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110 terms

Science Final

Yes, I did combine Anna, Zoe, and Johnny's sets to create one big master set. Stop complaining and learn.
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Ptolemaic System
the last astronomer, Ptolemy, who tried to support the thinking that the earth was in the center of the universe. aka: geocentric system
Copernican System
The thinking that the sun is at the center of the universe. aka: heliocentric
Celestial Sphere
A sphere around the earth, with stars and much more plastered onto it.
Celestial North/South
If you extend the earths northern axis up to the celestial north pole and down to the celestial south pole.
Celestial Equator
the projection of the earths equator onto the celestial sphere.
Plane of Ecliptic
planets are on the arch where the plane is and because they are on the same line, they can eclipse (go over each other)
Horizon
the line across the sky, where the land meets the sky.
Zenith
position directly above the observer. Objects pass through it during night and day.
Meridian
an arch drawn on the celestial sphere that goes through the southern celestial.
4.6 billion years
the age of the solar system
Solarwind
charged particles/radiation coming from the sun
Big Bang
the universe formed in an instant in an enormous explosion 13.7 billion years ago
Hubbles Law
The further away the object the faster it appears to be moving away from us.
Absolute Brightness
the brightness of a star if it were at a standard distance from the earth. aka: luminosity
Apparent Brightness
the brightness of a star as seen from earth.
H-R diagram
used to classify stars and to understand how stars change over time.
Main Sequence
most stars fit into the band on the H-R diagram.
Red Giants
Supergiants and giants, (cool but bright)
White dwarfs
the blue-white core of the star that is left behind after a star dies when it cools.
Nuclear Fusion
atoms are being forced together to fuse, creates lots of energy.
Nebula
stars are born inside because gravity pulls the gas and dust and creates nuclear fusion.
Cosmic Background Radiation
evidence of Big Bang. Light waves from the big bang explosion.
Constellations
Pattern of stars that keep the same shapes from night to night and year to year.
Parallax
the apparent change in position of an object when you look at it from different places.
Light-year
The distance that light travels in one year, 9.5 million kilometers.
Protostar
A contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star.
Globular Clusters
Large groupings of older stars.
Open clusters
Have a loose, disorganized appearance and containing no more than a few thousand stars.
galaxy
A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity.
Quasars
objects that are very bright and very far away that look like stars.
Milky Way
Our solar system located in a spiral galaxy.
13.7 billion years
age of the universe
atomic evolution
the development of heavier and more complex atoms created by generations of stars undergoing thermonuclear fusion reactions
chemical evolution
the process in which the chemical make up of the earth has changed over time
oparin's hypothesis
he hypothesized that the early earth atmosphere was rich in water vapor, hydrogen gas, methane, and ammonia. in these conditions organic molecules were formed and collected in the earth's seas and lakes
stanley miller
he was a graduate student at the university of chicago. he tested oparin's hypothesis and attempted to stimulate the conditions of early earth
lithosphere
the earth's first solid layer. it is 100 km (60 mi) deep (from the surface)
asthenosphere
the earth's second layer. it is a very thick liquid (like peanut butter) it is 700 km (430 mi) deep (from the surface)
mesophere
the earth's third layer. it is a solid. it's 2900 km (1800 mi) deep (from the surface)
outer core
the earth's fourth layer. it is a liquid. it is 5100 km (3200 mi) deep (from the surface)
inner core
earth's fifth layer (the innermost layer) it is a solid and is 6370 km (3960 mi) deep (from the surface)
focus
the spot where an earthquake occurs (usually below the surface of the earth)
epicenter
the place on the surface directly above the focus
p-waves
similar to sound waves in the way they are transmitted. they travel fastest and are the first to be received by earthquake recording instruments called seismographs (6.1 km/sec)
s-waves
similar to water waves in the way they are transmitted. arrive at the seismograph sometime after p-waves (4.1 km/sec)
igneous
a rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma. there are two types: volcanic and plutonic
magma
super hot liquid rock
volcanic igneous
solidified rock formed from lava/magma; cools quickly (prevents crystals from forming)
plutonic igneous
formed on the interior of the lithosphere; cools slowly (forms crystals)
sedimentary
sediment glued or cemented together to form a rock. there are three types
sediment
a fragment of material (usually rock)
heat and pressure
the reasons rock types change
metamorphic
a type of rock that changed to another type
granite
an example of a coarse grained igneous rock
basalt
example of volcanic igneous rock
fragmental
(type of sedimentary rock) pieces of rock cemented together with great pressure to form a new rock
chemical
(type of sedimentary rock) rocks formed of material dissolved in water
organic
(type of sedimentary rock) rocks made from materials that were once living
sandstone
a group of sedimentary rock. made up of cemented grains of quartz fragments and sand
shale
a deposit of clay fragments that have become rock as a result of pressure (type of sedimentary rock)
limestone
sedimentary rock made up of calcium carbonate. it is formed from the skeletal remains of previous living organisms
serpentine
a common metamorphic rock. it is a greenish rock which is sometimes distinctly crystalline and at other times appears non-crystalline. it's high in aluminum and magnesium
lithospheric plates
the lithosphere is cut up into pieces called plates. (they're like puzzle pieces) these plates can be made up of continental or sea floor material
asthenosphere convection
energy that comes up from the earth's core and pushes the plates apart (divergent plates) after this happens, the energy circles back and starts the cycle again
continent-continent
continents converge/mash together, which results in the creation of mountain ranges (i.e. himalayas)
continent-sea floor
subduction occurs. in this process the sea floor plate slides under the continental plate. this creates mountain ranges on the coastlines and trenches (i.e. west coast of s. america)
sea floor-sea floor
when two sea floor plates converge/mash together, they create volcanoes and subduct to become trenches. if they are tall enough, the volcanoes go above water and become islands. (japan-how it was created. aleutian islands-sea floors converging. trenches and island arcs-creates these when plates subduct)
divergent plates
when plates are moving away/apart from each other (i.e. rift valleys-east africa)
mid ocean ridges
these ridges run around the entire globe along the floor of every ocean in the world. they represent the boundaries of various plates that are moving apart.
mid atlantic ridge
a zone of elevated sea floor lying in the atlantic ocean midway between the continents of the americas and the continents of africa and europe
transform boundaries
when plates are moving/sliding past each other (i.e. bay area and san andreas fault)
weathering
breaks down rocks, water washes sediment downhill
erosion
causes sediment to form, moves it down
blue schist
an example of metamorphic rock (usually a blue-ish color)
pillow basalt
an igneous rock that forms from magma that comes up from between two divergent plates. (shaped like a pillow) ones on ring mt. were formed 7000 mi away from here on the bottom of the ocean near the equator
marble
an example of a metamorphic rock
Inertia: Things in motion or at rest stay that way unless acted upon by a force.
Newton's first law
F=ma Force in newtons: N=kg m/sec/sec
Newton's second law
Action-Reaction: For every action force there is an equal and opposite action force
Newton's third law
Units for work
Joules
Units for force
Newtons
Units for power (not h.p)
Watts
A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

