic creativity. Still became the first African American Composer to have a symphony performed by a major orchestra and the first to have an opera performed by a major opera company.
afro-american symphony
uses a blues theme, solo banjo
george gershwin
A Musical Melting Pot. Fame for "Rhapsody in Blue". Definition of rhapsody and concerto apply here. It is a true "melting pot" of several elements:
1) Blues (W.C. Handy)
2) Jewish Music, influence of Yiddish Theater
3) 1920's Jazz
4) Broadway show tune style
5) Western Classical tradition
opera in america
Opera became very popular in the USA. The most famous being Porgy and Bess by Gershwin. The Metropolitan Opera of NY being the first big Opera company. Importing musicians from Europe to fill out the orchestra.
leonard bernstein
a great American conductor and composer united Jazz and the Broaway musical in his musical. West Side Story- this is a modernization on the Romeo and Juliet story. With Lyrics by Stephen Sondheim (his first job as a lyricist).
west side story
It uses a Broadway, a complex blend of jazz, Latin rhythms, and the influence of Bernstein's own classical training as a pianist/conductor/composer. There is groundbreaking choreography by Jerome Robbins- this brought to dance a new level of importance (and difficulty!) in the American musical. The occasional social commentary is not typical of musicals at that time.
national endowment of the arts
an institution that fosters the arts in the USA by providing grants for various arts related endeavors.