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Histology Lab 1 Study Material
Terms in this set (104)
A collection of cells of similar structure that perform a specific function.
A collection of cells of similar structure that perform a specific function is called _____________.
Tissues combine to form an ______________.
Organs combine to form a _______________.
What are the 4 basic tissue types?
_____________________ covers all surfaces exposed to external environment and lumen (=hollow) of an organ.
What acts as a barrier between the internal and external environment?
What are the 2 functions associated with the epithelium?
1. covers all surfaces exposed to external environment and lumen of an organ
2. acts as a barrier b/w the internal and external environment
Epithelial cells are categorized by cell shape. What is the cell shape that means flat?
Epithelial cells are categorized by cell shape. What is the cell shape that means cube-shaped?
Epithelial cells are categorized by cell shape. What is the cell shape that means tall?
Epithelial cells are categorized by cell shape. What are the 3 types of cell-shape?
Adjacent epithelial cells are anchored to underlying connective tissue via a _________________ ______________________.
Epithelium that consist of a SINGLE layer of cells that are in contact with the basement membrane are known as?
Epithelium that consist of MULTIPLE layers of cells that are in contact with only the basal-most layer are known as?
The basal-most layer is known by what 2 names?
stratum germinativum or basale
What basal-most layer gives rise to the more superficial layers?
stratum germinativum ("basale")
________________________ tissue functions to support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs.
What are the 3 functions associated with connective tissue?
3. Separate different types of tissues and organs
What are the 3 main components associated with connective tissue?
2. structural fibers
3. ground substance
In connective tissue, there is an amorphous gelatinous material that surrounds the cells. What is this referred as?
What is ground substance?
An amorphous gelatinous material that surrounds the cells in connective tissue.
Both __________ and _________ ________________________ contribute to the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells.
fibers and ground substance
Connective tissue can be further subdivided into what 3 categories?
1. connective tissue proper
2. specialized connective tissue
What category of connective tissue does dense and loose fall under? (connective tissue proper, specialized connective tissue, mesenchyme)
connective tissue proper
What category of connective tissue does cartilage, blood and bone fall under? (connective tissue proper, specialized connective tissue, mesenchyme)
specialized connective tissue
What category of connective tissue does undifferentiated tissue found in a developing embryo fall under? (connective tissue proper, specialized connective tissue, mesenchyme)
What is known as undifferentiated tissue found in a developing embryo?
undifferentiated tissue found in a developing embryo
Nervous tissue consists of __________ and ______________(supportive) cells.
neurons and neuroglial cells
________________ cells in nervous tissue are also known as "supportive" cells.
What is the functional unit of nervous tissue?
The cell consists of ____________ that conducts impulses TO the cell body, whereas the ______________ conducts impulses AWAY from the cell body.
dendrites and axon
At the end of an axon are ___________ _____________ _______________ that release neurotransmitters into a synapse.
nerve terminal boutons
Nerve terminal boutons release ________________________________________ into a synapse.
Neurons allow for what?
rapid communication b/w cells
Muscle consists of muscle fibers called _____________________.
What are 3 of the functions that the muscle is responsible for?
2. Body support
3. Heat generation
What are the 3 types of muscle?
1. Striated (=skeletal)
What forms the bulk of muscle tissue?
striated (=skeletal) muscle
Name 3 of the five characteristics associated with striated (=skeletal) muscle?
1. produces voluntary movement
4. distinctly striated
5. multiple nuclei
What type of muscle is found in the wall of the heart?
Name 3 of the seven characteristics associated with cardiac muscle?
2. involuntary pumping action
5. weakly striated
6. single nucleus
7. intercalated discs
Cardiac muscle fibers are connected to adjacent cardiac muscle fibers via ___________________ ______________.
What type of muscle is found in the walls of organs?
Name 3 of the five characteristics associated with smooth muscle?
1. slow involuntary movements
3. elongated w/ pointed ends
4. single large nucleus
5. form sheets or layers of muscle tissue
How is striated (=skeletal) muscle different from both cardiac and smooth muscle?
2. voluntary movements
3. distinctly striated
4. multiple nuclei
__________________ muscle fibers form sheets or layers of muscle tissue rather than bundles.
Where can simple squamous epithelium be found?
[Hint: total of 4 locations you can name]
1. lining of lung alveoli
2. capillary endothelium
4. Bowman's capsule of kidney
What are some functions associated with simple squamous epithelium?
1. allows for diffusion of gases and nutrients
2. mediates filtration
Where can stratified squamous epithelium be found?
