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CHM FINAL EXAM

STUDY
PLAY
True/False
The temp of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure
false
True/False
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the pressure in torr
False
True/False
The pressure of a gas is due to collisions of gas molecules
True
Divers often inflate heavy duty balloons attached to salvage items on the sea floor. If a balloon is filled to a volume of 3.00L at a pressure of 2.50 atm, what is the volume of the balloon when it reaches the surface?
7.50 L
If the volume of a gas container at 32.0 C changes from 1.55L to 755mL, what will the final temperature be?
-124 C
What is the temperature (in C) of 2.48 moles of gas stored in a 30.0L container at 1559 mm Hg?
29
What is the major component of the air we breathe?
nitrogen
Which state of matter has a low density and is not easily compressed?
- liquids
- gases
- solids
- both solids and liquids
- none of the above
none of the above
Increasing the intermolecular forces of a liquid will do which of the following?
- increase the surface tension
- decrease the vapor pressure
- decrease the evaporation rate
- increase the viscosity
- all of the above
all of the above
The rate of vaporization of a liquid can be increased by?
increasing the surface area and increasing the temperature
How many kilojoules of heat are needed to completely vaporize 42.8 grams of C4H10O at its boilng point?
Given: change in Hvap= 26.5 kJ/mol
15.3
How much energy does it take to melt a 16.87 g ice cube?
change in Hfus= 6.02 kJ/mol
5.64 kJ
If the solubility of sodium chloride is 36 grmns per 100 grams of water, which of the following solutions would be considered unsaturated?
5.8 moles of NaCl dissolved in 1 L of water
Which of the following compounds is a strong electrolyte?
- HCl
- NaC2H3O2
- NaCl
- NH4Cl
- all of the above
all of the above
A solution contains 100.0 g water, 10.0 g NaCl, and 15.0 g methanol. What is the weight percent of methanol in the solution?
12.0%
You need to prepare 2.00 L of 0.100 M Na2CO3 solution. The best procedure is weigh out :
21.2 g Na2CO3 and add water until the final solution has a volume of 2.00 L
How many grams of LiF would be present in 575 mL of 0.750 M LiF solution?
11.2
The Bronsted-Lowry definition of a base is:
a proton acceptor
WHich of the following is not an acid-base conjugate pair?
- H2CO3 and HCO3-
- NH4+ and NH3
- H2O and OH-
- H2S and OH-
H2S and OH-
What are the products of a neutralization reaction?
water and salt
A 25.0 mL sample of 0.105 M HCl was titrated with 31.5 mL of NaOH. What is the concentration of the NaOH?
0.0833 M
Which of the following acids is a diprotic, weak acid?
- phosphoric acid
- carbonic acid
- sulfuric acid
- hydrobromic acid
carbonic acid
How many moles of water are made from the reaction of 2.2 moles of oxygen gas?
4.4
Many metals react with halogens to give metal halides. For example
2AL (s) + 3Cl2 (g) yields 2AlCl3 (s)
If you begin with 13.5 g of aluminum, :
you will need 53.2 g Cl2 for complete reaction and will produce 66.7 g of AlCl3
COnsider the following generic chemical equation: 2A +5B yields C+3D
If you react 4 units of A with 10 units of B, which statement is true?
there are equivalent amounts of A and B
The theoretical yield of a reaction is 75.0 grams of product and the actual yield is 42.0 g. What is the percent yield?
56.0
How many grams of calcium phosphate are theoretically produced if we start with 3.40 moles of Ca(NO3)2 and 2.40 moles Li3PO4?
reaction: Ca(NO3)2 + 2Li3PO4 yields 6LiNO3 + Ca3(PO4)2?
351
A 24.0 g sample of nitrogen gas reacts with an excess of hydrogen gas to give an actual yield of 3.85 g NH3. What is the percent yield for this reaction?
Reaction: N2(g) + 3H2(g) yields 2NH3(g)
13.2%
How are wavelength and frequency of light related?
wavelength increases as the frequencu decreases
How many subshells are there in the n=2 principal shell?
2
How many electrons are unpaired in the orbitals of carbon?
2
How many core electrons are in a chlorine atom?
10
Which one of the following species has the electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6?
- Na+
- O2-
- F-
all of them
Which of the following elements ahs the lowest ionization energy?
F, He, C, Rb, Na
Rb
Which of the following atoms is the smallest?
B, Li, Be, O, Ne
Ne
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How many valence electrons are in the nitrate ion?
24
What is the correct lewis structure of N2?
:N triple bond N:
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Which of the following is considered a single electron group?
- single bond
- double bond
- triple bond
- all of the above
