Only $2.99/month

AP European History Chapter 23 Study Guide

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (42)

- During the 3rd quarter of the 19th century, Britain was not the top of industrialization anymore
- Belgium, France, and Germany expanded their heavy industries
- German industry growth was stunning and their steel production passed Britain's in 1893 and was near twice of Britain's by the the start of WWI
= Germany was now a major part of European economic and political life at the start of the 20th century
- Railway expansion increased economic growth
- Henry Bessemer (1830-1898)- engineer and created a new process to manufacture steel cheaply in large quantities
- In total, Great Britain, Belgium, France, and German produced 125,000 tons of steel in 1860
- 1913, the number rose to over 32 million tons of steel
- Chemical industry: created a link between science and industrial development (German was the leader of this)
= Solway process of alkali metals replaced the former Leblanc process which allowed the recovery of more chemical by-products
== This process increased production of sulfuric acid and laundry soap as well as dyestuffs and plastics were also made
- Electrical energy production significantly changed everyday
= Electricity was the most versatile and transportable source of power ever discovered; could be delivered to small or large machinery allowing factory locations varying and more efficient factory construction
- The first major power plant was built in Great Britain in 1881
- Electric poles, lines, and generating stations
- Homes started to have electric lights, streetcars and subways systems were electrified
- Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900)- inventor of the modern day combustion engine and cars
- France took the initiative on auto manufacturing, for many years, the car was considered a novelty item that only the wealthy could afford
- The American, Henry Ford (1863-1947)- made cars more accessible to lots of people
- The car was the biggest invention that moved a large number of people along with the later trolleys and buses
- Automobiles increased a demand for steel and oil (petroleum)
= Major petroleum companies were the Standard Oil of the United States, British Shell Oil, and the Royal Dutch Petroleum
- Last quarter of the 19th century, economic advance slowed
- Bad weather and foreign competition cause difficulties for European agriculture and cause man European peasants to emigrate outside of Europe
- The farming regions products of the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand challenged those of European agriculture
- Refrigerated ships imported meat and dairy products to European from all over the world
- Grain grew more sufficiently on plains of North America, Argentina, and Ukraine than in Western Europe
- Railways and steamships made it easier and cheaper to ship over continents
= The new developments lowered the prices of the consumer goods and put great pressure on European agriculture
- 1873, several banks failed the capital investment rates slowed
= Some industries entered a 2 decade long period of being stagnant which was considered the depression
- General standard of living in the industrialized nations improved in the 2nd half of the 19th century
- Prices, wages, and profits fell, real wages usually held firm and even rose in some countries
- Some workers still lived and labored in abysmal conditions
- Unemployment (a word created in this period), strikes, and other labor unrest forms were common
- Economic difficulties grew the trade unions and socialist political parties
- New industries produced consumer goods and expanded consumer demand took the economy out of stagnation/depression at the end of the 19th century
- Food prices lowered allowing all classes to buy more consumer goods
- Urbanization naturally created larger markets
- New forms of retail and marketing- department stores, chain sotres, mail-order catalogs, and advertising
- Imperialism also opened new markets overseas for European consumer goods
- After the 1848 revolutions, the Middle Class stopped being a revolutionary group
- Once the questions of social equality and property equality were raised, large and small property owners in Europe began to protect their possessions from socialist and working-class group demands

