Communication & Conflict - Exam 1
Terms in this set (98)
Early views of conflict viewed it as
According to Wilmot and Hocker, as conflicts increase in intensity, the parties shift to _____________ as a key goal.
Face-saving: This answer makes the most sense because people often start to care more about themselves and their image, and how credible they are than the actual issue at hand.
Which of the following is not an essential feature of Hocker and Wilmot's definition of interpersonal conflict?
Terry and Pat have been in a committed romantic relationship for five years. Increased conflict has characterized their relationship recently. Both have become less invested in the relationship and have sought out others to fulfill some of their needs for affection, inclusion, and control. They don't rely on each other for much and expect less from each other. Terry and Pat's choices reflect which of the five features that contribute to destructive conflict?
Suki and Laura are best friends. Laura feels betrayed because Suki is so caught up in her new relationship with her boyfriend that she doesn't appear to have time for Laura. In this instance, the conflict is fueled by
Perceived scarce resources
A spiral that moves only in one direction - upward and onward - is an example of a(n) ______________ spiral.
Which school of thought first viewed conflict as inevitable and that is should be accepted as part of normal human behavior?
Which of the following is a potential benefit of conflict for interpersonal relationships?
Partners increase understanding of each other
According to your text, __________ criticize more than ______.
Dooley & Fryxell (1999) found that _________ at the early stage of decision making was desirable.
If you are upset with your roommate, and you show it by playing your stereo loud enough to be annoying, the authors of the text would say you are demonstrating
When conflict arises because the individual occupies more than one role it is called:
Most expressed struggles are activated by
a triggering event
Gender studies show that women tend to use a strategy of _________ more than men in conflict situations.
Retrospective goals are the ones that
give us a sense of clarity of the implications of a conflict when we look back at it
Transactive goals develop
during conflict episodes rather than before or after
The following statement by Justin about a conflict with his sister Shannon is an example of which of the conflict metaphors below? "The next time she says something about my lifestyle I'm likely to explode like a volcano."
Conflict is an act of nature
According to Hocker and Wilmot, the most common metaphor used to describe conflict is
Conflict is a war
Metaphors that expand the potential in conflict are useful because they portray
a collaborative approach to conflict
Which of the communication cultures below is generally characterized by norms that favor competition, low or non-expressiveness, and communication used for concrete purposes?
Native American culture
Which of the following terms reflects the notion that individuals learn male and female communication behaviors through observation of and communication with same-sex groups?
social learning theory
According to Hocker and Wilmot, which type of family is characterized by walking away from conflicts, never raising your voices, not telling anyone if there is a struggle, and keeping strong feelings to yourself?
According to the text, all of the following are neutral metaphors about conflict except:
conflict is a mess
Which of the following metaphors would your authors consider "transformative?"
conflict is a dance
Which of the following is generally true about research regarding gender differences in conflict?
women are more likely to avoid conflict than men
Steve and Bonnie disagree on how to spend the money they receive from their tax refund. Steve wants to take the family on a trip to Seattle and Bonnie wants to save if for a rainy day. What type of goal does this conflict interaction represent?
The statement "Well, you don't have to be so nasty about it" most likely reflects what type of goal?
A newlywed couple was having trouble resolving their disputes. The husband felt like he was trying to solve the problems, but his wife did not take him seriously during the discussions because she would do something else while they were talking--laundry, redecorating, etc. They decided that they would have a "meeting" to discuss issues when they arose. The meeting would be a time where they would shut out all distractions and discuss the situation until a solution arose. What is the paramount goal in this situation?
All of the above
Which of the following are considered to be the "drivers" of disputes?
A characteristic of destructive conflict is that parties start thinking and talking about ________.
b. topic goals
d. transactional goals
Rather than residing in people, power is always _____________. In the strictest sense, except when violence and physical coercion are used, power is given from one party to another in a conflict.
Tyler is a young, naturally gifted athlete. Unfortunately, his work ethic does not match his talent. When he finished sixth in a competition rather than his expected first or second place, he spent a great deal of time and energy telling people how the judges were unfair and were biased toward other athletes. Tyler is using which of the following face-saving strategies?
claiming unjust intimidation
Which of the following is NOT true about the nature of overlapping TRIP goals?
in a serious dispute, content-only solutions are typically the most satisfying
Which of the following is NOT true about the nature of overlapping TRIP goals? is almost entirely on _______ goals.
___________conflicts are often hard to identify, since they are usually represented as disputes over tangible resources.
Hocker and Wilmot summarize several advantages of clarifying your goals in a conflict. Which of the following is NOT an advantage identified?
Knowing the other's goals helps you manipulate the situation to get what you want.
If you work to reach your own goal while at the same time seek to please the other you are upholding which of the following items on the author's checklist for "good goals?"
Goals represent interdependence
Jake is always careful to arrive on time for work. He knows that his boss will dock his pay for any missed hours. Jake's boss uses what kind of power over him?
Which of the following is NOT an example of denying the use of power?
a. Deny that you communicated anything.
b. Deny that you remember what was communicated.
c. Deny that the other person communicated anything.
d. Deny that you meant what you said.
e. Deny the situation in which it was communicated.
