Terms in this set (62)
art/science of interpreting scripture correctly
3 ways to interpret Scripture
historical/ grammatical approach, eisegesis, and exegesis
Historical/ grammatical approach
Rules of Greek language grammar and syntax cannot be twisted or changed to fit an agenda. Historical applies directly to understanding the exact context of Scripture given, why, to whom and when
the interpretation of a text by reading into it one's own ideas
exposition/ explanation of a text based on a careful, objective analysis, most often using historical/ grammatical principles; "to lead out of"
Four Document Theory
Holds that Mark, Q, M, and L are the basis for Matthew and Luke.
2 principles decreasing in importance in the church today
authority of Scripture & sufficiency of Scripture
original biblical book written by the hand of original author
source; "to breathe out"
the early church fathers attempted a simple harmonization of the Gospels. Matthew would be the "lead" Gospel, with Mark being a simplification
There existed a foundational document that no longer exists from which the 3 synoptic Gospels draw their sources.
The period where the gospel was transmitted orally before a written gospel
27 BC - 14 AD
developed professional army, revived state religion, took the census in Luke 2, was in power when Jesus was born.
14 AD- 37 AD
Adopted son of Augustus, cruel to would be coup, crucifixion of Jesus occurred under his reign.
mentally ill, demanded to be worshiped as a god, assassinated by imperial guards.
Mental scholar, probably suffered from polio, good leader, strongly opposed foreign cults, expelled Aquila and Priscilla from rome (acts 18)
began well, signs of mental illness, murdered his mother, blamed christians for burning of Rome, ruled when paul and peter were martyred
soldier, destroyed Jerusalem in 70 ad, built the coliseum in Rome
Son of Vespasian, autocrat, demanded to be worshiped, exiled john to patmos
Herod the great
rebuilt the temple 2x original size, hated by Jews, murdered babies of bethlehem, murdered 2/10 wives and 3 sons and scores of family members
Ruled Judea and Samaria, feared by joseph (matt. 2:22)
ruled NE of Galilee, good and non interfering ruler( Luke 3:1), married to hernias daughter of Salome
ruled Galilee and persia, called fox by jesus in luke 13, murdered john the baptist, married herodias, exiled caligula
grandson of herod the great, regained all of herod the great's land, persecuted christians, killed james son of zebedea, died suddenly from cancer like disease
sided with Romans in destruction of Jerusalem, Acts 25 mentioned by Paul.
A scholarly approach to the study of Scripture that attempts to see how each of the Gospel writers edited, or redacted, materials for that Gospel's audience.
Edict of Milan (314 AD)
forced the church to begin identifying not only its theology but books considered authoritative
2 bishops of Council of Nicaea
Jesus was not fully God
Jesus was absolutely fully God
Greek translation of the Old Testament
Judaism feasts/ celebrations
passover, pentecost, trumpets, atonement, tabernacles
the Jewish sect that arose in Palestine in the 2nd century BC as a result of Hellenism; very conservative; seeking to restore the faith of their Fathers----> Pharisees
time period when Israel was in captivity by various world powers (Babylon & Persia)
Jewish house of worship; replaced temple; purpose= to study Scripture
mainly eastern religions; a mix of religions; emphasis on emotions; a "cult"
exodus of egypt
giving of law at sinai
jewish nationalists; freedom through violence; Jesus' disciple Simon was affiliated
ascetic, monk-like group; withdrew from judaism because they thought the Pharisees were too liberal; many believe John the Baptist was influenced by this community; found dead sea scrolls
(Yom Kippur) forgiveness of national sin
largest group in israel; "purists" or "separists" ----> Hasidim
strict interpretation of Law; no oral tradition, denied angels, no personal immortality, political opportunists, life centered on sacrifice
Roman Pantheon; polytheistic & animistic
2 aspects of Jewish life that disappeared
monarchy & prophetic office
greek influence on NT world
Council of Nicaea (325 AD)
issues pertaining to salvation are accurate though rest is "up for grabs"
influential 2nd century church bishop; rejected Old Testament & only accepted Luke and Paul
New Testament (27 books) came together in final form
The Bible is completely true and, while not a "history" book, any claims made are correct
totally without any error in theology, science, history, grammar, syntax, math, etc.
Two Document Theory
theory that Luke and Matthew come from Mark and "Q" (Quelle or sayings of Jesus), these two documents are the sources for the synoptics
Four major views
1. Pre-critical explanation
2. Tradition Theory
3. Form criticism
The Synoptic Problem
The scholarly term for the question of relationship of the first three Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Most scholars believe that Matthew and Luke are expanded forms of Mark.
The synoptic Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke