Cell Bio Ch. 5
Terms in this set (69)
A dehydration reaction (or condensation reaction) is the process in which _____.
water molecules are produced as a polymer is formed from monomers
The four main categories of large biological molecules present in living systems are _____.
proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids
Sucrose is formed when glucose is joined to fructose by a(n) _____.
a polysaccride that is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells, not digestable
The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.
none of them dissolves in water
Palm oil and coconut oil are more like animal fats than are other plant oils. Because they _____ than other plant oils, they may contribute to cardiovascular disease.
contain fewer double bonds
the localized folding and/or coiling of the primary structure of a polypeptide, resulting from hydrogen bonding between atoms of the polypeptide backbone
hydrophobic/nonpolar, found on the inside of the folded chain, away from water
The flow of genetic information in a cell goes from _____.
DNA to RNA to protein
is a nucleic acid monomer consisting of a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleotides joined together by covalent bonds called phosphodiester linkages form nucleic acid molecules.
monosaccharide's, starch, polysaccharide, disaccharide
have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids
The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the
Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes?
The phosphodiester linkages of the polynucleotide backbone would be broken.
base sequence that could form a short stretch of a normal double helix of DNA
5´-ATGC-3´ with 5´-GCAT-3´
Which feature of large biological molecules explains their great diversity?
The many ways that monomers of each class of biological molecule can be combined into polymers
What structural difference accounts for the functional differences between starch and cellulose?
Starch and cellulose differ in the glycosidic linkages between their glucose monomers.
Which level of protein structure is characteristic of some, but not all, proteins?
Quaternary level of protein structure
A nucleotide consists of three parts
a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ATP consists of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a pentose sugar, and three phosphate groups.
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids
polymers are made up of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Use of carbs
store sugars for energy production
monomer of carbohydrates,
an example of monomers in a carbohydrate
glucose, DNA, and RNA
structural isomer of glucose that is sweeter
stereoisomer of glucose
two of more monosaccharides bonded together
examples of disaccharides
sucrose and lactose
Purpose of disaccharides
in animals: nutrition, in plants: transport
long polymers made up of monosaccharides used for energy storage
an example of a polysaccharide
starch, glycogen, chitin
animal starch, branched amylose chains
structural material in anthropods and fungi
information molecule of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids are held together by what bond
Examples of purines
adenine (A) and guanine (G)
examples of pyrimidines
Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
adds a water molecule, breaking a bond
DNA and RNA differences
DNA has a double strand, RNA contains ribose sugar and uracil
transfer of genetic information
transfers amino acids
site of protein synthesis
amino acid monomer strung together to make polypeptides
Proteins are made up of
amino group + R goup + carboxyl group
Acids have what kind of charge
bases have what kind of charge
acids/bases are located where
on exterior of 3-demensional structure
____ bonds link amino acids in proteins
Amino acid sequence
begins to fold and hydrogen bonds form
final folded shape that is determined by the primary structure
two or more polypeptide chains form a functional protein-subunits. Ex. hemoglobin
help proteins fold correctly, heat shock proteins (able to maintain structure at high temps)
help form large macromolecule complexes, refold improperly folded proteins
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids- hydrophobic, made of hydrocarbons
the monomer of a lipid
fatty acid polymer chains
single bond, solid at room temp, most animal fats
double bond , or oils, liquid at room temp, come from plants and fish usually
animal fats, plant oils, glycerol head, 3 fatty acid tails
found in membranes, glycerol head, 2 fatty acid tails, phosphate group
Structure of a phospholipid
hydrophilic head- phosphate group(outward)
hydrophobic tail- fatty acid tail (center)
hormone, venoms, pigments (chlorophyll)
-PO4 is at what end of a nucleic acid
-OH3 is at what end of a nucleic acid