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PPSY 718 History of Systems -Lawson Ch. 4
Terms in this set (27)
The Ways of Knowing:
3 ways of knowing: 1) faith - derived from divine revelation & Dogma 2) rationality - thinking and reflecting (philosophy) 3) systemic observation - forms the basis of science.
First Four River Valley Civilizations in the World
Four River Valley Civilizations: 1) Sumarian Mesopotamia 2) Egyptian Civilization 3) Indus or Harappan Civilization 4) Chinese Civilization; The beginning of these river valleys is marked by the advent of agriculture, writing, and the organization of complex systems to exchange goods, services, and properties.
How do the foundational ideas of major religious systems differ from each other?
Animism - One of the earliest explanatory systems of life events. Based on the belief that all of nature is alive with no distinction between animate and inanimate objects. Saw all of nature as alive.
Philosophical and religious systems arose in response to the need to develp universal ethical systems and codes of behavior in each river valley civilization. See timelines on pg. 61-62
Breath, Spirit or Soul - led to distinction between animate and inanimate objects. Animate objects have ability for self-induced motion. Soul housed in human body called Sine Qua Non (an indespensible condition) for human life wand when the soul permanently left the body death resulted. Gave rise to good and evil spirit concepts of some contemporary thought/religion
4 philosophical-religious systems that arose from river valley civilizations
Chinese Philosophy (Confucianism + Taoism)
Indian Religion (buddhism/ hindhuism)
Chinese Philosophy - Confucianism
Confucianism: Confucious/ Master K'Ung (551-479 B.C.). Not a religion, although it is very spiriutal. Code of behvaiors adn moral qualities of the chou dynasty (1050-256BC). Analects, a series of 4 books which compile his sayings (compiled by 1st & 2nd Gen disciples). Any person can become noble by embracing Chun-Tzu (set of behaviors and an attitude or demeanor reflecting the virtues of integrity (honesty), righteousness, altruism, and loyalty. Harmony and Happiness arises from following guidelines of the five forms of human relationships (ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife, older-younger brothers, and friend-friend). Take away thought, wellbeing of society is dependent upon the morality of people. Confucians number around 300 million, mostly in China. Confucian moral qualities : 1) personal authenticity, thoughtfulness, prudence, relationships, and civility.
Chinese Philosophy - Taoism
Taoism: More focused on cosmic rather than daily issues. Invites followers to reflect on test of the Tao Te Ching, unlike Confucianism which asks for adherence to strict and specific imperatives. Everything exists in contrasts, primary unifying priniciple called Tao or Way. Yin (light, masculine, forceful), Yang (dark, feminine, submissive). Way or Tao is constantly changing yet never changes.
Indian Religion -buddhism
Buddhism: Four Noble Truths: 1) All life is suffering 2) Suffering arises from desire 3) Overcome suffering by eliminating desire 4) Meditation and the attainment of wisdom can eliminate desire. Buddha was born a man named Gautama, a royal who at the age of 29 gave up all his possessions and social status to engage in a life devoted to the study of Hindhuism. During a meditation he became enlightened and learned how to stop the karmic outflows that fuel suffering. He spread his beliefs over the next 45 years. By following the four noble truths, one can overcome desire or dukkha. Buddha called his teachings the dharma or spiritual law. Many variations to Buddhism today; over 250 million Buddhists around the world today.
Indian Religion -hindhuism
Hinduism: Brahmans aquire their power through knowledge, not ritual acts wrote the Upanishads (texts) in Sanskrit in 1200BC. The Upanishads are based on the Vedas (book of knowledge 6x the length of the Bible). Hinduism has diverse beliefs. Samsara: death; rebirth cycle (The Wheel of Life). Achieving Moksha through aquiring vast knowledge or intense devotion to God breaks the Samsara cycle leading to liberation from reincarnation.
Judaism: The first universal monotheistic religions. Most likely arose from 2000 to 500BC, in teh Mesopotamia and Egyptian region that was typically home to polytheistic religion. Two foundational ideas: 1) God through his prophets had direct involvement in the history of humanity 2) the nature of Yahweh (God) was seen by the prophets as the ideal of justice/goodness. Judaism is focused on good deeds rather than specific rituals. Torah: Religious texts chronicling the history of the Israeli people. Talmund is a supplemental text to the Torah, collection of religious and civil Jewish teachings and their interpretations. Three branches of Judaism: Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. 3 Essentials of Judiasm: Love of learning (education a responsibility) The Worship of God (embrace qualities of God) and Good Works (good deeds are obligatory). Four million Jews living in Israel, Six million in North America, and fourteen million worldwide.
& Greek Philosophy
Greek Philosophy: focused upon explanatory system of the universe that promoted materialism, rationalism, and empiricism for understanding the universe, the world, and the human experience. Greek philosophers advocated that people place faith in the processes of rationalism (explanation of phenomena based upon systematic observation of things and events) and naturalism (the idea that the physical and experienced wolds can be understood without recourse to the forces under the control of gods but rather based upon physical principles and laws).
& Greek Philosophy: Thales
Thales: 600BC - addressed the question of the basic substance of the world, and answered that the primal substance of the world is water from which all else is derived. Credited with dethrowning the gods and replacing them with impersonal elements. Observation and Reason.
Greek Philosophy: Anaximander and Pythagoras:
Anaximander and Pythagoras: Anaximander gave the idea that humans arose from other species (evolution), the sun dial, and the first map of the world. Pythagoras gave us the term philosophy (love and knowledge), building a religious and scientific community in southern Italy. Emphasis on mathematical relationships over just elements. His wife and daughter helped in providing him the philosophy of centrality of harmony in daily life to maintain sound mental and physical health as well as guidelines to nurturing child care.
