200 terms

Chapter 7 EMS

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Supine
patient is lying face up n his back
Prone
patient is lying face down on his stomach
lateral recumbant
patient is lying on his or right side
fowlers position
patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a 45 to 60 degree angle
semi fowlers position
patient is lying on his back with his upper body elevated less than 45 degrees
Trendelenburg position
patient is lying on his back with his legs elevated higher than his head
shock position
patient is lying on his back with his elevated only 12 in.
sagittal plane
divides body into left and right segments
midsagittal plane (midline)
divides body equally into right and left
frontal or coronal plane
divides body into front and back
transverse plane (horizontal or axial)
divides body into upper and lower halves
midclavicular
refers to the center of each of the collarbone
midaxillary
refers to the center of the armpit
anterior
patients front
posterior
patients back
superior plane
above the waist
superior
above a reference point
inferior plane
below the waist
inferior
below a reference point
dorsal
toward the back (spine)
ventral
towards the front (abdomen)
medial
towards center
lateral
to the left or right of a point
bilateral
on both sides
proximal
near a point of reference
distal
far from point of reference
plantar
sole of foot
palmar
palm of hand
ligaments
bone to bone
tendon
bone to muscle
skull
contains the cranium and face
orbits
eye socket
nasal bones
the bed of the nose
maxillae
fused bone of the upper jaw
zygomatic bones
cheekbones
mandible
lower jaw
spinal column/vertebral column
33 vertebrae, 5 segments
vertebrae
connected by ligaments
cervical spine
is the neck and is the first 7 vertebrae
most prone to injury
thoracic spine
upper back and are the next 12 vertebrae after the cervical spine
lumbar spine
lower back and is the next 5 bones after the thoracic spine
least movable; mostly muscle injuries
sacral spine
back wall of the pelvis and is 5 bones under the lumbar region
coccyx
tailbone and is the last 4 vertebrae
thorax
chest and is composed of the sternum and ribs
clavicle
collarbone
manubrium
superior portion of sternum; location of clavicle
xiphoid process
the inferior part of sternum; location of ribs
pelvis
forms floor of the abdominal cavity, supports the intestines and houses reproductive organs
pubis
anterior and inferior portion of the pelvis
iliac crest
side of the pelvis; the wings
ischium
posterior and inferior portion of the pelvis
extremedies
limbs of the body (arms and legs)
acetabulum
the pelvic socket joint
femur
thighbone
patella
kneecap
tibia
anterior and medial lower leg bone; weight bearing bone
fibula
attached to tibia and is lateral side of leg
calcaneus
heel bone
tarsals
make up the proximal portion of foot
metatarsals
5 toes
phalanges (feet)
14 on each foot, 2 in big toe, 3 in the rest
scapula
shoulder blade
acromion
tip of shoulder girdle
humerus
upper arm, largest upper extremity
radius
the lateral bone of forearm;thumb side
ulna
the medial bone of forearm, little finger side
olecranon
(bone) part of elbow coming from ulna
carpals
8 wrist bones
metacarpals
structural support of the hand
phalanges
bones of the fingers and toes
joint
places where one bone connects with another
flexion
Bending toward the body
extension
straightening or movement away from the body
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline
circumduction
a combination of adduction, abduction, flexion, and extension (the shoulder)
Pronation
turning of a limb so it is facing the back
supination
turning of a limb so it is facing the front
Ball-and-socket joint
widest range of motion and permits flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation (shoulder and hip)
hinge joint
permits flexion and extension (elbow, knee, finger)
pivot joint
turning motion (head on neck)
gliding joint
one bone slides across another until surrounding structures restrict movement (small bones in hands and feet)
saddle joint
shaped to permit combinations of limited movements along perpendicular planes (ankle)
condyloid joint
Modified ball and socket joint that allows limited motion in two directions (wrist)
musculoskeletal system
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement
skeletal (voluntary) muscle
can be contracted and relaxed by will of the individual, striated
smooth (involuntary) muscle
large fibers that carryout automatic functions through rhythmic, wavelike motions
cardiac muscle
only found in the heart, involuntary muscle, striated
automaticity
the ability of the heart to create its own impulse even when not connected to the CNS
respiration
refers to the process of moving oxygen and carbon dioxide across membranes in and out of the alveoli, capillaries, and cells
oxygenation
is the form of respiration in which oxygen molecule moves across a membrane from one area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low concentration
ventilation
is the mechanical process by which air is moved in and out of the lungs
respiratory system
oxygen from the air is transported to the blood
pharynx
throat
oropharynx
oral portion of pharynx
nasopharynx
nasal portion of pharynx
esophagus
leads to the stomach
trachea
leads to lungs
larynx
voice box
thyroid cartilage
Adam's apple, cartilage covering larynx
cricoid cartilage
ring shaped, lowest part of larynx
epiglottis
flap to separate the trachea and esophagus
bronchi
2 branches that go to right and left lung
bronchioles
smaller branches of bronchi, lined with smooth muscle
alveoli
air sacs at the end of bronchioles, site of gas exchance
visceral pluera
covers the outer surface of the lungs
plueral cavity
a tiny space with negative pressure to allow the lungs to stay inflated with air
parietal pleura
covers the internal chest wall
diaphragm
separates thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavty, contributes 60-70% of the effort to breath
phrenic nerve
lies between C3 and C5 controls the diaphragm
intercostal muscle
muscle between the ribs
circulatory system
is composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
atria
upper chamber that receives blood from the veins
ventricles
lower chambers of the heart pumps blood to arteries
valves
one way doors between each chamber to keep blood flowing in one direction
tricuspid valve
between the right atrium and the right ventricale
