Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 3- Epidemiological Considerations
Terms in this set (70)
the study of disease, the determinants of health, and the behaviors that prevent or cause disease or injury among groups of people.
Purpose of epidemiology
- study past or current trends in health status or level of disease.
- identify causes of death.
- define risk factors and - determinants of disease.
- determine need for health services.
- identify feasible disease-prevention and health promotion strategies.
- predict future disease outbreaks.
the number of new cases of a specific disease among a specific group of people at a specific period of time
The total number of cases of a specific disease among a specific group of people at a specific period of time
An increase in the normal incidence of a disease
The first case of infection
(Number of deaths in a selected year/Number of people in the population) X 100,000
(Number of infant deaths during a year/Number of live births during a year) X 1,000
(Number of deaths due to a specific disease/Number in population) X 100,000
(Number of deaths in a specific age group/ Number of people in the same age group) X 100,000
(Number of new cases of a disease/ Total number of people at risk over a period of time) X 100,000
(Number of people sick/ Number of people both sick and well during a period of time) X 100
(Total number of people with a disease/ Average number of people during a period of time) X 100,000
The average number of years a group of people are expected to live
What is the strongest determinant of life expectancy?
The active process of collecting specific information through research.
Primary data provides
Accurate, community-specific data about the problem and potential solutions
Types of Primary Sources
- Cross-Sectional studies
- Cohort studies
- Case control studies
- Experimental designs
Cross-Sectional Studies (Prevalence Study)
A one-time data collection effort that often uses a self-report format. Using this type of study, you can find a correlation between two statistics, however you cannot assume causation
No clinical or official measurement is made; rather, people report information about themselves
There is a mathematical relationship
Cohort Studies (Incidence Study)
- A cohort of healthy people is followed through time to see if they develop a specific disease of interest
- Cohort studies allow comparisons of incidence rates between people who report a specific behavior and those who report they do not engage in the specific behavior
Case Control Studies
- A group of individuals with a specific disease (the cases) are compared to a similar group of people without the specific disease (the controls)
- The cases and controls are then asked to recall behaviors or health determinants from the past, or researchers use medical records to determine how the two study groups differ
Study participants are randomly selected from a population of interest, and then randomly assigned to either the intervention group or control group.
Participates in the program, treatment, or action being studied
Participates in either the previous program/ treatment/ action or receives no program/ treatment/ action
Differences in the groups when conducting an Experimental Study
Will be analyzed in order to determine the efficacy of the intervention
What is the only study where you can determine causation of a disease or the effectiveness of an intervention?
Using information that has already been collected by national, state, or local sources. Secondary data helps you determine how your outbreak compares to those of other communities who face similar issues.
- Disease registries
- Population surveys
- Vital statistics
Physicians are required to report specific notifiable diseases to the state where they practice. This information is then collected into a national database and used for studies. The specific notifiable disease change throughout time as new infections emerge or as incidence rates decline
Surveys conducted systematically in the united states regarding health-related data.
Self-reporting surveys conducted in a population regarding gender, age, martial status, race, housing, ancestry, spoken language, etc. Combining census data with data about disease helps health professionals gain a clearer picture of a community's health status.
In the United States, mandatory life events are required to be reported. These events include birth, death, marriage, and divorce
Efforts that occur before an individual becomes sick. (e.g. Vaccinations to prevent future disease)
Efforts to prevent the progression of an already diagnosed disease. (e.g. Early detection mammography screening)
Efforts to improve the quality of life of an individual with a progressing disease. (e.g. Hospice care)
A disease that is spread from individual to individual or from insects, animals, or other carriers to humans.
- Often caused by an easily identified single organism (e.g. Malaria, Zika Virus)
Host, Agent, Environment
The individual who has the disease
The cause of the disease or the causative organism (e.g. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, worm)
The external factors that influence the outcome or presence of disease (e..g Temperature, terrain, social and cultural characteristics)
Mode of Transmission
The way in which an agent travels from one host to another (e.g. Air, water, insects)
An agent that causes severe illness and which almost always results in death among humans
An agent that can easily enter a body and multiply
Once in the body, this type of agent almost always causes full-blown disease, not just a light case
An agent that is not easy to kill when outside of the body
Protections for the Host
- First line of defense is skin. It serves as a barrier to many agents. Tears and salvia do the same
- Second line of defense is the body's inflammatory response. The body sends fluids containing white blood cells and other substances to fight off the agent
- Third line of defense is immunity
When an individual is resistant or not susceptible to a specific disease. Immunity occurs when an individuals body produces antibodies to kill microorganisms or prevent them from multiplying and infecting the host.
Individuals produce antibodies after having had a disease or received antibodies from their mother in utero.
Individuals become immune to a disease by producing antibodies after having had the weakened or killed agent responsible for the disease injected of by having actual antibodies injected.
When a significant number of people in a population are immune to a disease, those that are not immune are less likely to acquire that disease.
Herd Immunity Low
Low level of immunization leads to more individuals infected
Herd Immunity High
High level of immunization leads to less individuals infected
Terrain, precipitation, temperature, fauna and flora
Social/ Cultural Aspects
Support systems, relationships
The Numbers of People, Plants, and Animal
Influence the spread of diseases
An agent is passed directly from one person to another (person to person)
Involved a third element (e.g. Animal, insect, hard surface, or food)
Agent is carried on small droplets of moisture or dust
An animal or insect serves as the agent's transportation. Vectors are living but not human
Inanimate objects. (e.g. Cups, tables, doorknobs, and toys) that can also serves as means of transportation for some agents
Humans or animals who carry and agent and transmit it to others but do not get sick themselves (e.g. Typhoid Mary)
Anything living or nonliving can serve as a reservoir
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
- A bacterium carried by food products that causes acute and sever symptoms, bloody diarrhea being one.
- Infection is preventable with proper food handling.
- Transmission usually through direct contact with the blood or body fluids of sick individuals when symptoms occur. - Transmission can also occur through contact with infected wildlife and contaminated objects.
- Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, and most worrisome—hemorrhage.
- Primary prevention is key.
- Spreads most often through mosquito bites.
- Can also be spread through sexual contact and can cause birth defects in the fetus, the most serious of which is microcephaly, or poor brain development.
Since there is no vaccine available, mosquito control is paramount.
Diseases that are not transmitted from one person to another.
- These diseases are caused by chemical, metallic, electrical, psychosocial, genetic, or other agents.
Leading causes of death in the United States
Noninfectious diseases (e.g. Heart Disease, Cancer, Diabetes)
You might also like...
Chapter 5 - epidemiology
Other sets by this creator
Chapter 13- Hair, Skin, and Nails
Chapter 13- Hair, Skin, and Nails
Medical Terminology Abbreviations
Health Assessment- Chapter 10 Abnormals
Other Quizlet sets
Financial Accounting test 2
Last Lab Test!!
Film Review Game