a. Determine the initial acceleration
2 m/s/s
A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

b. Determine the initial force
4000 N
A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

c. How long did it take to cover the 60 meters after the force was stopped?
7.5 sec
A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

d. What amount of work and power was required to get the car up to speed? (in joules and watts)
313,600 Joules and 78,400 watts
149.8 meters
A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

e. How high is the cliff?
A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

f. What was the vertical speed on impact?
54.2 m/s
Number of watts in a horsepower
746 watts
Velocity
speed with a direction
Speed
how far something is moving in a unit of time
Acceleration
change in velocity per time unit
Acceleration of gravity on the surface of the earth
9.8 m/s/s
A car is accelerating from stop at a rate of 20 m/s/s. If it continues like this, how long will it take the car to reach 80 m/s/?
4 seconds
A laundry basket weighs 22 N and a room is 3 meters above you on the second floor. It takes you 6 seconds to carry the laundry basket up. What is your power in watts?
11 Watts
In which of the following situations is work being done?
a) Rolling a bowling ball
b) Pushing on a tree for ten minutes
c) Carrying a suitcase for one hour
A
same
Is more work done when a force of 2N moves an object 3 meters or when a force of 3N moves an object 2 meters?
Which direction would you move if you were trying to catch a ball while standing still on roller skates?
backwards
36000N
Find the force it would take to make a 1200-kg truck go 30 m/s.
What is the net force acting on a .15-kg hockey puck accelerating at a rate of 12 m/s/s?
1.8N
What force is needed to accelerate a 25-kg cart at 14 m/s?
350N
A downhill skier reaches the steepest part of the trail. Her speed increases from 9 m/s to 18 m/s in 4.5 seconds. What is her average acceleration?
2 m/s/s
8.5 m/s/s
What is a race car's average acceleration if its speed changes from 17 m/s to 51 m/s in 4 seconds?
Observation
A Interpretation that can be proved
Interpretation
A premonition that is probable, yet has no proof. A Theory.
Hypothesis
A educated guess of what will happen
Scientific Method
A series of steps that will lead to a rational answer
Experiment
A scientific test
Scientific Notation
2x10^2
Common Notation
200