- Grew increasingly diverse
- Most prosperous members- owners and managers of great businesses and banks: they lived in splendor that often rivaled or sometimes surpassed that of the aristocracy
= W. H. Smith (1825-1891)- owner of railway newsstands, were made up of members of the House of Lords
= Krupp family of German- owned huge steel works in Rhineland were pillars of the state and were given noble rank by the German emperor and received imperial court visits
- Only a few hundred families gained this wealth
= Beneath them were the small entrepreneurs and professional people- incomes provided private homes, large quantities of furniture, pianos, pictures, books, journals, education for their children, and vacations; also there are the shopkeepers, schoolteachers, librarians, and other who had either a bit of property or a skill derived from education that provided respectable non-manual employment
- White collar workers- lower middle class or petite bourgeoisie (these people often had working class origins and might be in their unions but they made sure to distance themselves from the lower class lifestyle)
= Secretaries, retail clerks, and lower-level bureaucrats in business and government
= Pursued educational opportunities and chances for any kind of career advancement
= Most spent their money on consumer goods (stylish clothing and furniture) that have a middle class appearance
- Tensions between the Middle Class ranking- small shopkeepers hated the power of great capitalists with their department stores and mail-order catalogs
- Some jobs started to become overcrowded and middle class members feared they would lose their job in a poor economical time, but this never happened and before WWI the middle classes set the values and goals of society
- Between 1850-1911 Europe became more urbanized, urban livers went from 25 to 44 percent i France and 30 to 60 percent in Germany; similar numbers in other Western countries
- Rural migrants often faced poor housing, social anonymity, and, because they rarely possessed the right kinds of skill, unemployment
- People of different ethnic backgrounds had trouble mixing socially
- Anti-semitism's roots in urban migration especially for Russian Jews
- National and municipal government redesigned the central portions of many large cities during the 2nd half of the 19th century
- Before, central urban areas were places where people form all social classes both lived and worked
- After, from mid-century on, planners transformed districts into areas where businesses, government, offices, large stores, and theaters were located, but where fewer people resided; Commerce, trade, government, and leisure activities now dominated central cities
- Paris had the biggest transformation
= Seine River- open sewer
= The streets were narrow, crooked, and overcrowded
= Hard to travel across town
= Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870) redesigned Paris through Baron Georges Haussmann (1809-1891)
== Destroyed whole districts and constructed large boulevards and streets
== Wide vistas- created for troops to stop riots
== Eradication of small streets and alleys got rid of many areas of barricades
== Demolition and street building created thousands of government jobs
= Mechanical trams (late 1870s)
= Subway system (1895)
= Railway stations linked to suburbs
= Eiffel Tower (1889) and Basilica of the Sacred Hear (Sacré Cœur) linked to Roman Catholic- symbolized the social and political divisons between liberals and conservatives in the Third Republic

- Middle and Working (more affordable) Class looked for houses outside the cities
- Consisted of apartment buildings or private houses built closely together to small gardens
- Railway expansion with its cheap workday fares, mechanical then electric tramways, and subways allowed tens of thousands of workers from all classes to move daily between the city and the suburbs
- For some work and home became physically separated
- Great Cholera outbreak/epidemics of the 1830s-1840s
= Struck all classes, the Middle Class demanded a solution
= Physicians and sanitary reformers believed that miasmas in the air spread the infections that led to cholera and other diseases, believed to arise from filth and could be found by a foul odor
- Government officials stated that dangerous unsanitary conditions were due to cities and businesses overcrowding; such as basement slaughterhouses
- In 1840, Louis René Villermé (1782-1863) published his Tableau de l'état physique et moral des ouvriers (Catalog of the Physical and Moral State of Workers)- about urban working-class conditions in France
- In 1842, Edwin Chadwick's (1800-1890) Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population shocked the English public
- In Germany, Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) similar findings as Chadwick
= Findings closely linked the issues of wretched living conditions and public health
= Sanitary conditions would reform the dangers

- Proposed solution was cleanliness through new water and sewer systems
- Major health and engineering achievement of the second half of the 19th century
- Haussmann's rebuilding program was new sewer system
- In London, Albert Embankment along the Thames River involved not only large sewers discharging into the river but also gas mains and water pipes
- Wherever sanitary facilities were built, mortality rate dropped considerably- because it disposed human waste and provided clean water free of harmful bacteria for people to drink, cook with, and bathe in

