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Terms in this set (40)

Neural Pathway:

***Sensors

- Receptors == Specialized cells/structures

- Eyes, Ears, Nose, Skin, etc.

- Chemoreceptors, Thermoreceptors, Proprioceptors, etc.

- Have a THRESHOLD

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***Input Signals:

- Also known as Afferent Signals (somatic neurons)

- Transmit Electrical/Chemical info via sensory neurons

- Signals are differentiated based of which nerve/neuron is used

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***Integrating Center

- Usually a part of the CNS (brain, spinal cord)

- Can have multiple, conflicting signals coming in at the same time

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***Output Signals

- Also known as Efferent Signals (motor neurons)

- Electrical/Chemical via efferent neurons

- Signals are differentiated based on which NERVE/NEURON is used


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***Targets

- Wherever the efferent neuron travels (Muscle, Adipose Tissue, etc.)


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Endocrine Pathway:

***Sensors, Input Signals & Integrating Center

- Endocrine cells act as both sensor and integrating center

- None (no neurons required, only use hormones) sense stimulus acts directly on endocrine cells

- Same Endocrine cells that are stimulated will also integrate that information

- Endocrine system is simplistic because it can take the input signal, integrate and respond to it alone. Rather than sending that information to be processed elsewhere like with Neural Pathways.

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***Output Signals

- Hormones are secreted through surrounding fluid

- Signals are differentiated based on which HORMONE is used

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***Targets

- Cells that have the proper receptor for that hormone (HORMONE WILL NOT BIND IF THE RECEPTOR IS NOT SPECIFIC TO IT)

- Hormones circulate in blood and Endocrine cells require correct receptors for hormone to attach and for the endocrine cell to respond


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FOR BOTH NEURAL/ENDOCRINE PATHWAYS

***Responses

- Two levels of Response:

1) Cellular Response (What happens in the cell(s) that has been targeted)

Ex == Pancreas released insulin in response to elevated blood glucose levels

2) Systemic Response (The result of response of that cell(s) on the whole body)

Ex == Blood glucose levels drop significantly due to release of insulin from Pancreas (pancreatic beta cells)