112 terms

Second Industrial Revolution

Chapters 17 and 18
STUDY
PLAY
An economy that is based on mining or producing raw materials to be used in foreign industries is called
an extractive economy
The United States wanted overseas territories because the territories had
customers who would buy US products
Social Darwinism is the theory that
life consists of competitive struggles in which only the strong survive
How did militarism contribute to increases imperialism?
a strong military helped imperial powers protect their global interests
Why might the closing of the frontier have encouraged American imperialism?
discontented Americans sought a new territory in which to try their luck
Why did journalists call the Alaska purchase of 1867 "Seward's Folly"?
they wondered why the United States would want a vast tundra of snow and ice far from the continental borders
What happened within a year of United States Navy Commodore Matthew Perry's arrival in Tokyo Bay in 1853?
Perry negotiated a treaty that opened trade to the United States
Hawaii was annexed in
1898, during the Spanish-American War
What new relationship with Hawaii did Congress approved in 1898?
annexation
A policy in which strong nations control weaker countries or territories is known as
imperialism
The Teller Amendment stated that
the united states could not annex cuba
Why did the United States Navy Commodore George Dewey lead an attack on ships in the Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War?
Manila Bay was ruled by Spain, and the ships belonged to the Spanish
The "Rough Riders" were
a volunteer cavalry unit in the Spanish-American War
Emilio Aguinaldo was
a Filipino freedom fighter
the 1898 Treaty of Paris dealt with which territories?
Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and other former Spanish territories
Spain gave the United States full control of the Philippines when?
the United States paid $20 million, as set out in the Treaty of Paris
Which presidential candidate ran on an anti-imperialist platform?
William Jennings Bryan
After the Spanish-American War, Cubans and Puerto Ricans
were partially restricted by the United States
Naturalist novels
honestly portrayed human misery and the struggles of common people
Which of the following reformers outline the Social Gospel in a book entitled Christianity and the Social Crisis?
Walter Rauschenbusch
What social problem did Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle describe?
the living and working conditions in Chicago's stockyards
Many Progressives who followed Walter Rauschenbusch's Social Gospel program believed that
Christianity should be the basis of social reform
Which reform resulted form the fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory?
workers' compensation laws
Many progressive reformers targeted city officials who built corrupt organizations called
political machines
Industrial workers often labored
with unsafe machinery
What was one way Progressives differed from Populists?
Progressives were typically middle class city dwellers, and Populists were mostly farmers
Progressive women reformers worked to
limit the workday
Which reform did the Nineteenth Amendment enact?
women's suffrage
Which woman founded the National Association of Colored Women to help African American families and those who were less fortunate?
Ida B Wells
The NWP and the NAWSA primarily differed in their
strategies
The 1903 Muller v Oregon decision upheld
limited work hours for women
For what purpose was the Women's Christian Temperance Union formed?
to protect the home and ban liquor
What was one goal of the Americanization movement during the Progressive Era?
to make immigrants more loyal and moral citizens
Which event led to the formation of the NAACP?
the 1908 Springfield riot
Which group formed the Anti-Defamation League to defend itself against verbal attacks and false statements?
Jewish Americans
A 1913 California law forced Japanese Americans to
sell their land
Why did minority groups receive limited benefits from Progressivism?
Many Progressives held racist ideas about minority groups
Progressives that promoted Americanization efforts?
encouraged immigrants to follow white, middle-class ways of life
Which of the following describes the Urban League?
focused on helping poor African American workers
Which of the following resulted from the passage of the Dawes Act in 1887?
Native American reservations were divided into smaller plots
Which legislation gave the government the authority to set and limit shipping costs?
The Hepburn Act
Theodore Roosevelt supported powerful corporations that
did business fairly
The concept of "rational use" suggested that
forests be preserved for public use
The National Reclamation Act directly affected the management of which natural resource?
water
Under President William Howard Taft, the federal government
brought lawsuits against many corporations
Why did Roosevelt run for the presidency in 1912?
Taft's political decisions angered Roosevelt
During the 1902 coal miners' strike in Pennsylvania, President Roosevelt
threatened to send federal troops to take control of the miners
Who led the Division of Forestry under President Theodore Roosevelt?
Gifford Pinchot
When did the United States grant independence to the Philippines?
in 1946, when the islands were liberated from Japanese occupation during World War II
Unlike Britain, France, and Russia, the United States
wanted to keep trade in China open
What did Taft do to help restore order in the Philippines?
he censored the press
When Filipinos rebelled against US rule, the United States found itself
using some of the same tactics that the Spanish had used in Cuba
in 1916, Congress passed the Jones Act, which
promised that the Philippines would ultimately gain its independence
America's Open Door Policy in China was designed to
provide access to trade in China without controlling territory
Why did Theodore Roosevelt win the Nobel Peace Prize?