Greek Philosophy: The Eleatics
The Eleatics: preSocratic philopshers turned away from cosmology and focused on Epistemology. Logos = Reason; Materialist = the universe was composed of an infinite number of small, indivisiblem indestructable atoms. Physical atoms constructed physical world while smaller atoms called soul atoms were responsible for psychological actions.
Socrates believed that evil arises from ignorance, and knowledge of one's inner mental life would lead to a host of socially desirable behaviors. Believed in the power of human reason, "know thyself".
Plato was a student of Socrates, and also was an idealist (thinking alone can discern the permanently real world). Believed in the Psyche or soul having mental properties which can also be though of as the mind. Structured the soul to 3 parts: rational soul, affective or feeling soul, and the appetitive soul. This type of structural modeling would later be used by psychologists including Sigmund Freud.
Aristotle student of Plato, developed 170 texts, most notably De Anima (about the soul). Believed the purpose of the soul is to give life; three types of souls: vegatative soul (food, reproduction), sensitive soul (growth, pleasure pain, and memory) and the rational soul (possessed only by humans (reasoning and thinking).
Stoicism: simple life, accepting of one's fate, not interested in material possessions.
Epicureanism: earthly life is all we have (no afterlife). Live life to the fullest so attain the goods and thinkings you want by seeking moderation (no extreme indulgences to avoid later suffering, however more materialistic than stoics).
Skepticism: rejects the notion of true knowledge or universal truths. Live simple by adapting to cultural/societal norms "When in Rome, do as the Romans do".
Neoplatonism: revised the work of Plato; physical sensory world could be beautiful but is constantly changing. withdrawing from the physical world could allow one to search for central truths and lasting bliss as tought by the Other World of Ideas and Forms taught by Plato.
Arose in remote province of Roman Empire, opposed by the imperial government. Persecuted due to religious practices. Historical Jesus of Nazereth born around 4BC and died by crucifixion around 30AD. Christianity grew during 300-600 AD. St. Augustine (354-430) was a major figure in Christian thought. Writings focused on tension between faith and reason. Augistine's philosophy: requires that facts fit faith and any that do not are suspect, totally ignored, or suppressed.
Islam means submission or surrender to the will of God. Islam is the last of teh religious revolutions to arise out of teh early river valley civilizations adn originated in the city of Mecca. The Ka'aba (a black meteroric stone thought to be from the heavens) is central to the Mecca pilgirimage. Muhammad ibn Abd Allah (P.B.U.H.) (570-632) founder of Islam and a messenger/prophet of God (not a diety). Wrote the Koran *beleived to be the actual word of God. The 5 Pillars of Islam: 1) Shahada or the creed ("There is no God but Allah adn Muhammad is His prophet") 2) Salat - While facing Mecca, the five compulsory daily prayers are said at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and nightfall. 3) Zakat or charity - an obligation and an act of worship amounting to giving to the poor approximately 2.5% of ones income or valuables. 4) Siyam or fasting - An opportunity to practice restraint (think Rahmaddan) 5) Hajj or pilgrimage - All Muslims, unless ill or impoverished, are required to journey to Mecca at least once in there life.
Scholasticism: Thomas Aquinas & William of Occam
Scholasticism: synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy with Christian dogma. Aquinas brought the return of Aristotelian thought to the West (1200's) arguing that reason and faith are compatible. View was known as the Doctrine of Double Truths, something can be true in rationalism but false in religious thougt. William of Occam was a Franciscan monk that asserted universal ideas do not exist independent of the empirical awareness of a speficif object but such universal ideas exist in name only. Unlike realism that holds that there are universal ideas that lie behind speficif perceptions. Occam's razor or the priniciple of parsimony is that the fewer teh assumptions when explaining a phenomenon or object the better.
The Renaissance (1450-1600) centered in Italy (specifically Florence). Rebirth or liberation from old ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Primarily about questioning the church and Aristotelian dogma.Franesco Petrarch and his writings focused on teh freeing of the human spirit from scholasticism. Promoted teh rebirth of personal Christianity, as advocated by St. Augustine. Martin Luther - German monk that fathered Protestantism following his expulsion of the Catholic Church due to his challenges to their dogma. Protestants denied teh authority of the pope, believeing individuals had the capacity to commune with God and interpret the Bible. Machiavelli - The Prince and the Discourses - when efficiency, practicality, and the common good are teh goals these goals supercede moral principles as ends in themselves. getthing things done is more important than rigid moral conccerns about how they get done. Praised democracy adn believed that socialization adn the suggestability are forces that can be harnessed by the effective leader to shape individual and group behaviors.
Copernicus - Heliocentric Theory. Galileo - Improved Telescope; Advocated Copernicus thoughts, Distinguished beteen the physical and subjective world. Newton: Universe is a lawful machine created by God; Law of Gravitation. Francis Bacon - Scientific method (direct observation) (inductive reasoning); Experimenta lucifera (experiments of light) and Experimenta Fructifera (experiements of fruit). Key Renaissance thought: Human experience can be explained and understood in natural rather than supernatural terms.
Cartesian Thought: "I think therefore I am, I doubt therefore I am". Four rules for obtaining certaintity in inquiry : 1) trust your doubt so as to accept as true only those clear and distinct ideas 2) divide big problems into smaller parts 3) first fully understand simply ideas and then progress in complexity in a step by step manner 4) enumerate all elements of the problem and review them again to be without doubt that nothing was left out. He believed only humans had a mind and that animal thought could be explained by mechanistic imperatives. Rationality adn science were championed as the most valid and accurate ways of knowing.
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