- Britain, Public Health Act (1848) & France, Melun Act (1851)
= Allowed medical officers and building inspectors to enter homes and businesses in the name of public health
= The state could condemn private property for posing health hazards and can be used as sewers and water main required to protect the public
= New building regulations restrained the activities of private contractors
- France, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), German, Robert Koch (1843-1910), and Britain, Joseph Lister (1827-1912)- all increased public concern about cleanliness
- Maintenance of public health and the physical well being of the population repeatedly opened the way for new modes of government intervention in the lives of citizens
- Throughout the 19th century, women's education access was very limited
- Many more women were illiterate than men
- Universities and professional education consisted of only men till the 3 quarter of the 19th century
- Switzerland- the University of Zurich allowed women in the 1860s
- Britain- University of London allowed women to get degrees in 1878
= Women's colleges founded at Cambridge
= Women could take Oxford and Cambridge exams
= Not awarded degrees at Oxford till 1920 and Cambridge till 1921
- Austrian universities and medical school allowed women to enter before the start of the 20th century
- Prussia did not allow women in universities till after the start of the 20th century
- Russia- women not allowed to attend universities till 1914
- Italy was more open to this
- American women studied in European universities and founded or taught at women's colleges
- No private or public system for secondary education prevented women from gaining necessary qualities to go to universities
- Men were afraid that women would overcrowd their jobs
- Russian women that studied at universities or medical schools were sometimes considered political radicals
- At the turn of the century, men feared that women would challenge their traditional gender roles of home and workplace
= Restriction from secondary schools and universities barred them from this
- Some women entered professions; mainly medicine
- Most countries didn't allow women to have jobs till after WWI
- Elementary school teachers were seen as a "feminine job", an extension of nurturing children; women couldn't teach at a higher leveled school than this
- The few women that took on profession such as government commissions and school boards or dispersed birth control information face social obstacles, humiliation, and often outright bigotry
- Separation into male and female spheres emerged in middle-class European social life during the 19th century
- Women were often hesitant to join feminist causes
- Both men and women saw a real conflict between family responsibilities and feminism
- 1. Large-scale expansion in variety of jobs available to women outside the better-paying learned professions
- 2. Withdrawal of many married women from the workforce
- Jobs that didn't need much skill
- Expansion of governmental bureaucracies, the emergence of corporations and other large businesses, and the bast growth of retail opened many job opportunities for women
- Female elementary school teachers need grew due to the government adopted compulsory education laws
- Type writer and telephone exchange spurred female employment as well as secretaries, clerks for governments and private businesses, and shop assistants
- Wages were low especially of the women were married the men should support and the women's wage would just supplement it
- Usually women that were just married or bore their first born child withdrew from the labor force
= She either did not work or worked at home
- Employers in offices or retail stores preferred young, unmarried women whose family responsibilities wouldn't interfere with their work
- This led to a decline in child birth
- Male wages increased making second income unnecessary; especially for smaller sized families
- Due to better health, husbands didn't die as early allowing wives to not work
- Children stayed at home longer and contributed to family wages
- Cultural dominance of the middle class created a patter of social expectations esp. for wives
- Working class families were considered more prosperous and stable if the women didn't work
- Social class determined individual experiences
- Big gap between working-class women and middle-class women
- Creating an oasis for their husband and children at home
- participated in the vast expansion of consumerism and domestic comfort that marked the late 19th century and early 20th century
- Enjoyed manufactured items such as clothing, china, furniture, carpets, drapery, wallpaper, and prints; enjoyed sanitation and electricity; moved into fashionable new houses in the suburbs

- Work and family defined by gender; set model for other social groups
- Assigned religious duties to women; Roman Catholic strongly supported
- If all possible, did not work
- Became limited to the roles of wife and mother
- RESULT- might enjoy great domestic luxury and comfort but their lives, talents, ambitions, and opportunities were sharply circumscribed
- Home was to be a private place of refuge and was different from business and marketplace life
- In France, women's role at home was different in early 19th century compared to late 19th century
= In the 1st half of the century- wives were to contribute directly to their husbands' business, handling accounts, or correspondence; they usually left their task of rearing children to nurses and governesses
= Change was due to men wanting to do business with only men
- Magazines and books for women started to praise motherhood, domesticity, religion, and charity as proper women work in sync with separate spheres concept
- Middle Class Frenchwomen- home was the center of virtue, children, and the respectable life
= Arranged marriages to benefit the family economically
= Most married at the 21 and have children soon after the marriage, often within the first year
= Children- women's chief tasks
== Experience and training from the roles of dutiful daughter, wife, and mother
- Women largely directed the household; oversaw virtually all domestic management and child care, home as a unit of consumption (which is why there is so much advertising toward women)
- Within the family, women symbolized first her father's success then her husband's worldly success
- Liberal society did not give women the vote or access to political activity
- In Catholic countries- liberal men feared that if women voted, they would vote for conservative men because they thought priests exercised undue control over women (women more religious)
- Parts of Germany- Anglican clergy over women in England and Protestant pastors
= Anticlerical liberals often had trouble working with feminists
- Political issues of gender were only one of several priorities of women
= Some were sensitive and others subordinated feminist political issue to national unity and patriotism
= Some objected their tactics
- Sharp divisions among feminists except in Britain (working and middle class women cooperate
= Roman Catholic feminists did not like radical secularist feminists
= Other disagreements about goals for improving their legal and social conditions
- Liberal society and law provided feminists with many intellectual and political tools
= Mary Wollstonecraft of Britain (1759-1797) "The Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
- John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) with his wife Harriet Taylor (1804-1858) extend the logic of liberal freedom to women in "The Subjection of Women" (1869)
- Socialist criticism of capitalist society often included harsh indictment of the social and economic position to which women had been regulation by no means
- Earliest support for feminism came from unorthodoxy opinions about sexuality, family life, and property
- In Europe and Britain, feminism was badly divided over both goals and tactics

