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COMDE 2500 chapter 1
Terms in this set (88)
Characteristics of language
1. system of symbols
4. Tool for human communication
Language is a system of symbols
Code utilizing a set of symbols. Relationship between word and their referents are arbitrary.
Smallest units of language that carry meaning; combined to create words.
Language is conventional
Shared by members of a community or culture. Can emerge from geographical circumstances (Ukraine), sociological regions (Hebrew,ASL), and economic reasons (world trade organization)
Language is Dynamic
In a state of activity and change for individuals and within communities
Language is a too for human communication
Other species communicate but language is what sets us apart and makes us unique.
Process of sharing information between 2 or more people. Must have a sender and receiver.
Language (as it relates to speech, hearing, and communication)
1. Oral: communicated through speech
2. Manually: communicated through signed system
3. Inner language
4. Written language
Voluntary neuromuscular process by which we turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted through the air to the receiver.
Systems involved in speech production (4)
1. Respiration: lung and trachea
2. Phonation: vocal cords
3. Resonation: nasal and oral cavity
4. Articulation: teeth, lips, jaw(mandible), and tongue
Model of Speech Production (3 stages)
1. Perceptual thought
2. Motor scheme
3. Speech output/ongoing feedback
Abstract representation of speech is produced
Neurological brain systems produce a rough plan of the abstract representation. General instructions are fed forward in syllable chunks to muscle groups.
Speech output/ongoing feedback
Air pressure is modulated as respiratory flow is sent forth. Articulators are manipulated to produce.
Perception of sound. Includes general auditory perception and speech perception.
Young children have a preference for auditory or visual information
Infants can asses statistical regularities among the sounds they hear in the speech stream. They use these regularities to identify and learn new words.
Overlap of phonemes in the production of strings of speech sounds. E.g. /k/ coop and /k/ coffee
Sound fundamentals (4 acoustic events) (transmission and reception of sound)
1. Creation of sound source
2. Vibrations of air particles
3. Reception by ear
4. Comprehension by the brain
Creation of sound source
Sound is sent forth; creates a set of vibrations in the surrounding air particles
Vibration of air particles
Air particles vibrate. Frequency or pitch/intensity or loudness.
Frequency or pitch
How fast particles move back and forth
Intensity or loudness
How far apart the particles move when going back and forth
Reception by ear
A. Outer ear: captures the sound and moves it to... B. Middle ear: which forwards it to... C. Inner ear: contains cochlea. Acoustic information is sent up auditory nerve to auditory region of the brain.
Comprehension of the brain
Left hemisphere. Translates information sent through the ear and along auditory nerve.
Basic processes of Communication (4)
Process of pulling together thoughts or ideas for sharing with another
Process of conveying ideas to another person
Process of receiving information from another person
Process of making sense of the message
Types of Communication (3)
1. Symbolic communication or referential
2. Pre-intentional communication
3. Intentional communication or iconic
Symbolic communication or referential
Arbitrary relationship between entity and its referent. (Toddler says "bottle" Bc wants drink)
Relationship between a communicative behavior and its referent is assumed. (Infant crying...parents assume infant is hungry)
Intentional communication or iconic
Transparent relationship between message and it referent. Not arbitrary. (Child points to bottle. Must be in same location)
Basic purposes of communication (3)
1. To request
2. To reject
3. To comment
What makes human communication unique?
Use of language and speech
Essential components of Communication (3) or model of communication
1. Sender: to formulate or transmit a message
2. Receiver: to receive and comprehend a message
3. A shared symbolic system
Information provided by receiver to the sender. Prevents communication breakdowns.
Types of feedback (3)
1. Linguistic feedback
2. Non-linguistic or extralinguistic feedback
3. Paralinguistic feedback
Non-linguistic or extralinguistic feedback
Eye contact, facial expression, posture, and proximity
Use of pitch, loudness, and pausing.
Major domains of language
How sounds, words, and sentences are organized and arranged to convey content.
Meaning of language. Words we use and the meaning behind them.
Drawing upon language functionality to meet personal and social needs. Intention behind utterances and how well it is achieved.
(Analysis requires an understanding of the context in which language is occurring)
Governs the sounds we use to make syllables and words.
Smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning. (39 in GAE; 15 vowels and 24 consonants)
Subtle variations of phonemes that occur due to contextual influences on how we produce phonemes in different words. (E.g. POP)
Rules governing how sounds are organized in words for each language. ("G" never follows "s" or "l" at the beginning or the end of a syllable)
Rules of a language that govern internal organization of words.