all of the above
Which of the following compounds would have a linear molecular geometry?
N2
H2S
CO2
N2 and CO2
Which compound listed below will dissolve in water?
SiO2
NH3
CCl4
NH3
What is the oxygen-to-sulfur mass ratio of sulfur dioxide?
1.0
How many of each type of atoms are there in the formula NH4C2H3O2?
N=1
H=7
C=2
O=2
Ammonium fluoride is considered which of the following?
ionic compound
WHat is the formula for an ionic compound made out of barium and nitrogen?
Ba3N2
What is the name of the compound whose formula is Na2O?
sodium oxide
What is the formula mass for diboron tetrachloride?
163.43 amu
How many O atoms are in ammonium acetate?
2
How many O atoms are present in sodium hypochlorite?
1
How many moles of Pb are in 4.71 times 10^21 Pb atoms?
0.000782
You have 10.0 g each of Na, C, Pb, Cu, and Ne. Which contains the smallest number of moles?
Pb
Whcih of the following molecules contain 9.02 times 10 raised 23 atoms?
9/00 g H2O
One mole of (NH4)2HPO4 contains how many moles of hydrogen atoms?
9
How many moles of carbon are in 3.5 moles of calcium carbonate?
3.5
Which of the following is NOT evidence that a chemical reaction has occurred?
- solid formation
- gas formation
- emission of light
- color change
- all are evidence of a chemical reaction
all are evidence of a chemical reaction
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An aqueous solution is:
water with another compound dissolved in it
All of the following compounds are soluble in water EXCEPT:
PbCl2
If you had an aqueous mixture that contained Ag+, K+, and Pb+ cations, how many different solids could precipitate if a chloride solution was added?
2
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What is true of the scientific method?
The scientific method emphasizes observation and experimentation as the way to understand the world
What is an example of a scientific theory?
all matter is compose of small, indestructible particles called atoms
A sample of wood with a mass od 3.0 g was burned in an open dish. The ashes weighed 1.2 grams. What happened to the rest of the wood?
the remaining 1.8 grams was converted into gaseous compounds
The correct scientific notation for the number 0.00050210 is:
5.0210 time 10^-4
The correct number if significant figures in the number 0.027090 is:
5
Determine the answer to the following equations with correct number of significant figures:
(1.103 + 2.03) times 1.02521=?
19.62
the correct prefic for the multiplier 0.000001 is:
micro
How many inches are in 2.80 ft?
33.6
How many low does 81 mg aspirin tablets can be made from 1.21 kg of aspirin?
15,000 tablets
A lead ball has a mass of 55.0 grams and a density of 11.4 g/cm3. What is the volume of the ball?
4.82 mL
A pure substance is:
composed of only one type if atom or molecule
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What is false?
energy is the single main component of the universe
If a particular process is endothermic, the reverse process must be:
exothermic
How many kilojoules are there in 95.0 calories?
397
When 49.5 J of heat is transferred to 7.3 g iron at 22 C, the temperature of the iron increases to 37 C. What is the specific heat of iron in J/g C?
0.45
What is the charge of the Barium ion?
2+
Isotopes are:
atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
How many protons and neutrons are in Cl-37?
17 protons, 17 neutrons
A fictional element has two isotopes, each making up 50% of the population. Isotope 1 has a mass of 80.0 amu, isotope 2 has a mass of 85.0 amu. Calculate the atomic mass of the fictional element.
82.5 amu
Acetate
C2H3O2-
Carbonate
CO3^2-
Bicarbonate or Hydrogen Carbonate
HCO3-
Hydroxide
OH-
Nitrate
NO3-
Nitrite
NO2-
Chromate
CrO4^2-
Dichromate
Cr2O7^2-
Phosphate
PO4^3-
Hydrogen Phosphate
HPO4^2-
Ammonium
NH4+
Hypochlorite
ClO-
Chlorite
ClO2-
Chlorate
ClO3-
Perchlorate
ClO4-
Permanganate
MnO4-
Sulfate
SO4^2-
Sulfite
SO3^2-
Bisulfite or Hydrogen Sulfite
HSO3-
Bisulfate or Hydrogen Sulfate
HSO4-
Peroxide
O2^2-
Cyanide
CN-
________makeup virtually everything we come into contact with.
Chemicals
_______is the science that seeks to understand what matter does by studying what atoms and molecules do.
Chemistry
________ is a way of learning that emphasizes observation and experimentation.
Scientific Method
_______ is a tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations.
Hypothesis
What is the basis for a scientific theory?
One or more well-established hypotheses
__________ is a brief statement that synthesizes past observations and predicts future ones.
Scientific Law
Includes: decimal part, exponential part, and an exponent.
Scientific Notation
1. All nonzero digits are significant 1.05