- Britain's feminist movement was very advanced compare to France's and Germany's
- In France-
= Hubertine Auclert (1848-1914) started to campaign to vote in the 1880s and was basically alone in doing it
= 1890s- women's organizations began to form
= 1901, the National Council of French Women (CNFF)- organized among upper-middle-class women
= French Roman Catholic feminists supported the franchise
= Almost all French feminists rejected violence nor did they organize mass rallies
= Leaders thought they could win the right to vote through careful legalism
= 1919, French Chamber of Deputies passed a bill to grant women's vote but in 1922, the French Senate defeated the bill
= French women could not vote until after WWII
- In Germany-
= German law forbade German women to engage in political activities
= 1984, the Union of German Women's Organizations (BDFK) was founded, by 1902, it supported the right to vote- its main concern dealt with women's social conditions, increasing their access to education, and extending their right to other protections; gain the admittance to political activity or civic activity on the municipal levels
== Its work included education, child welfare, charity, and public health
= The German Social Democratic Party supported women's suffrage, but its German authorities and German Roman Catholics hated the socialists
= German women allowed to vote in 1919, under the Weimar Republic constitution after the defeat in war and revolution at home
- Before WWI only Norway allowed women to vote on national issues in 1907
- From ghetto to world of equal or nearly equal citizenship and social statues (major accomplishment of political liberalism and had an enduring impact on European life)
- Started in the late 18th century to throughout 19th century
- Steps toward political emancipation were uncertain and were frequently limited when rulers or governments changed; certain freedoms were granted only to be partially taken away later
- Even countries that gave Jews rights, did not allow them to own land and they usually got discriminatory taxes

- In 1782, Joseph II- issued a decree that placed the Jew of his empire under more or less the same laws as the Christians

- In 1789, the National Assembly recognized Jews as French citizens
- In Napoleonic Wars, Jewish communities in Italy and Germany were allowed to mix with the Christian population

- Traditional modes of prejudice and discrimination to Jews until WWI
- Russian rule treated Jews as aliens
- Undermined Jewish community life, limited the publication of Jewish books, restricted areas where Jews could live, required Jews to have internal passports to move about the country, banned Jews from many forms of state service, and excluded Jews from many institutions of higher education
- State allowed the police and right-wing nationalist groups to conduct "pogroms"- organized riots-against Jewish neighborhoods and villages