Smallest until of language that carries meaning. Adds precision to language and expands vocabulary exponentially
Governs internal organization of sentences. Provides structure to utterances. Grammar
Language that focuses on immediate context. Here and now. Must be able to see. (E.g. "I want that one.")
Language with little reliance on context for conveying meaning. (E.g. "I want the blue ball.")
Governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations. Considers the meaning of various words and phrases. (E.g. some words have more than one meaning and some phrases have have a figurative and a literal meaning)
Governing how language is used for social purposes. (Rules for communication intentions(using language for different functions or intentions), conversation(organizing language for discourse), and social conventions(knowing what to say and how to say it.)
Temperament can influence development.
Remarkable features of language (5)
acquisition rate, universality, species specificity, semanticity, productivity
Language learned rapidly. Critical period (sensitive period)- the years from birth to about puberty. "Window of opportunity" during which language develops most rapidly.
(Study in Romania) same as other species (songbirds)
All persons across the world apply the same cognitive infrastructure to the task of learning language. Language is very complex.
(Way in which children learn language and the time points of achieving certain milestones is fairly invariant across world's language communities)
language is strictly a human capacity. No other species share it. Non-human communication systems are more or less iconic.
Semanticity (or displacement)
Decontextualized events. Human language has no boundaries of time or space. arbitrary relationship between referent and the language used to describe it. Shared by no other species.
Combination of small numbers of discrete units into seemingly infinite novel creations. Capability of producing an endless amount of ideas and new constructions. Inherent to language in it's earliest stages of acquisition. (Toddler-50 words, can combine in diff ways)
variability among language users
Language follows an invariant pathway of development
1. Communication using words begins at ~ 12 mo.
2. 2 word combinations ~ 18 mo.
3. Adult-like grammar before puberty
Language differences (5)
3. Gender (and temperament)
4. Genetic predisposition
5. Language learning environment
Natural variations of a language that evolve within specific cultural or geographic boundaries. Variations affect form, content, and use.
Larger the geographic region, the more dialects. Social barriers: (my fair lady)
the ability to communicate in two languages. (U.S. Census Bureau (2013) 1/5 of Americans speak a language or their than English at home.)
interchanges between the syntax and vocabulary of two languages.
The development of proficiency in two languages at the same time.
The development of proficiency in a second language after proficiency has been developed in the first language.
Girls usually begin talking earlier and develop vocabulary at a faster rate (in 2nd year).
Boys are more likely to have a language impairment. (2-3 boys to 1 girl) this lessens as they get older.
Differences are due to biological (hormones) or environmental (parents talk to girls more).
Innate way of approaching or experiencing the world. This can influence language differences as well as pragmatic development.
Temperament and language influence one another. This research has big implications for classroom usage (theory to practice).
Language ability strongly influenced by genetics.
Twin studies can be used to estimate the contribution of genetics to language development.
MZ: if one MZ twin has language impairment, 85% chance that other twin will also.
DZ: twins share 50% of genetic material
Language learning environment
Neural architecture that supports language acquisition is calibrated in the basis of input from the environment. True for form, content, and use. the QUANTITY and QUALITY as well as caregiver responsiveness all accelerated the rates of languages development.
Heritable weakness in the language mechanism or presence of certain developmental disabilities or brain injury. Typically achieve language milestones more slowly and exhibit long standing difficulties with form, content, and use.
Influences on language disorders (3)
1. Genetic predisposition
2. Developmental disability
3. Injury or illness
heritable language impairment (specific language impairment, SLI)
Exhibit depressed language abilities typically with no other concomitant of intellect.
Affects 7-10% of children
Most common type of communication impairment for children. Most frequent case for early intervention and special education.
Language impairment often co-occurs with certain developmental disabilities. In such cases LI is considered a secondary disorder because it results secondary to a primary cause. Common causes are Intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
1 in 68 children have ASD. Children with ASD usually exhibit mild to profound language impairment; some never develop productive language.
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual. (As seen in disorders where the language is the secondary).
social communication disorder (SCD)
Or pragmatic communication disorder. A pragmatic language impairment in which an individual displays difficulties understanding and using verbal and nonverbal social cues. Historically, individuals with SCD have been referred to as having high functioning ASD but now this is considered separate.
Those resulting from physical trauma called TBI. U.S. 500,000 age 0-14 each year. Mostly infants and toddlers.
Can occur UTERO, PERINATALLY, or be ACQUIRED.
Delayed onset impairment
Children don't show delay until the damaged areas of the brain are applied to complex skills and activities.
diffuse brain injury
involves widespread areas of the brain
focal brain injury
Specific parts of the brain
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