[Hint: total of 5 locations you can name]
2. lining of mouth
What is a function associated with stratified squamous epithelium.
protects against abrasion, foreign particles, invading bacteria, and dehydration
__________________ mitotically produce superficial layers that are continuously sloughed off.
stratum germinativum ("basale")
Superficial layers may be __________________________ (esophagus) or __________________________ (stratum corneum of epidermis).
non-keratinized or keratinized
Where can simple cuboidal epithelium be found?
[Hint: total of 2 locations you can name]
1. kidney tubules
2. ducts of glands
What are 2 functions associated with simple cuboidal epithelium?
Where can simple columnar epithelium be found?
[Hint: 2 locations]
1. lining of gastrointestinal tract
2. villi in small intestine
What is a function associated with simple columnar epithelium?
allows for absorption of digestive products
____________________ columnar epithelium have cells that have nuclei positioned at a SIMILAR level.
__________________ columnar epithelium have cells that have nuclei positioned at DIFFERENT levels.
Where can pseudostratified columnar epithelium be found?
[Hint: 3 locations]
3. lining of respiratory tract
What produces the false appearance of being stratified in pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
single layer of ciliated cells that have nuclei positioned at different levels
What is a function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
to propel mucus (mucociliary escalator)
Transitional epithelium can be found where?
[Hint: 1 location]
What is the function of transitional epithelium?
assists in storage of urine
In transitional epithelium, cells change shape from _____________ to _______________ shape.
cuboidal to squamous
Why is transitional epithelium uniquely stratified?
It is uniquely stratified to permit periodic distension that accommodates the fluctuation of urine volume.
In transitional epithelium, when the bladder is EMPTY, the shape is?
In transitional epithelium, when the bladder is FULL, the shape is?
What are the 3 types of loose connective tissue proper?
What is the function of areolar (loose connective tissue)?
surrounds and cushions numerous organs
What loose connective tissue has a loose meshwork arrangement of thick fibers (collagen) and thin fibers (elastic and reticular) with associated fibroblasts and macrophages?
Where can reticular (loose connective tissue) be found?
2. bone marrow
3. lymph nodes
What is the function of reticular (loose connective tissue)?
forms structural scaffolding
Where can adipose tissue be found?
[Hint: 6 locations]
2. around internal organs
3. in bone marrow
5. breast tissue
6. greater omentum
What is the function of adipose (loose connective tissue)?
1. energy storage
What are the 3 types of dense connective proper tissue?
1. dense regular
2. dense irregular
Where can dense regular connective tissue be found?
1. in ligaments (bone to bone)
2. tendons (muscle to bone)
What is the function of dense regular connective tissue?
resists tensile (pulling) forces in a SINGLE direction
Where is dense irregular connective tissue found?
1. in the dermis of skin
What is the function of dense irregular connective tissue?
resists tensile forces from MANY directions
Where can elastic tissue be found?
in the aorta and other large arteries
What is the function of elastic tissue?
provides elasticity (important for recoiling)
What type of tissue has a high concentration of elastic fibers and fibroblasts?
What are the 5 types of special connective tissue?
1. hyaline cartilage
2. elastic cartilage
Where can you find hyaline cartilage?
4. costal cartilage
5. articular surfaces of long bones
What is the function of the hyaline cartilage?
provides support and reinforcement
Hyaline cartilage have distinct ___________________.
Does hyaline cartilage have fibers?
Yes, but they are transparent.
Where can you find elastic cartilage?
What is the function of elastic cartilage?
support and flexibility
Where can you find fibrocartilage?
1. intervertebral disks
2. pubic symphysis
3. meniscus of knee joint
What is the function of fibrocartilage tissue?
resists compressive forces
What is the basic structural unit of compact bone?
osteon (=Haversian system)
In bone, deposition of calcium phosphate on collagen fibers forms concentric rings called ______________________ that surround a central canal known as the ______________________ canal, that houses blood vessels and nerves.
2. Haversian canal
Between lamellae are ___________________, situated within _______________, small canals referred to as _______________ run perpendicular to the lamellae to connect osteocytes.
What characteristic of connective tissue does blood lack?
The blood contains large amounts of ground substance called _________________.
Red blood cells are referred to as _______________________, that are involved in __________________.
White blood cells are referred to as ____________________ and are involved in ________________ response.
Platelet are referred to as ______________________, that are involved in blood clotting.
What is the functional unit of the nervous system?
What are the 3 types of muscle?
1. striated muscle
2. cardiac muscle
3. smooth muscle
Where can you find striated muscle?
[Hint: any voluntary muscle]
4. lots of your facial muscles
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