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Developmental Psychology Exam 1
Terms in this set (20)
Multi-direction, multi-contextual, multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary, plastic
A rule that explains a set of facts or observations - formal or informal
Psychoanalytic Theory Freud
Psychosexual stages of development. Must navigate through stages with help of primary caregiver. Goal is successful balance in each stage. Sexual energy (libido) drives these stages. Unsuccessful resolution leads to fixation.
Psychoanalytic Theory Freud - Psychosexual Stages
ORAL: birth to 1 year - goal: developing trust, weaning; fixation: passivity, gullibility, smoking, overeating.
ANAL: 1 to 3 years - goal: developing, autonomy, toilet-training; fixation: orderliness, disorganization.
PHALLIC: 3 to 6 years - goal: sexual attraction, resolving Oedipus complex; fixation: sexual dysfunction or deviance, recklessness, vanity.
LATENCY: 6 to 12 years.
GENITAL: 12 years through adolescence - goal: sexual maturity; fixation: lack of sincere and mature sexual interest.
Psychosocial Theory: Erickson
Reasoning: Freud's theories too sexual. Expands on Freud's theory. Psychosocial stages: characterized by a crisis, requires more positive than negative experiences in stage, focuses further on adulthood as well.
trust vs. mistrust (birth to 1 year)
autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 to 3 years)
initiative vs. guilt
industry vs. inferiority (6 to 12 years)
-adolescence and adulthood
identity vs. role confusion (12 to 18 years)
intimacy vs. isolation (18 to 30 years)
generativity vs. stagnation (30 years to late adulthood)
integrity vs. despair (late adulthood)
Focused on observable processes.
- classical conditioning: Pavlov and Watson. Pairing of a neutral stimulus with one that elicits a response, eventually the neutral stimulus on its own elicits a response.
- operant conditioning: Skinner. Takes classical conditioning to the next level by focusing on on behaviors instead of stimuli. Reinforcement vs. punishment.
- modeling/social learning: Bandura. Especially important in childhood. We learn more/best from people that we perceive to be similar to us.
Focuses on the thought we have about our experiences.
PIAGET'S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT:
- our cognitive changes as we get older, because of this our methods of seeking knowledge also change.
-we seek cognitive equilibrium, where everything makes sense and fits into our knowledge of the world. Assimilation and accommodation.
SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: use of senses and motor abilities to understand world (birth to 2 years).
PREOPERATIONAL: symbolic understanding, but egocentric (2 to 6 years).
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL: (6 to 11 years).
FORMAL OPERATIONAL: abstract reasoning and analysis (12 years through adulthood).
Information Processing Theory
Expands on Piaget. We are like computers and we simply become more efficient at processing information throughout time.
Hardware: brain, memory system, general anatomy.
Software: the processes we use to understand information.
Sociocultural Theory: Vygotsky
Social interactions and culture are key to development.
Culture -> what we learn.
Social interation -> how we learn it.
Children are apprentices in learning how to think and behave.
Humanistic Theory: Maslow and Rogers
Humans all strive towards self-actualization. Focus on how we become the best we can be.
Maslow: pyramid of needs
Rogers: unconditional positive regard (nicest guy ever)
Biological Theories: Behavioral Genetics
The study of how genes influence our behavior. Our development influenced by our family history.
Develop based on what has been evolutionary advantageous in the past. Applies to biology and social behaviors - ex. selfishness vs. helping behavior.
Studies the extent to which given traits are inherited. Complex, since most traits are "polygenetic"- due to a combination of a variety of genes. Also complex due to epigenetic factors.
In the human cell, threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair originating from each parent, and that contain the remarkable substance DNA.
Genotype and Phenotype
A Genotype is a set of alleles that an individual has for a character. A Phenotype is the physical appearance of a character.
Homozygous alleles - carried when both parents contribute the same allele for a particular gene. Heterozygous alleles - carried when parents contribute different alleles for a particular gene.
Dominate vs. recessive.
Prenatal Development Stages
Germinal Period (zygote, weeks 1-2)
Embryonic Period (embryo, weeks 3-8)
Fetal Period (fetus, week 9-birth)
Healthy Newborn Functioning
Functioning in areas of color, heartbeat, reflexes, muscle tone, respiration.
Babies should score at least a 7 at five.
Should be about 5.5 lbs.
Otherwise, likely they have later development.
The sadness and inadequacy felt by some new mothers in the days and weeks after giving birth
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