- European Jews saw improvement in their situation after the 1848 revolutions
- Germany, Italy, the Low Countries, and Scandinavia, Jews received full citizenship
- 1858, Jews could sit in Parliament in Great Britain
- 1867, Austria-Hungary extended full legal rights to Jews
- 1850-1880- very little prejudice was expressed against Jews in Western Europe
- Participated in literary and cultural life; active in arts and music; leaders of science and education
- Jews intermarried freely with non-Jews as lega, secular prohibitions against such marriages were repealed during the last quarter of the century
- Outside of Russia, Jewish entered cabinets and served in the highest offices of the state
- Jews were politically aligned with liberal parties since these groups achieved equal rights
- Especially in Eastern Europe, Jews became associated with socialist parties later in the century
- Prejudice against Jews from Christians dissipated; except in Russia and other Eastern Europe
- Tons of Jews moved to Western Europe and the United States
- Western Europe- England, France, Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries legalized persecution and discrimination of Jews in the past seemed to have ended
- Anti-semitism rose again in the 1870s due to the economic stagnation of the decade to Jewish bankers and financial interests
- 1880s, organized anti-semitism started in Germany and gave rise to Zionism (minority movement within the Jewish community
- Many Jewish leaders thought this new rise was just something small; this was proved to be wrong in the 1930s and 1940s (The Holocaust)
- Not including Russia- all major European countries used, if not perfectly democratic, electoral systems in the late 19th century
- Great Britain passed its 2nd voting reform in 1867 and 3rd voting reform in 1884
- Bismarck brought universal male suffrage to Germany in 1871
- French Chamber of Deputies was democratically elected
- Universal male suffrage- Switzerland (1879)
- Universal male suffrage- Spain (1890)
- Universal male suffrage- Norway (1896)
- Italy in 1912
- The broadened franchise meant politicians could no longer ignore workers, and discontented groups could now voice their grievances and advocate their programs within the institutions of government rather than from the outside
- Democracy brought organized mass political parties (like those in the Unites States but now in Europe)
- Liberal European States with narrow electoral bases, most voters had been people of property who knew what they had at stake in politics
- Expansion of the electoral had to be taught about power and influence in the liberal democratic state
- Organize political party- had workers, newspapers, offices, social life, and discipline- this mobilized the new voters
= Largest single group was the working-class
- Socialism as a political ideology and plan of action opposed nationalism
= Socialism was supposed to unite the working-classes across national borders
= European socialist terribly underestimated the power of nationalism
- Many workers had no problem between socialism and nationalism until the breakout of WWI- nationalists won
- Question was will revolution or democratic reform improve the working-class life
= This split socialist parties and especially those whose leadership adhered to the intellectual legacy of Karl Marx
- The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 transformed socialist debates and actions
- Marxism and socialism didn't do much for Great Britain
- Trade unions grew steadily and members usually voted for Liberal Party candidates
- The "new unionism" of the lates 1880s and the 1890s- organized dock-workers, gas workers, and similar unskilled groups
- 1892, Keir Hardie (1856-1915)- first independent working man to be elected in to Parliament
- 1901, the House of Lords, acts as Britain's highest court, through the Taff Vale decision removed the legal protection previously accorded union funds
= In response, The Trades Union Congress launched the Labour Party; in 1906, the party sent 29 members to Parliament
- 1884, Fabian Society founded- most influential socialist group
= Name, Q. Fabius Maximus (d. 203 B.C.E), reflected the society's gradualist approach to major social reform
== Leading members, Sidney Webb (1859-1947), Beatrice Webb (1858-1943), H. G. Wells (1866-1946), Graham Wallas (1858-1932), and George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
- Many Fabians were civil servants who believed the problems of industry, expansion of ownership, and state direction of production could be solved and achieved gradually, peacefully and democratically
- Interested in the collective ownership on the municipal level, the so-called gas-and-water socialism
- 1903, Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914) launched his unsuccessful campaign to match foreign tariffs and to finance social reform through higher import duties
- 1906, Liberal party leader, Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman (1836-1908) and later 1908, Herbert Asquith, pursued a 2-pronged policy
= Fearful of losing seats in Parliament to the new Labour Party, they restored the former protection of the unions
