283 terms

Linux Dictionary

This database has been created for students of Computer Science. No knowledge is required, but some basics about 'how a computer works'. To present the level of required knowledge: if you hear the word 'threads' and you think about either a cat that has some fun or a needle, then this course is probably not for you.
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Terms in this set (...)

UID
a unique number assigned by Linux to each user on the system
GID
a number that associates a system user with other users sharing something in common
PID
an identification number that is automatically assigned to each process when it is created
tty
a command to print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input
ntp
a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems
git
a version-control system created by Linus Torvalds
base32
a transfer encoding that uses the twenty-six upper-case letters A-Z, and the digits 2-7
POSIX
a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between Unix-like operating systems
binary file
a file that contains at least some data that consists of sequences of bits that do not represent plain text
character file
a pipe between a driver and programs
regular file
a file that contains ASCII text
crack
to decrypt a password or to bypass a copy protection scheme
daemon
a computer program that runs as a background process
IRC
an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text
ftp
a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network
CLI
a computer program where the user/client issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text
GitHub
the web-based hosting service for version control using Git running on Ruby of Rails
global
from the beginning of a file to the end used to describe an operation such as a search
hard link
an additional name for an existing file in the system
symbolic link
a file that contains a reference to another file in the form of an absolute or relative path
home directory
the directory on Unix-like operating systems that serves as the repository for a user's personal files
root directory
the first or top-most directory in a hierarchy
Telnet
the unencrypted version of SSH
SSH
the encrypted version of Telnet
Kerberos
a network authentication protocol created at MIT
kernel
part of an operating system that implements the interaction with hardware and the sharing of resources
KISS
an acronym, stands for Keep It Simple, Stupid
widget
a control element in a graphical user interface - an element of interaction, such as a button or a scroll bar
PS1
the default prompt string in Linux systems
macro
a shortcut that performs multiple instructions in one step
regular expression
a sequence of characters that define a search pattern
absolute path
the complete details needed to locate a file or folder
relative path
a way to specify the location of a file relative to a directory
open source
a type of computer software in which source code is released with freedom to study, change or distribute it
owner
the user who has privileged access to a file; typically the user who created the file
padding
process of adding unused data to the end of a data in order to make it conform to a certain length
PAM
an authentication module that provides dynamic authentication support for applications and services in a Linux
parse
to analyse data so it can be processed by a computer program
password file
a file containing basic information about users authorised to log into a given Linux system; on modern Linux systems no longer stores user's passwords
plaintext
data that is not encrypted and therefore easily read
Xfce4
a lightweight desktop environment for UNIX-like operating systems
Meld
a visual diff and merge tool targeted at developers
Thunar
a file manager for the Xfce Desktop Environment
GVim
a GUI for Vim text editor
GTK
a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces
GNOME
a graphical user interface created for GNU project
Unity
a graphical shell for the GNOME desktop environment originally developed by Canonical Ltd.
Nemo
a file manager for the Cinnamon Desktop Environment
Cinnamon
the principal desktop environment for Linux Mint
Blueman
a full featured Bluetooth manager written in GTK+
KDE
the K Desktop Environment; one of several user interfaces for Linux, built with Qt
Mate
a graphical user interface that is the continuation of GNOME 2
xterm
the most basic terminal emulator for the X Window System
gedit
the default text editor of the GNOME desktop environment and part of the GNOME Core Applications
KeePassX
a cross-platform and open-source password manager
LibreOffice
a free and open-source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation
GIMP
a cross-platform image editor available for most operating systems
Pinta
a Paint-like drawing program for Linux systems
Synaptic
GTK+-based graphical user interface for APT
GParted
a GTK+ front-end to GNU Parted and an official GNOME partition-editing application
Conky
a free software desktop system monitor for the X Window System
Transmission
a BitTorrent client which features a variety of user interfaces on top of a cross-platform back-end
Wine
free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs developed for Windows to run on Linux
Pidgin
a chat program which lets you log in to accounts on multiple chat networks simultaneously
XDM
the default display manager for the X Window System
Rythmbox
a free and open-source audio player that plays and helps organize digital audio files
cmus
a small, fast and powerful console audio player which supports most major audio formats
Atom
free and open-source text and source code editor developed by GitHub community
Synapse
a semantic launcher written in Vala that you can use to start applications as well as find and access relevant documents and files
Darktable
a free and open-source photography workflow application and raw developer aimed at non-destructive raw photo post production
Calibre
a free to use e-book manager for most platforms
Gcalculator
an open source scientific calculator with a GUI and part of the GNOME Core Applications
Konqueror
a free and open-source web browser and file manager; developed for KDE project
Nautilus
the default file manager for GNOME
Dolphin
the default file manager for KDE Plasma 5
Krusader
an advanced twin panel (commander style) file manager for KDE Plasma
Caja
the default file manager for Mate desktop environment
OpenGL
a cross-language, cross-platform API for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics
gman
a GTK+ based front-end for man
Kate
a text editor developed by the KDE free software community