pulmonary valve
at the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
mitral or bicuspid valve
between the left atrium and left ventricle
aortic valve
at the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle
vein
carries blood towards heart
artery
carries blood away from the heart ,except
aorta
major artery, that divides into iliac arteries (runs down leg)
coronary arteries
supplies the heart with blood
carotid arteries
on either side of neck, supplies brain with blood
femoral arteries
major artery of thigh
dorsalis pedi arteries
artery on top of foot
posterior tibial arteries
calf to foot, can be felt behind ankle
brachial arteries
artery of the arms, used to find pulse in infants at elbow and shoulder
radial arteries
forarm artery, pulse found at wrist
pulmonary arteries
originate at right ventricle of heart, carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs
arteriole
arteries are smaller the farther they are from the heart, smallest kind of artery
capillary
tiny blood vessels that connects arteriole to a venule and allows for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and wasts
venule
smallest branch of veins connected to capillaries
venae cavae
carries deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium
pulmonary veins
carries oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
red blood cells
carry oxygen and carry carbon dioxide away from the cell
white blood cells
are apart of the bodies immune system and defend against infection
platelets
clot the blood (to stop bleeding)
plasma
liquid part of blood, transports nutrients and wastes
pulse
wave of propelled blood
blood pressure
is the force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the arteries
systolic blood pressure
is exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contract
diastolic blood pressure
is is exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest, or between contractions
hydrostatic pressure
is the force exerted on the inside of the vessel walls as a result of the blood pressure and volume
edema
swelling in the tissue
perfusion
is the delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems, and the elimination of carbon dioxide and other waste products.
hypoperfusion (shock)
is the insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and the inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes.
aerobic metabolism
oxygen with chemical and physical changes that take places within the cells
anaerobic metabolism
without oxygen with chemical and physical changes that take places within the cells
nervous system
it enables the individual to be aware and react to environment, it coordinates the response, and keeps the body working together. Nerves carry impulses from tissues to organs and back
central nervous system
consists of the brain, spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrum
outer most portion of the brain, controls voluntary motion and memory
cerebellum
balace
brain stem
controls respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor center
peripheral nervous system
composed of nerves located outside the spinal cord
endocrine system
is made up of ductless glands, secretes hormones.
integumentary system
skin
epidermis
outer layer of skin
dermis
second layer of skin that is much thicker than the epidermis and contains blood vessels, hair, follicles, sweat glands, oil glands, and sensory nerves
Anatomy
study of structure
Physiology
study of function
digestive system
composed of the alimentary tract (passage through which food travels) and the accessory organs (they help prepare food for absorption)
urinary (renal) system
kidneys filter blood and help keep acid/ base levels
abdominal quadrants
Four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location of a pain or injury
agonal respirations
occasional, gasping breaths that occur after the heart has stopped
airway
passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
anatomical planes
Imaginary divisions of the body
anatomical position
To stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward
anterior plane
Patients front
aspiration
Breathing fluid, food, vomitus, or an object into the lungs
combining form
combination of the root and the combining vowel
conchae
three uneven, scroll-like nasal bones that extend down through the nasal cavity
cranium
skull
digestion
Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used
face
area between the brow and chin and has 14 bones.
false vocal cords
vestibular folds
giottic opening/glottis
space between the true vocal cords
heart
A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
horizontal plane
parallel with the ground and divides the body into upper and lower halves.
hypopharynx (laryngopharynx)
part of the pharynx that lies below the epiglottis and above the esophagus
lateral malleolus
knobby surface landmarks of the ankle joints.
left/right
the patients left and right
lungs
Main organs of the respiratory system
medial malleolus
smaller distal end of the tibia
midaxillary line
An imaginary vertical line that starts at the middle of the axilla (armpit) and extends down the side of the chest.
Midline
An imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves.
posterior plane
Patients back
prefix
word that comes before the combining word
recovery position
A side-lying position used to maintain a clear airway in unconscious patients without injuries who are breathing adequately.
renal system
The body system that regulates fluid balance and the filtration of blood. Also called the urinary system.
reproductive system
Reproduce offspring- produce male sex cells (sperm) and female sex cells (oocytes)
respiratory membrane
where gas exchange occurs between the air on the alveolar side and the blood on the capillary side; the alveolar and capillary walls form the respiratory membrane
suffix
a word part that can be added at the end of a word to make up a new word
Superior
toward the head
surfactant
thin layer of fluid lining the alveoli
thoracic spine
upper back
trachealis muscle
band of smooth muscle that connects the ends of each tracheal cartilage.
transverse line
an imaginary line drawn horizontally through the waist
true vocal cords
inferior set, vibrates as air passes through to generate sound
visceral peritoneum
connective tissue that covers the outer surface of the lungs.