= After 1909, Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George (1863-1945)- as its guiding light, the Liberal ministry undertook a broad program of social legislation that included establishing labor exchanges, regulating certain trades, such as tailoring and lace making, and passing the National Insurance Act of 1911- which provided unemployment benefits and health care
- Parliament Act of 1911- allowed the Commons to override the legislative veto of the upper chamber
- New taxes and social program- state taking expanding role on its citizens
- Many members still thought they could gain more from the direct action of strikes
- French socialism- less united and more politically factionalized movement than socialism in other countries
- Jean Jaurès (1859-1914) and Jules Guesde (1845-1922) led the 2 major factions of French socialists
= Jaurès thought socialists should cooperate with middle-class Radical ministries to ensure the enactment of needed social legislation
= Guesde opposed this; argued that socialists could not, with integrity, support a bourgeois cabinet that were theoretically dedicated to overthrowing
- Appointment of socialist Alexander Millerand (!859-1943) to the cabinet
- Second International (1889)- in a new effort to unify the various national socialist parties and trade unions
= 1904, Amsterdam Congress of the Second International debated the issue of opportunism as such participation by socialists in cabinets was termed
- Congress condemned opportunism in France and ordered French socialists to form a single party
- Jaurès accepted the decision
- 1914, Socialist Party became the second most largest group in the Chamber of Deputies
- Jaurès assassinated in 1914 during the outbreak of WWI
- Afterwards, French socialist participated in the wartime cabinet
- The French Labor Movement- uninterested in either politics or socialism
= French workers voted socialist, but the unions themselves, avoided active political participation
= Main labor union (1895)- Confèdèration Générale du Travail- rival to socialist parties
= Embraced the doctrines of Syndicalism- persuasively expounded by Georges Sorel (1847-1922) in Reflections on Violence (1908)
== This book was to unite workers and gain them power
- Strikes were common in France between 1905-1914, and the middle-class Radical ministry used troops to suppress them on more than one occasion
- The negative judgement of the Second International was similar to the permanent hostility to nonsocialist governments that the German Social Democratic Party (SPD) had already adopted
- SPD kept Marxism socialism alive during the late 19th century and early 20th century
- SPD- founded in 1875- was divided between those who advocated reform and those who advocated revolution
- Started with labor agitation of Ferdinand Lasalle (1825-1864)- he wanted to participate in German politics
- Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900) and August Bebel (1840-1913)- Marxists that opposed reformist politics, soon joined the party
- 12 years of persecution under Bismarck (Iron Chancellor) emerged the character of SPD
- Believed socialism would undermine German politics and society
- Used an assassination attempt on Emperor William I (r. 1861-1888) in 1878, in which the socialists were not involved to steer antisocialist laws through the Reichstag
- Measures suppressed, the organization, meetings, newspapers, and other public activities of the SPD
- To stay a socialist you had leave the mainstream respectable German life and possibly one's job
- Antisocialist legislation proved politically counterproductive
- Bismarck, undertook a program of social welfare legislation
- 1883, German adopted a health insurance measure
- 1884, the Reichstag enacted accident insurance legislation
- 1889, Bismarck sponsored a plan for old age and disability pensions
- Programs- both workers and employers contributed, represented a paternalistic, conservative alternative to socialism
- The state organized a system of social security
- German became the first industrial nation that enjoyed this kind of welfare program
- Tsar Alexander III (r. 1881-1894) and later Nicholas II (r. 1894-1917) wanted Russia to become an industrial power
- Count Sergei Witte (1849-1915)- led Russia to industrialization
= Appointed first minister of communications then finance minister in 1892
= Pursued a policy of planned economic development, protective tariffs, high taxes, putting Russia's currency on the gold standard, and the efficiency in government and business, epitomized the 19th-century modernizer
- Established a strong financial relationship with the French money market which allowed Russia to finance its modernization- later became an alliance with France
- 1890-1904, Russian rail grew from 30,596 to 59,616 kilometers
- 5,000 mile long Trans-Siberian (1903)
- Pig iron production 928,000 to 4,641,000 tons
- Textile industry still big
- Industrialism brought social discontent to Russia
- Peasants watched their grain exports and tax payments\s finance development, did not measurably improve their lives
- Proletariat significantly emerged
- 1897- Witte enacted an 11.5 hour workday but strikes still happened
- Russian agriculture had not prospered after the serf emancipation (1861)
- Peasants still had redemption payment for the land they farmed, local taxes, excessive national taxes, and falling grain prices
- Peasants did not own their land as individuals, but communally through the mir, or village
