Research Methods in Psychology Test #1
Terms in this set (116)
Statements that are based on a systematic collection and analysis of data are called
Which of the following is true about scientific facts?
They are determined to be accurate on the basic of empirical study
In which of the following sections of the research report are the values of the scientists most likely to be expressed?
Introduction and Discussion
In which section of a research article would a reader find a summary of the entire project?
One of the important goals of science is to
to help distinguish which part of the research process is objective and which part is subjective
A survey researcher conducts a poll that indicates that 54% of the population of a city favors the Democratic candidate. The researcher s data represent which of the following?
A causal relationship can only be inferred through the use of which type of research?
a principle that is assumed to apply to all situations is called a
The statement listening to others will promote better understanding is an example of
A research hypotheses
Wanda has a theory that her cat can recognize her name. She calls the cat. If the cat looks up Wanda concludes that the cat knows her name. If the cat does not look up, Wanda concludes that the cat knows her name but is just ignoring her. The problem with Wanda s test of her theory is that it is
What are characteristics of a quasi-experiment?
Previously existing, intact groups are compared and random allocation is not possible
involve the manipulation of a given situation or experience for two or more groups of individuals
Dr. Zilgar has two groups of students who are otherwise equivalent study a chapter in a textbook. One group is assigned to study while classical music is playing and the other group is assigned to study while rock music is playing. He then measures how much they learn about the chapter. Dr. Zilgar s research design is
Charles has noticed that every time it rains, both his car and his lawn mower are hard to start up. On the basis of these observations, he develops a theory that humidity reduces the ability of gasoline to burn effectively. Charles theory can be said to have been developed on the basis of which of the following?
The inductive method
Good theories are
general, falsifiable, and parsimonious
Psychological studies must be reviewed for possible sources of
physical and psychological stress
When there is no way in which to connect any participant s identity with the data collected, then _____ has occurred
Informed consent of participants is often a problem for researchers because
knowledge of the hypothesis may bias the participants' behaviour
Problems with the use of informed consent are:
-providing too much information could invalidate the results of the study
-sample bias due to differences between participants and refusers
-that knowledge of the research will alter participants' behaviour
Kyle, a sophomore in high school, and his parents have signed written agreements allowing him to participate in a research study examining attitudes toward alcohol use by high school students. Kyle's agreement to participate is known as
Asking participants to read a description of a situation and predict how they would respond in that situation is called
Zimbardo's Stanford prison study was an example of a _____ study
A scientist is interested in testing whether SAT scores can predict a student s GPA. In this design, GPA is the ___ and SAT score is the ___.
An operational definition
explains how a conceptual variable is to be measured
Steve wants to measure attraction by measuring individuals heart rates. In this case heart rate is the ___ variable and attraction is the ___ variable
In a correlational research design, the term outcome variable is used to refer to the
In a correlational research design, the term predictor variable is used to refer to the
When the results of an experiment are consistent with a prediction developed from a theory, we conclude that the theory is
supported by the results
As Joan becomes familiar with the literature examining the influence of physical attractiveness on judgments of criminal behavior, she notes inconsistencies in the results. She concludes that this area of study needs to be further investigated. This example best represents ______ as a source of ideas for research
At the beginning of any research project, it is necessary to explore thoroughly prior research on the topic of interest because
prior findings are useful for clarifying and generating research ideas
The American Psychological Association computer database that stores the contents of Psychological Abstracts is
When conducting a search for previous literature using PsychINFO, you:
-must specify the search terms that you want the computer to use
-should use standard psychological terms
-can narrow the search to specific sources of publications (e.g., journal articles)
Using the Boolean operator OR in PsycINFO, will
expand your search
A major problem with using Internet search engines such as Yahoo or Google as a method of obtaining research information is
the credibility of the source and accuracy of the information
Which one of the following statements would be appropriate for the method section of a research report?
While the three men and three women discussed the issue, the experimenter measured time spent talking by starting and stopping stopwatches
We want to test the hypothesis that dysphoric people show better memory that euphoric people (Murray et al., 1999). What is the dependent variable?
number of remembered words
Height is a(n) ___ variable, and weight is a(n) ___ variable
A researcher indicates the experimental condition of an experiment using the number 1 and the control condition using the number 2. What kind of variable is being used?
A nominal variable is a measured variable that
names or identifies a particular characteristic
What are characteristics of a questionnaire presenting items and scales?
Closed form and restrictive answers
An ordinal scale could be used to measure which of the following?
A child who weighs 160 pounds weighs twice as much as a child who weighs 80 pounds. Which scale measures this variable?
A researcher uses a fixed format self-report scale to assess peoples feelings about an issue using a set of items that consist of pairs of adjectives. What type of scale is being used?
The Semantic Differential
A person who tries to present himself or herself in a positive way on a questionnaire is showing a ________ response set.
In order to eliminate the problem of a person always agreeing or disagreeing on all items in a questionnaire, a researcher would
word half the questions in a positive way and half the questions in a negative way
You have just received a new digital tape measure. When you measure the same board four times, you find the measure fluctuates from 4 to 8 inches. Your new tape measure can be said to be low in
A researcher has developed a new test of interpersonal skills. It consists of measuring a person s general mood. The test shows a test-retest reliability of .30. It appears that this test has ___ and ___.
low reliability; low face validity
Cronbach's coefficient alpha is a measure of which of the following?
The average correlation among the items
A researcher administers a questionnaire to assess attachment representation. One month later, he administers the same test and finds that scores on the two administrations correlate highly (r = .85). This outcome demonstrates the _______ of the test.