2. Interior zeros are significant 4.0208

3. Trailing zeros are significant 3.00

4. Leading zeros are insignificant 0.00005

5. Zeros at the end of a number but before the decimal point are ambiguous
Rules of Significant Figures
___________ answer has the same number of significant figures as the factor with the lowest number of significant figures
Multiplying/Dividing Significant Figures
____________answer has the same number of decimal places as the factor with the lowest number of decimal places
Adding/Subtracting Significant Figures
* meter is length

* mass is kilogram

* time is second

* temperature is Kelvin
Standard Units
Tera
(T) 10^12
Giga
(G) 10^9
Mega
(M) 10^6
Kilo
(k) 10^3
Deci
(d) 10^-1
Centi
(c) 10^-2
Milli
(m) 10^-3
Micro
(m) 10^-6
Nano
(n) 10^-9
Pico
(p) 10^-12
Femto
(f) 10^15
D= M/?
V= Volume
273+C=
K
(F-32)/1.8=
C
________ is anything that occupies space and has mass
Matter
solid, liquid, and gas
States of Matter
In _________ molecules are closely packed in fixed locations
Solids
________ atoms or molecules are arranged in geometric patterns with long-range; repeating order; salt, diamond
Crystalline
_________ atoms or molecules do not have long-range order; glass, rubber
Amorphous
_________ atoms and molecules are close to each other, but move freely; have a fixed volume; assume shape of container
Liquids
________ atoms or molecules are separated by large distances; move freely; are compressible
Gases
_________ is two or more atoms joined to one another in specific geometric arrangements.
Molecules
______________ is composed of only one type of atom or molecule
Pure Substance
A _________ is composed of two or more different types of atoms and molecules combined in variable proportions
Mixture
An _______ is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Element
A _________ is a substance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions
Compound
A _________ composition varies from one region to another
Heterogeneous Mixture
A ___________ composition is the same throughout
Homogeneous Mixture
Things that a substance displays without changing its composition.
Physical Properties
Things that a substance displays only through changing its composition
Chemical Properties
__________ is when matter changes its appearance but not its composition; ex: when ice melt
Physical change
___________ is when matter changes its composition; ex: copper turns green upon continuous exposure to air
Chemical change
What is the act of carefully pouring off; ex: oil into another container?
Decanting
__________ is the process in which the mixture is heated to boil off the volatile (easily vaporizable) liquid
Distillation
In ____________ the mixture is poured through filter paper usually held in a funnel
Filtration
________ is the quantity of thermal energy (usually in J) required to change the temperature of a given amount of the substance by 1 C
Heat Capacity
___________ is when the amount of the substance is expressed in grams
Specific Heat Capacity
Heat = Mass X Specific Heat Capacity X Temperature Change
q = m X C X DT
___________ is when the elements are arranged in order of increasing relative mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
Periodic law
Alkali metals
1A
Alkaline Earth metals
2A
Transition metals and elements
3B to 2B
Halogens
7A
Noble gases
8A
Lanthanides- and Actinides
bottom two rows
_______ are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but a different of neutrons
Isotopes
positively charged ions
cations
negatively charged ions
anions
"All samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent element." Describes which Law?
Law of constant composition
_________ exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units
Atomic elements
___________ do not normally exist I nature with single atoms as their basic units
Molecular elements
____________ contains two atoms of that element bonded together as their basic units
Diatomic molecules
____________ are compounds formed from two or more non metals
Molecular compounds
____________ are compounds formed from a metal and a non mental
Ionic compounds
When naming an ionic compound that is a _____________ metal forms only one type of ion
type I compound
When naming an ionic compound that is a__________ metal forms more than one type of ion
type II compound
__________ are ions that are themselves composed of a group of atoms with an overall charge
Polyatomic ions
Mono
1
Di
2
Tri
3
Tetra
4
Penta
5
Hexa
6
Hepta
7
Octa
8
___________ are molecular compounds that form H+ ions when dissolved in water; composed of hydrogen; sour taste; ability to dissolve metals
Acids
__________ is the average mass of molecules that compose a compound
Formula Mass
6.022 X 10^23
Avogadro's number
1 mole =
6.022 X 10^23 atoms
Mass percent composition
mass percent of element X = mass of X in sample of compound / mass of sample of compound X 100 %
_________ gives the smallest whole-number ratio of each type of atom
Empirical formula- gives the smallest whole-number ratio of each type of atom
_________ gives the specific number of each type of atom in a molecule
Molecular formula