Qt
a cross-platform application framework and widget toolkit for creating classic and embedded GUIs, and applications
KFind
a KDE based file finder
Wireshark
a free and open-source packet analyser used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and communications protocol development
Qt Creator
a cross-platform C++, JavaScript and QML integrated development environment which is part of the SDK for the Qt GUI application development framework
awk
a pattern scanning and text processing language
cp
a program for copying files and directories
mv
a program for moving and renaming files
scp
a program for remotely copying files
ls
a program for listing directory contents
ps
a program for reporting a snapshot of the current processes
grep
a program for printing lines matching a pattern
who
a program for showing who is logged on
which
a program for locating a command
mkdir
a program for making directories
touch
a program for changing file timestamps
rm
a program for removing files or directories
rmdir
a program for removing empty directories
man
an interface to the on-line reference manuals
cmp
a program for comparing two files byte by byte
xxd
a program for making a hexdump
host
a DNS lookup utility
wget
the non-interactive network downloader
curl
a program for transferring a URL
whereis
a program for locating a binary or a source
whatis
a program for displaying one-line manual page descriptions
file
a program for determining a file type
vim
a command line programmer's text editor
emacs
a GNU project text editor
uniq
a program for omitting repeated lines
sed
a stream editor for filtering and transforming text
sort
a program for arranging lines of text files
tail
a program for outputting the last part of files
head
a program for outputting the first part of files
time
a program for running programs and summarising system resource usage
tee
a program for reading from standard input and writing to standard output and files
sudo
a program for executing a command as another user
strings
a program for printing the strings of printable characters in files
su
a program for changing UID
strip
a program for discarding symbols from object files
strace
a program for tracing system calls and signals
stat
a program for displaying file or file system status
samba
a Windows SMB/CIFS fileserver for UNIX
nano
a command line text editor; a free Pico clone
cat
a program for concatenating files and printing on the standard output
kill
a program for sending a signal to a process
ping
a program for sending ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts
traceroute
a program for printing the route packets trace to network hosts
pgrep
a program for printing processes matching a given pattern
passwd
a program for changing user password
chmod
a program for changing file mode bits
chown
a program for changing file owner
chgrp
a program for changing file group
ntpd
an NTP daemon program
npm
a NodeJS package manager
nmap
a network exploration tool and port scanner
aircrack-ng
an 802.11 WEP / WPA-PSK key cracker
nginx
an HTTP server, reverse proxy server, load balancer and mail proxy server
apache
an HTTP server maitained by an open community of developers
less
a program for listing file content (similar to more)
more
a program for listing file content (similar to less)
most
a program for browsing or paging through a text file
mono
an ECMA-CLI native code generator
mktemp
a program for creating a temporary file or directory
GNU Midnight Commander
a visual shell for Unix-like systems
make
a GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs
cmake
a cross-platform make utility to maintain groups of programs
lsusb
a program for listing USB devices
lsblk
a program for listing block devices
lsattr
a program for listing a file attributes on the Linux second extended file system (ext2)
chattr
a program for changing a file attributes on a Linux file system
ln
a program for making links between files
ldd
a program for printing shared object dependencies
ifconfig
a program for configuring a network interface
iwconfig
a program for configuring a wireless network interface
iptables
an administration tool for IPv4/IPv6 packet filtering and NAT
ip
a program for showing / manipulating routing, network devices, interfaces and tunnels
id
a program for printing real name and effective user and GIDs
whoami
a program for printing effective UID
htop
an interactive process viewer
top
a program for displaying Linux processes
hostname
a program for showing / setting the system's host name
groups
a program for printing the groups a user is in
gdb
the GNU debugger
mount
a program for mounting a filesystem
umount
a program for unmouting a filesystem
date
a program for printing or setting the system time
find
a program for searching for files in a directory hierarchy
fdisk
a program for manipulating disk partition table
true
a program doing nothing, successfully
false
a program doing nothing, unsuccessfully
attr
a program for extending attributes on XFS filesystem objects
bash
the GNU Bourne-Again Shell
cfdisk
a program for displaying or manipulating a disk's partition table
chroot
a program for changing root directory
clang
the LLVM C, C++ and Objective-C compiler
clear
a program for clearing the terminal screen
dd
a program for copying file blocks
df
a program for reporting file system disk space usage
dpkg
the package manager for Debian
pacman
the package manager for ArchLinux
apt
the package manager for Ubuntu
gpg
the OpenPGP encryption and signing tool
eject
a program for ejecting removable media
zsh
the Z shell
wc
a program for printing newline, word and byte counts for each file
alias
a program for creating command aliases
seq
a program for printing a sequence of numbers
cowsay
a configurable talking cow program; turns text into ASCII cows, with speech balloons
cppunit
a unit testing library for C++
cups
a modular printing system for Unix-like computer operating systems which allows a computer to act as a print server
dig
a DNS lookup utility
echo
a program for displaying a line of text
dmesg
a program for printing or controlling the kernel ring buffer
tar
an archiving utility created for the GNU project
readelf
a program for displaying information about ELF files
set
a program for printing all environment variables
export
a command for making a local variable global
unset
a program for unsetting an\environment variable
ldconfig
a program for configuring dynamic linker run-time bindings
hostid
a program for printing the numeric identifier for the current host
uname
a program for printing system information
mail