While preparing to teach an online course, Julie regularly seeks out the assistance of Tony, the technology support person at her university. Julie understands that Tony has vast knowledge regarding the software and course management system she needs to use. Your book would describe the "power currency" Tony has in this scenario as:
The word goals most commonly connotes intentions people hold before they engage in conflict. This is referred to as
Latisha appreciates the fact that she has been trained in the art of public address because she finds that in many situation she can employ her ____________ as a power currency.
The fundamental concept in conflict is
A careful specification of everyone's goals lets you decide which ones
all of the above
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about power currencies?
developing a repertoire of currencies can help lead to the sharing and balance of power
Which of the TRIP goals for most people are the easiest to identify and talk about?
Empowerment is most likely when
communication behaviors are ineffective combined with excessive use of power
Whining and saying "It's not fair," is which of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse?
According to Wilmot and Hocker, we experience emotion when we perceive our ______________ is at stake.
According to Williams, humans are wired with what is called the _________________
fight or flight
Which of the following statements is NOT true of competitive power?
competitive power is appropriate when protecting children
Which of the following is NOT likely to balance the power in a conflict?
announcing all intended escalation
When Ken's parents died, his sister was named as the executor of their estate. She gave all of the "good" furniture to her kids and left only one old dresser for Ken's kids. He was furious with her, especially in this time of grief. Even though Ken felt "low power," he decided to maintain his relationship with his sister and encouraged his kids not to bring up the issues with their cousins. Ken's decision is an example of which of the following moves Lerner suggests that people in low-power positions adopt:
stay emotionally connected to significant others even when things get intense
Which of the following is NOT an example of "metacommunication" used to balance power?
"You sure act like you are the most important person on the face of the planet."
neither good nor bad; they just are
Self-protective emotions are associated with:
the right hemisphere of the brain
Prosocial emotions are associated with:
the left hemisphere of the brain
Which of the following statements is true?
emotions can be managed
Lori traditionally hosts Thanksgiving at her house for 10-15 relatives. Rarely do the guests help with dinner, clean up, or even say "Thank you." This has been going on for so long that she resents hosting the dinner. So--This year she assigned each person to bring a food or do a particular task. A few guests opted out, but the remainder came to dinner, and everyone (including Lori) had a good time. Lori's anger served one of many important functions:
Which emotion has been termed the "moral" emotion?
Which of the following can lead to de-escalation of a conflict?
all of the above
What are the four Horsemen of the Apocalypse?
criticism, contempt, defensiveness, stonewalling
Stony silence would be which of the four Horsemen of the Apocalypse?
Relationship goals refer to those that answer the question
Who are we to each other?
According to Wilmot and Hocker, we should approach conflict ______________.
as a "warrior of the heart"
In order to achieve clarity we should use __________________.
the X-Y-Z formula
_____________ reduces the intensity of emotion in the conflict by focusing attention on the sizing of disputes.
Which is one of the most important ways to establish equality (balance of power)?
increase conversation between parties
According to Hamburger and Itzhayek (1998), "the _____________ also determines the way people perceive, remember, and analyze information they receive."
"Don't open up that can of worms," reflects which metaphor of conflict?
conflict is a mess
__________ are more likely than __________ to cover up anger.
__________ are more likely than __________ to cover up sadness.
Too little sadness can result in:
distorted emotional expression
When we feel extremely intense emotions during conflict, we are usually experiencing a threat to which of the following elements of the TRIP acronym?
One important part of expressing anger in a responsible manner includes:
All of these are helpful in responsibly expressing anger.
"When you tease me in front of our friends, I feel embarrassed" is an example of:
During a year-long divorce and custody dispute, Patrick started calling his soon-to-be ex-wife terrible names in front of their children and her friends. In response, Becky called Patrick's employer and told them what a terrible person Patrick is. Events such as these went on for months. These behaviors wrecked the couple's chance for collaboration because each person was operating on which part of the "intensity continuum"?
Face saving and giving others face are extremely important in all cultures but often take precedence over topic issues in _______cultures.
Looking at long-range goals helps de-escalate the importance of initial, _________ goals.
Many nonverbal and other cues such as who initiates communication give clues about _______ goals.
all of the above
Because emotions are not logical, your book recommends that you figure out your logic before you share your emotions.
Experiencing and expressing positive emotions (joy, contentment, etc.) can lead to empathy and compassion, which ultimately help a person manage conflict.
The goals one has for the outcome of a conflict prior to actively engaging in it are called "prospective" goals.
When roommates argue about whose turn it is to do the dishes, they are likely to be arguing about the process.
Your authors contend that conflict always occurs on an emotional dimension.
According to Chapter 1, the authors state people are born with conflict management skills—they are mostly "common sense."
The text says anger is the predominant emotion in all conflicts.
The most common metaphors for conflict in U.S. culture are "win-lose" in nature.
According to the text, the most useful metaphors for helping us manage conflicts are those of a "trial."
A potential "benefit" to addressing conflict is the ability for persons in a relationship to better understand each other.
Many times, women remain in more of a "listening" role during conflict than men.
In "individualistic" cultures, people are more likely to resolve conflict through competition and collaboration.
Research on conflict and gender reveals that men criticize more than women.
An example of a "neutral" conflict metaphor is a "balancing act."
Refusing to back down in an argument, even if you know you are wrong, may be an indicator of trying to "save face."
"I don't remember saying that" is an example of "denial of power."
The "Power Paradox" means that the more you struggle against someone, and the more you fight with her/him, the more power you have.
Fear and anxiety often influence our choices in managing conflict.
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