Putting research into practice
General research that builds on psychology's database of knowledge. Largely explorative, partially philosophical, not for business purposes.
use of empirical reasoning to from theories that explain the way that people act, perceive, feel, and think
progress is most likely when different approaches are focused on a single problem in such a way that the strengths of one approach compensate for the weakness of the others
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together. One advantage is that it helps psychologists make predictions.
Facts and statistics collected from observation or experiments used for reference or analysis
Describes something, what it is. It is quantitative, but not experimental. It simply describes an event, survey, correlation study, or case study.
(adj.) derived from, dependent upon, or guided by practical experience, observation, or experiment, rather than by theory; so verifiable
Gathering primary data by selecting matched groups of subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related factors, and checking for differences in group responses.
A fact is a piece of information that can be demonstrated or proven to be true
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. , "I-knew-it-all-along" Phenomenon
Factual, related to reality or physical objects; not influenced by emotions, unbiased
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient
Determine whether a relationship exists between two groups of paired numbers. (eg. 2 sets of scores for each of several individuals and want to determine if scores are related in any way).
Program Evaluation Research
Used to study the effectiveness of programs ie. DARE
Empirical research in which the researcher explores relationships using numeric data. Survey is generally considered a form of quantitative research.
Focuses not only on the objective nature of behavior but on its meaning as well. Devotes more space to subjects' descriptive accounts of their own experiences than to numbers that quantify these experiences.
An outline that specifies the research data to be gathered, from whom, how, and when the data will be analyzed once it has been obtained.
Written report of psychological research, which contains four major sections: Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion.
a series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
Preconceived notions that contain our interpretations of right and wrong.
A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions.
Short summaries of an entire article that help the reader grasp the main points of the study
The idea that a conclusion follows a set of premises through reasoning. (Ex. All men are mortal. Socrates is man, so Socrates is mortal); , the method of proof that is used in any situation for which there exists a set of underlying assumptions The science that emerged from this was qualitative, strongly grounded in common sense, and its physics was purged of mathematics.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
An idea is said to be this when there is some observation or experiment that COULD show that it is not true.
Summarizes many different outcomes
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
method of acquiring knowledge or getting ideas about relationships between variables by observing specific facts
Principles that are so general they apply to all situations
provides the simplest possible outcome
a statement of what the researcher believes will be the outcome of an experiment or study (specific and falsifiable)
Theories with vague variable definitions or too broad of concepts
Integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many but not all observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry
Held after experiment where subjects are verbally made aware of the study's true purposes and procedures
When participants are not fully and completely informed of the nature of the research project before participating in it.
provides freedom of choice and reduces psychological stress
Institutional Review Board
A group of scholars within a university who meet regularly to review and approve the research proposals of their colleagues and make recommendations for how to protect human subjects.
Questions asked of participants after research has ended to probe for the effectiveness of the experimental manipulation and for suspicion
An active attempt to undo an changes that may have occurred as a result of the experiment ie. negative mood state to positive mood
the intentional alteration or fabrication of scientific data
Participants are fully informed about the nature of the research and asked to behave as if they were in a social setting of interest
Questioning the participants to see if they able to guess the research hypotheses
A form of reactivity in which people tend to agree with whatever questions they are asked
Measures based on systematic observation of people's actions either in their normal environment or in a laboratory setting.
abstract ideas that form the basis of a research hypothesis (simple: age, weight... complex: self-esteem, learning...)
Fixed-format Self-report measures
measured variables in which the respondent indicates his or her thoughts or feelings by answering a structured set of questions
Free-format Self-report measures
measured variables in which respondents are asked to freely list their thoughts or feelings as they come to mind
hypothetical examples or opinion scales that usually go from Least Extreme to Most Extrem
Consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. Equal differences between numbers on a scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured.
Questions are called items
..., A 5- or a 9-point scale (1-5 points or 1-9 points) that assumes equal intervals between responses. This type of scale is used to assess the degree of agreement or disagreement with statements and is widely used in attitude inventories. An advantage of this scale is that it permits a wider choice of expression than categorical responses.
variables consisting of numbers that represent the conceptual variables
no overlap and mutually exclusive
nonreactive behavioral mesaures
Behavioral measures that are designed to avoid reactivity because the respondent is not aware that the measurement is occurring, does not realize what the measure is designed to assess or cannot change their responses
Any scale that reflects only magnitude but does not contain equal intervals or an absolute zero
personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
a) understand biological processes invovled in perception, cognition, emotion
a characteristic that can be measured numerically
represent the highest form of measurement in that they have all the properties of interval scales with the additional attribute of representing absolute quantities; characterized by a meaningful absolute zero
Effects of an observation and measurement procedure on the behavior being measured. This is most likely when measurement procedures are obtrusive, especially if the person being observed is aware of the observer's presence and purpose
Assigning scores to patterns of responses, recognizing that some items reflect a relatively weak degree of the variable while others reflect a stronger degree.
Procedures for assigning numbers (or other symbols) to properties of an object in order to impart some numerical characteristics to the properties in question.
an attempt to get others to see us as competent
A method of gathering data about people by asking them questions about a sample of their behavior.
a question format that asks respondents to rate their place on a scale between two bipolar adjectives, for example: happy or sad.
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
A procedure in which participants are asked to say out loud what they are thinking while doing a problem. This procedure is used to help determine a person's thought processes as they are solving a problem.
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