a program for sending and receiving e-mails
fg
a program for switching a process from background to foreground
bg
a program for listing all background processes
rpm
a package management system created for RedHat operating system
yum
a command-line package-management utility for computers running the Linux using the RPM
service
an application (or set of applications) running in the background waiting to be used, or carrying out essential tasks
irssi
a command-line IRC client program for Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and Windows
valgrind
a programming tool for memory debugging, memory leak detection, and profiling created for the GNU project
locale
a program for getting locale-specific information
locale-gen
a program for generating localization files from templates
logger
a program for entering messages into the system log
lsmod
a program for showing the status of modules in the Linux kernel
lspci
a program for listing all PCI devices
ltrace
a library call tracer
dir
a DOS program for listing directory contents
mailx
a Unix utility program for sending and receiving mail, also known as a Mail User Agent program
mkfifo
a program for making named pipes
mkfs
a program for building a Linux filesystem
mkswap
a program for setting up a Linux swap area
objcopy
a program for copying and translating object files
objdump
a program for disassembling or displaying information from object files
od
a program for displaying data in various human-readable output formats
openssl
a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks
parted
the GNU partition editor, used for creating and deleting partitions
pipe
a symbol that tells the shell to send the output of a command to another rather than display this output
tilde
a symbol that is interpreted as an absolute path of the user's home directory
shutdown
a utility for bringing the system down in a secure way
poweroff
a utlity for sending an ACPI signal which instructs the system to power down
nasm
an assembler and disassembler for the Intel x86 architecture used to write 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit programs
as
the portable GNU assembler
ld
the GNU linker
gcc
the GNU C and C++ compiler
malloc
a function for allocating dynamic memory
mmap
a function for creating a new mapping in the virtual address space of the calling process
fork
a function for creating a new process by duplicating the calling process
fcntl
a function for performing an operation of the open file descriptor
open
a system call for creating / opening the specified file
close
a system call for closing a file descriptor, so that it no longer refers to any file and may be reused
read
a system call for reading up to given amount of bytes from the specified file descriptor
write
a system call for writing data to the file referred to by the file descriptor
exit
a function for causing normal process termination
syscall
a function for invoking the system call whose assembly language interface has the specified number
socket
a function for creating an endpoint for communication returning a file descriptor that refers to that endpoint
file descriptor
an abstract indicator (handle) used to access a file or other input / output resource, such as a pipe or network socket
child process
a process created by another process
compile
to translate a high level code into machine-code
compiler
a program that converts instructions into machine-code form so that they can be read and executed
assembly
a low-level programming language
assembler
a program that converts assembly code into machine-code
libc
a shorthand for the "standard C library"; a library of standard functions that can be used by all C programs
core dump
a dump of the contents of main memory, carried out typically as an aid to debugging
breakpoint
an intentional stopping or pausing place in a program, put in place for debugging purposes
ELF
a common standard file format for executable files, object code, shared libraries, and core dumps in Linux
zombie process
a process that has completed execution but still has an entry in the process table
magic number
an non-obvious constant whose value is significant to the operation of a program and that is hardcoded
preprocessor
a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program
free
a function for freeing the memory space pointed to by the given pointer
JIT compiler
a compiler that allows programs to be automatically compiled on the fly
mutex
a synchronisation mechanism for enforcing limits on access to a resource in an environment where there are many threads
null
a pointer pointing to the zero address
BIOS
non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialisation during the booting process, and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs
GRUB
the boot loader package from the GNU Project
UEFI
a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware
init
the first process started during booting of the computer system
ext4
a journaling file system for Linux, developed as the successor to ext3
swap space
a portion of a hard disk drive that is used for simulating main memory
word
a fixed-sized piece of data handled as a unit by the instruction set or the hardware of the processor
cron
a time-based job scheduler in Unix-like computer operating systems
X
a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on Unix-like operating systems
Wayland
a computer protocol that specifies the communication between a display server and its clients
device file
an interface to a device driver that appears in a file system as if it were an ordinary file
ALSA
a software framework and part of the Linux kernel that provides an application programming interface for sound card device drivers
x86
a family of instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant
x86_64
the 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set
GNU Hurd
the multiserver microkernel written as part of the GNU project
Linux
a free and open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel
Syslinux
a suite of lightweight master boot record boot loaders for starting up IBM PC compatible computers with the Linux kernel
boot loader
a program that loads an operating system when a computer is turned on
systemd
an init system used to bootstrap the user space and to manage system processes after booting
mount point
the directory under which a file system is accessible after being mounted
parity bit
in asynchronous communications and primary storage, an extra bit added to a data byte for parity checking
parity checking
the most basic technique used to detect memory or data communication errors