He helped negotiate an end to the Russo-Japanese War
How did the United States show its dominance over the Philippines?
through military action
the Platt Amendment
gave the United States the right to preserve order as needed in Cuba
President Roosevelt sent troops to support Panamanian rebels in the fight against Colombia so that
the United States could get the rights to build a canal in Panama at a lower price
In the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States had become
accustomed to military involvement overseas
Roosevelt's "big stick" diplomacy
depended on a strong military to achieve America's goals
How did the United States get access to the Canal Zone in Panama?
The US military backed rebels who soon controlled independent Panama
"Moral diplomacy" means that the US government should
favor honorable diplomacy but may still resort to military intervention
Which diplomatic style most promoted military action?
big stick
What was one result of "moral diplomacy"?
American imperialism and conquest decreased
Progressivism
movement that responded to the pressures of industrialization and urbanization by promoting reforms
Muckraker
writer who uncovers and exposes misconduct in politics or businesses
Social Gospel
reform movement that emerged in the late nineteenth century that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles
Settlement House
community center organized at the turn of the twentieth century to provide social services to the urban poor
Direct Primary
election in which citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections
Initiative
process in which citizens put a proposed new law directly on the ballot
Referendum
process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature
Recall
process by which voters can remove elected officials from office before their terms end
National Consumers League(NCL)
group organized in 1899 to investigate the conditions under which goods were made and sold and to promote safe working conditions and a minimum wage
Temperance Movement
movement aimed at stopping alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
Suffrage
the right to vote
National American Woman Suffrage Association(NWSA)
group founded in 1890 that worked on both the state and national levels to earn women the right to vote
Nineteenth Amendment
constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote
Americanization
belief that assimilating immigrants into American society would make them more loyal citizens
Niagara Movement
group of African American thinkers founded in 1905 that pushed for immediate racial reforms, particularly in education and voting practices
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP)
interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans
Urban League
network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities
Anti-Defamation League
organization formed in 1913 to defend Jews against physical and verbal attacks an false statements
Mutualistas
organized group of Mexican Americans that make loans and provide legal assistance to other members of their community
Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's program of reforms to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small business owners and the poor
Hepburn Act
1906 law that gave the government the authority to set railroad rates and maximum for ferries, bridge tools, and oil pipelines
Meat Inspection Act
1906 law that allowed the federal government to meat sold across state lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants
Pure Drug and Food Act
1906 law that allowed federal inspection of food and medicine and banned the interstate shipment and sale of impure food and the mislabeling of food and drugs
National Reclamation Act
1902 law that gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed through the buildings and management of dams and irrigation projects
New Nationalism
President Roosevelt's plan to restore the government's trust-busting power
Progressive Party
political party that emerged from the Taft-Roosevelt battle that split the Republican Party in 1912
Imperialism
political, military, and economic domination of strong nations over weaker territories
Extractive economy
economy in a colony where the colonizing country removed raw materials and shipped them back home to benefit its own economy
Social Darwinism
the belief held by some in the late nineteenth century that certain nations and racers were superior to others and therefore destined to rule over them
Yellow Press
newspapers that used sensational headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership
Jingoism
aggressive nationalism; support for warlike foreign policy
Rough Riders
group of men, consisting of rugged westerners and upper-class easterners who fought during the Spanish-American War
Treaty of Paris 1898
an agreement signed by the United States and Spain in 1898, which officially ended the Spanish American War
Insurrection
rebellion
Guerilla Warfare
nontraditional combat methods
Sphere of influence
region dominated and controlled by an outside power
Boxer Rebellion
violence started by members of a secret society in China, which prompted the governments of Europe and America to send troops to squash the rebellion
Open Door Policy
American statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade there
Russo-Japanese War
a war between Japan and Russia in 1904 over the presence of Russian troops in Manchuria
Gentlemen's Agreement
pact between the US and Japan to end segregation of Asian children in San Francisco public schools; in return, Japan agreed to limit the immigration of its citizens to the United States
Great White Fleet
battleships sent by Roosevelt in 1907 on a "good will cruise" around the world
Foraker Act
law establishing a civil government in Puerto Rico
Platt Amendment
set of conditions under which Cuba was granted independence in 1902, including restrictions on the rights of Cubans and granting to the US the "right to intervene" in order to preserve order in Cuba
"big stick" diplomacy
Theodore Roosevelt's policy of creating and using, when necessary, a strong military to achieve America's goals
Panama Canal
human-made waterway linking the Atlantic to the Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama
Roosevelt Corollary
President Roosevelt's reassertion of the Monroe Doctrine to keep the Western Hemisphere free from intervention by European Powers
"dollar diplomacy"
President Taft's policy of expanding American investments abroad
"moral diplomacy"
Woodrow Wilson's statement that the US would not use force to assert influence in the world, but would work to promote human rights