Chapter 22 and 25 Section 1
Terms in this set (28)
the weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 ºC in a specified way, given constant pressure and volume
the warm-water phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation; a periodic occurrence in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface-water temperature becomes unusually warm
a seasonal wind that blows toward the land in the summer, bringing heavy rains, and that blows away from the land in the winter, bringing dry weather
a climate characterized by high temperatures and heavy precipitation during at least part of the year; typical of equatorial regions
Middle Latitude Climate
a climate that has an average maximum temperature below 18 ºC in the coldest month and an average minimum temperature above 10 ºC in the warmest month
a climate that is characterized by average temperatures that are near or below freezing; typical of polar regions
the climate of a small area
a scientist who gathers data to study and compare past and present climates and to predict future climate change
a gradual increase in average global temperature
in geology, a horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern, such as a river or stream; the movement of air in a certain direction
a horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean's surface
a stream-like movement of ocean water far below the surface
the curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to Earth's rotation
a huge circle of moving ocean water found above and below the equator
Describe two factors used to describe climate
Precipitation and temperature
Describe factors that affect climate
Latitude, heat absorption and release, and topography
Explain how latitude determines amount of solar energy on earth
The higher the latitude of an area is, the smaller the angle at which the sun's rays hit Earth is and the smaller the amount of solar energy received by the area is.
Describe how different rates at which land and water are heated affect climate
The average temperatures of land and water at the same latitude vary because of differences in the loss of heat through evaporation. Evaporation affects water surfaces much more than it affects land surfaces.
Explain the effects of topography on climate
Temperature generally decreases as elevation increases. When a moving air mass encounters a mountain range, the air mass rises, cools, and loses most of its moisture through precipitation.
Describe 3 major types of climate zones
Tropical, middle latitude, and polar
Explain how elevation or nearness to bodies of water can affect climate
The water absorbs and releases heat slower than the land does. Water moderates the temperature of the nearby land. Large bodies of water can also increase precipitation. As elevation increases, temperature decreases and the climate changes.
Describe factors that can cause climate change
Movement of tectonic plates, changes in Earth's orbit, human activity, and atmospheric changes.
Identify impacts of climate change
Global warming, sea-level changes, and changes in precipitation.
Identify ways humans can minimize their effect on climate change
Humans can turn lights off when they are not in use, turn down the heat in the winter, and reduce air conditioner use in the summer. Recycling is also helpful because less energy is needed to recycle some products than to create them. Driving at a consistent speed also allows a vehicle to burn fuel efficiently. Car manufacturers have been developing cars that are more fuel efficient.
Describe how wind, rotation of the earth and continental barriers affect current
Wind is caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere. Variations in air temperature lead to variations in air density and pressure. Earth spins on its axis, ocean currents and wind belts curve. Surface current flows against a continent, the current is deflected and divided.
What causes surface currents to circulate
Wind belts and the Coriolis effect cause huge circles of moving water, called gyres, to form.
Explain how differences in density of ocean water affect currents
Deep currents form as cold, dense water of the polar regions sinks and flows beneath warmer ocean water. Unfrozen polar water has a high salt concentration and is denser than water that has a lower salinity. This dense polar water sinks and forms a deep current that flows beneath less dense surface currents.