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Unit 2 Vocab
Terms in this set (116)
The region of our planet where life resides, the combination of all ecosystems on Earth.
The movements of matter within and between ecosystems.
The movement of water through the biosphere.
The release of water from leaves during photosynthesis.
The combined amount of evaporation and transpiration.
Water that moves across the land surface and into streams and rivers.
The six key elements that organisms need in relatively large amounts: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur.
A nutrient required for the growth of an organism but available in a lower quantity than other nutrients.
A process by which some organisms can convert nitrogen gas molecules directly into ammonia.
The transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater.
An event, caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents, resulting in changes in population size or community composition.
All land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream, river, lake, or wetland.
A measure of how much a disturbance can affect flows of energy and matter in an ecosystem.
The rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance.
The study and implementation of restoring damaged ecosystems.
Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
The hypothesis that ecosystems experiencing intermediate levels of disturbance are more diverse than those with high or low disturbance levels.
Something that has worth as an instrument or a tool that can be used to accomplish a goal.
Something that has worth in and of itself, and not used as a means to acquire something else.
A good that humans can use directly.
A particular location on Earth distinguished by its mix of interacting biotic and abiotic components.
An organism that uses the energy of the Sun to produce usable forms of energy.
The process by which producers use solar energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
The process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
An organism that must obtain its energy by consuming other organisms.
An individual incapable of photosynthesis; must obtain energy by consuming other organisms.
A carnivore that eats primary consumers.
A carnivore that eats secondary consumers.
A position in a food chain or Ecological Pyramid occupied by a group of organisms with similar feeding mode.
The sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers.
A complex model of how energy and matter move between trophic levels.
A carnivore that consumes dead animals.
An organism that specializes in breaking down dead tissues and waste products into smaller particles.
Fungi or bacteria that recycle nutrients from dead tissues and wastes back into an ecosystem.
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
The total amount of solar energy that producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time.
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
The energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respire.
The total mass of all living matter in a specific area.
The amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time.
The proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another.
A representation of the distribution of biomass, numbers, or energy among trophic levels.
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation.
An impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil.
A forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
A coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
Temperate Seasonal Forest
A biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rainforests and dominated by deciduous trees.
A biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
A warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees north and 20 degrees south of the equator with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation.
Tropical Seasonal Forests & Savannahs
A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
A biome prevailing at approximately 30° N and 30° S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
A zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
An aquatic biome that is submerged or saturated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation.
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
A swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
The narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline.
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
The layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time.
A layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere's nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
The percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature.
The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands.
The heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume.
Latent Heat Release
The release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30° N and 30° S.
Intertropical Convergence Zone
An area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight; where the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells converge.
A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60° N and 60° S and sinks at the poles, 90° N and 90° S.
The deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth.
A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water.
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side.
The variety of ecosystems within a given region.
The variety of species within a given ecosystem.
The variety of genes within a given species.
The number of species in a given area.
The relative proportion of different species in a given area.
The branching patterns of evolutionary relationships.
A change in the genetic composition of a population over time.
Evolution occurring below the species level.
Evolution that gives rise to new species, genera, families, classes, or phyla.
A physical location on the chromosomes within each cell of an organism.
The complete set of genes in an individual.
A random change in the genetic code produced by a mistake in the copying process.
The genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division.
A set of traits expressed by an individual.
Process by which humans select one or more desirable genetic traits in the population of a plant or animal species and then use selective breeding to produce populations containing many individuals with the desired traits.
Process by which a particular beneficial gene (or set of genes) is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes.
An individual's ability to survive and reproduce.
A trait that improves an individual's fitness.
A change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating.
A reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size.
A change in a population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals.
Physical separation of a group of individuals from others in the same species.
The result of two populations within a species evolving separately so they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring.
The process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation.
The evolution of one species into two, without geographic isolation; can be a result of polyploidy
Insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait
Genetically Modified Organisms
An organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable trait and inserting them into another species.
Range of Tolerance
The limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate.
The suite of ideal environmental conditions for a species.
The range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives.
A species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditions.
A species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat or to feed on a small group of species.
The remains of an organism that has been preserved in rock.
A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time.
Sixth Mass Extinction
The current extinction rate, which is driven by increased development, poaching, commercial fishing, and other human activities.