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LAB ANIMAL- Ch 9 Chinchillas
Terms in this set (112)
What is Order & Family of chinchillas?
Rodentia & Chinchillidae
Which do chinchillas have in common overall with guinea pigs?
Both are hystricomorphs, which are hedgehog-like animals
What is most common species of chinchillas?
- Chinchilla brevicaudata (short-tail)
- Chinchilla langier (long-tail)
Where are chinchillas native to?
South America (Peru, Bolivia, Chile, & Argentina)
Why are chinchillas nearly extinct in the wild?
B/c they're hunted extensively for their pelts
What were chinchillas primarily raised for?
How much can a full chinchilla fur coat cost?
How much do adult male & female chinchillas weigh?
- Males- 400-500g
- Females- 400-600g
How long are adult chinchillas?
What is the standard color of chinchillas?
Smokey blue-gray, ranging from very light to very dark
What color mutations do chinchillas come in?
Beige, white, black, brown, silver, & violet (also has mosiac color pattern)
What qualities do chinchillas have !as pets?
- Easy to maintain
- Charming & inquisitive temperament
- Not suitable for young children
What are chinchillas mainly used for in research?
Why are chinchillas good animal models for auditory research? (6)
- Small size
- Ease of handling
- Ear similar to humans
- Large tympanic bullae
- No presbycusis
- Naturally occuring middle ear infections
How are chinchilla ears similar to those of humans?
Cochlea also has 3 turns & auditory sensitivity is same
What is presbycusis?
Age-related hearing loss
Where & how do chinchillas live in nature?
In crevices or burrows above 2600 ft. & in groups of several hundred
Are chinchillas social animals?
Only within their familial group of 2-5
When do chinchillas fight?
Rarely, except btw females & strange males
When are chinchillas active?
At night (nocturnal) with periods in day
What can chinchillas do as a defense mechanism to flee from predators that have a hold of them?
Fur slip, where they release a large amount of fur & slip away
What anatomical feature indicates the growth stage of a chinchilla's coat & when is pelt most valuable?
Position of pale bar line present in each hair; when line is at end of hair
What is the dental formula for chinchillas?
2 (I 1/1, C 0/0, P 1/1, M 3/3)
What are given to chinchillas to wear their teeth down & why?
Pumice stones; b/c teeth are open-rooted & grow continuously
What color are a chinchilla's incisors? & their molars?
Why are chinchillas difficult to intubate?
B/c their soft palate is continuous with tongue & has palatal ostium (opening)
What is unique about the chinchilla's GI tract?
It's very long- jejunum fills almost entire abdomen
What digestive characteristics do chinchillas have that are typical of rodents?
They cannot vomit & are coprophagic
How are male chinchillas sexed?
- Longer anogenital distance
- Larger papilla
- No true scrotum
Is sexing chincillas easy or difficult & why?
Difficult; b/c external genitalia is similar
How are female chinchillas sexed?
- Separate vagina opening btw anus & urethra
- 2 uterine horns
- 3 pairs of mammary glands
Although hematologic values of chinchillas are extremely variable, what is normal PCV, total RBC count & total WBC count?
- PCV = 40%
- RBC = 8 million
- WBC = 9,500
What is the predominant leukocyte in chinchillas?
What does the chinchilla's natural mountainous habitat give them a different hematological value of compared to other rodents & rabbits?
Higher oxygen-hemoglobin affinity
When are the RBC count & hemoglobin levels of chinchillas the highest? & for WBC count?
In winter; in winter & early spring when reproduction increases
What is the acidity of chinchilla urine?
Alkaline, with a pH of 8.5
What is lifespan of chinchillas?
What is the average food consumption amount of chinchillas?
What is the male & female breeding onset of chinchillas?
7-9 months for both
What type of estrous cycle do chinchillas have?
How long is the average gestation period of chinchillas?
How long is the estrous cycle of chinchillas?
What is the litter size of chinchillas?
What is the weaning age of chinchillas?
What is the breeding duration of chinchillas?
When is the breeding season for chinchillas?
When does puberty occur in chinchillas?
Always in fall following birth (if born in fall, 1 yr later next fall)
What type of breeding system do chinchillas practice?
Harem system with 12 females for every male
When in the day does breeding occur in chinchillas?
During night at multiple times
What should be provided for the male in a harem when breeding & why?
Adjoining cage he can escape into; b/c females are selective & can be aggressive toward males
What prevents females from following males that escape into adjoining cage?
Collars (on females)
How can mating be confirmed in chinchillas?
By detection of vaginal plug up to 3.75" in length
What happens to a female chinchilla just prior to parturition?
She may become inactive & anorexic
What happens to female chinchilla during parturition?
Vagina takes on bluish color
What are young chinchillas called? & females? & males?
Kits; does; bucks
When do chinchillas give birth & how long does it take?
During early morning; within 4 hours
What is the gender ratio in a litter of chinchillas?
119 males:110 females
Do nesting materials need to be provided to chinchillas? & why or why not?
No; they don't make nests b/c young are precocial
Do chinchilla kits require any care after they're born?
Yes, warm cage bottom if they appear cold
How do female chinchillas nurse?
What can female chinchillas develop after parturition & specifically when?
GI stasis; 2-3 weeks postpartum
How do female chinchillas develop GI stasis postpartum?
Calcium deficiency from nursing
How is GI stasis treated in female chinchillas that develop it postpartum?