- Many free peasants that couldn't support themselves, had to work on huge large states owned by nobles or more prosperous peasant farmers called kulaks
- 1860-1914, population rose from 50 million to 103 million
= Sparked uprising in the countryside
- New party opposed industrialism and looked to the communal life of rural Russia as a model for the future
- 1903, the Constitutional Democratic Party, or Cadets formed
= Liberal party drew its members from those who participated in local councils called zemstvos
= Cadets wanted a constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary regime with civil liberties and economic progress
- Leading the late 19th century Russian Marxist was Gregory Plekhanov (1857-1918)
= Chief disciple was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-1924) A.K.A LENIN
- Arrested in 1895 and exiled to Siberia
- 1900, released and left Russia for the West, spent most of his next 17 years in Switzerland
= Became really involved in the disputes of the exiled Russian Social Democrats- considered themselves Marxists and favored Industrial Development
- Russian Social Democrats wanted to build a mass political party like the German SPD
- Lenin condemned any accommodations such as the ones the German SPD practiced, criticized trade unionism that settled for short-term reformist gains rather than work for true revolutionary change for the working class
- He also rejected the concept of a mass democratic party composed of workers
- Rejected both Kautsky's view that revolution was inevitable and Bernstein's view that democratic means could achieve revolutionary goals
- Substituted small, professional, nondemocratic revolutionary party for Marx's proletariat as the instrument of revolutionary change
- 1903, Lenin forced a split in the party ranks to the London Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party
= Received the majority for the win
- Bolsheviks= "Majority"
- Mensheviks= "Minority"
- Difference between the 2 chief factions of the Russian Social Democratic Party (1903)
- Believed revolution would transform Russia, not reform
- Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution- urged the socialist revolution to unite with the proletariat and the peasantry
- Believed the tsarist government probably could not suppress an alliance of workers and peasants in rebellion
- Lenin's 2 principles-
= Elite party
= Dual social revolution
- Between 1900 and WWI outbreak, Nicholas II's government was able to confront political upheaval more or less successful
- Industrialism still resented
- 1903, Nicholas dismissed Witte
- Due to conflicts over Manchuria and Korea, Russia went to war with Japan and lost
= Government faced an internal political crisis
= Japan captured Port Author, Russia's naval base on China's coast (early 1905)
- January 22, 1905, a Russian orthodox priest, Father George Gapon, led several hundred workers to petition to the tsar to improve industrial conditions
= As the petitions approached the Winter Palace, troops started to open fire, killing about 40 people and wounding hundreds; when it was finished the result was about 200 dead and 800 wounded
= This became Bloody Sunday (no one could now trust the tsar or his government)
- Next 10 months, revolutionary disturbances spread throughout Russia
- Sailors mutinied
- Workers went on strike, peasants revolted, and property was attacked
- Nicholas II's uncle was assassinated
- Liberal leaders of the Constitutional Democratic Party from the zemstvos demanded political reform
- University students went on strike
- Social Revolutionaries and Social Democrats agitated among urban working groups called soviets, controlled the city
- Nicholas II recalled Witte and promised Russia a constitutional government from the October Manifesto
- 1906, Duma- representative body, 2 chambers
= Nicholas II reserved to himself, but, ministerial appointements, financial policy, and military and foreign affairs
- April elections- P.A. Stolypin (1862-1911) replaced Witte
- Stolypin persuaded Nicholas to dissolve Duma
- Second assembly created in February 1907- this Duma dissolved in June
- Third Duma, elected in late 1907- more conservative franchise, proved to be sufficient for Nicholas II and his minister
- Stolypin set to repress rebellion by removing some of the revolt causes and rallying property owners behind the tsarist regime
- 1907- condemned almost 700 rebellious peasants to death
- November 1906, Stolypin canceled any redemption payments from the emancipation of serfs (1861)
= Did this to encourage peasants to abandon the communal system of the mirs
- Stolypin believed farmers would be more productive working for themselves
- A program to farm more efficiently for the peasants, improved agricultural production
- Many peasant small-holders sold their land and joined the industrial labor force
- Moderate liberals like the Duma for new land measures and the idea of competition and individual property ownership
- Stolypin hatred was widespread
- Countries older conservative groups and industrial workers stayed antagonistic to the tsar
- 1911, Stolypin was assassinated by a Social Revolutionary
- Nicholas II found no good successors, his government just dragged along
- Monk Grigory Efimovich Rasputin (1817?-1916) gained ascendancy when the tsars hemophilic son Alexis could not be helped medically
= He cured the boy
= This undermined the tsar's position and government after 1911