Calcium gluconate IV or IP
What type of flooring is used for housing chinchillas?
Solid or wire mesh that's 15x15mm or smaller to prevent limb injuries
What type of cages are best for housing chinchillas & why?
Multilevel; they accomodate their activity level
What type of bedding is used for housing chinchillas?
Generally white pine
What are the environmental requirements for housing chinchillas?
- 14 hours of light/day
- 61-70 degrees
- 30-60% humidity
- 10-15 air changes
What type of temperatures can chinchillas tolerate well?
Very low temps
What environmental conditions should be avoided when housing chinchillas?
Areas of poor ventilation & high heat
How often should cages be cleaned?
At least once weekly
What can be provided/done to chinchillas as environmental enrichment?
- Multilevel caging
- Feeding 2x/day
- Chewing devices
- Dust baths
How are chewing devices environmentally enriching for chinchillas?
They promote normal chewing behavior & wear teeth down
What types of chewing devices can be given to chinchillas?
Pumice stone or fresh wood branches (ie, willow, beech, hazelnut, fruit trees)
What is a dust bath & how is it environmentally enriching for chinchillas?
Pan filled with 2-3cm of dust; they help maintain healthy coat by absorbing skin oils
How often should dust baths be offered to chinchillas?
Several times weekly for an hour to keep feces-free
What type of feed is given to chinchillas?
Commercial pelleted chinchilla chow & good quality hay ad libitum
What are nutritional requirements for pellets fed to chinchillas?
- 16-20% protein
- 2-5% fat
- 18% fiber
- minimum 2700 cal/kg
What type of feeder should be used for chinchillas & why?
Secured feeder; to reduce waste from dumping
What can chinchilla diet be supplemented with?
Small amounts of fruit, oatmeal, raisins, carrots, & sunflower seeds
What should chinchillas have free access to in their cages at all times?
What do chinchillas respond best to when handling?
Light touch & gentle approach
What can rough handling of chinchillas cause?
Fur slip (loss of patch of fur)
What should you never do when handling chinchillas?
Grab by tail if its running away & pick up by ears
Where can blood be collected from in chinchillas?
- Lateral saphenous & cephalic
- Ear vein (not recommended for repeated sampling)
- Jugular vein for larger amts
What may be needed when collecting blood from chinchillas in the jugular vein?
What are suggested sample blood volumes in adult chinchillas for total blood, single sample, & exsanguination?
- Total blood- 20-32 mL
- Single sample- 2-3 mL
- Exsanguination- 8-12 mL
How is urine collected from chinchillas?
- Metabolic cages
- Digital pressure on bladder
- Clean-catch method
How are liquids administered to chinchillas orally?
Via eye dropper or syringe
How are tablets administered to chinchillas orally?
Hidden in raisins
Where are SQ injections given to chinchilas?
In loose skin btw shoulders or flank
Where are IM injections given to chinchilas?
In lumbar or rear leg (quad) muscle
Where are IP injections given to chinchilas?
Just off ventral midline in lower right quadrant
Where are IV injections given to chinchilas?
In ear or leg veins (lateral saphenous or cephalic)
What are maximum dosing volumes for all routes of administration in adult chinchillas?
- IP- 10mL
- SQ- 8-25mL
- IM- 0.3mL/site
- IV- 1mL
- PO- 5mL
What preoperative requirements are there for chinchillas?
No food for 6 hours prior
What injectable anesthesias are used in chinchillas?
- Ketamine/acepromazine or xylazine (most recommended)
What inhalant anesthesias are used in chinchillas?
Isoflurane is recommended
Which anesthesia is short-acting in chinchillas?
Why is it important to closely monitor chinchillas under anesthesia?
B/c they'll hold their breath & then take deep breath of anesthesia, which can lead to death
How can depth of anesthesia be monitored in chinchillas?
Toe pinch & palpebral (eye) reflexes
What are common surgeries performed on chinchillas?
- Castration & closure of open inguinal canals
- Drainage of absecesses
- Auditory system surgeries
What are overall goals during postoperative care to ensure better recovery of chinchillas?
Prevent dehydration & hypothermia
What should be done during postoperative care of recovering chinchilla? (6)
- Place on dry paper or cloth towel
- Don't risk aspiration of bedding
- Make sure fully awake before placing w/ conscious cagemates
- Turn non-ambulatory animals over every 30 min
- Administer warm saline or LRS
- Provide analgesia
What analgesia doses should be used with chinchillas & why?
Guinea pig doses; b/c chinchilla doses haven't been widely studied
What are most common causes of disease in chinchillas related to?
Poor husbandry & feeding
What can contriute to respiratory diseases in chinchillas?
Poor housing, poor ventilation, high humidity, & overcrowding
What type of skin conditions can affect chinchillas?
What are characteristics of healthy chinchillas?
Active, curious, & carry tails over backs
What are characteristics of sick chinchillas?
Dull coat & indifferent to surroundings
What type of diseases are uncommon in chinchillas b/c there have been very few cases of them?
What type of diseases are chinchillas not known to get a lot of, but they can get ones that affect humans?
What viruses can chinchillas get?
Human influenze A virus & human herpes virus 1
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
LAB ANIMAL- Ch 13 Research Variables & QC
LAB ANIMAL- Ch 2 Regulations, Policies, & Principl…
LAB ANIMAL- Ch 3 Facility, Equipment, Housing, & M…
LAB ANIMAL- Ch 4 Mice
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