37 terms

Human development and diversity (2019)

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Terms in this set (...)

Development gap
A term used to describe the polarization of the world's population into 'haves' and 'have-nots'.
UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
A 'roadmap' for human development by setting out priorities for action.
Informal sector
Unofficial forms of employment that are not easily made subject to government regulation or taxation.
Indigenous people
Ethnic groups who have enjoyed the uninterrupted occupation of a place for long periods of time (predating any arrival of more recent migrants).
Social entrepreneurship approaches
A way of trying to meet human development goals, which draws on business techniques and principles.
Microloans
Small loans of money to low-income borrowers
Corporate social responsibility
Recognizing that companies should behave in moral and ethical ways towards people and places as part of their business model.
Conflict minerals
Products of mining industries sourced from conflict zones whose production may have involved slave labour.
Cultural traits
Culture can be broken down into individual component parts, such as the clothing people wear or their language.
Ethnicity
The shared identity of an ethnic group, which may be based on common ancestral roots or cultural characteristics such as language, religion, diet or clothing.
Identity
An individual or society's sense of attachment to one or more places.
Cultural diversity
The level of heterogeneity (difference) exhibited by a community in terms of ethnicity, religion, language or other defining cultural traits.
Global culture
A shared sense of belonging at the planetary scale that is demonstrated through common ways of communicating, consuming media and food, dressing or behaving (including shared social norms such as a commitment to upholding human rights).
Westernization
The imposition and adoption of a combination of European and North American cultural traits and values at a global scale.
Americanization
The imposition and adoption of US cultural traits and values at a global scale.
'Globish'.
A widely spoken subset of English.
Melting pot
A cultural process that involves different communities mixing over time to form a more uniform culture which combines traits drawn from the traditions of each of the original communities.
Ethnoscape
A cultural landscape constructed by a minority ethnic group, such as a migrant population.
Cultural landscape
The distinctive character of a geographical place or region that has been shaped over time by a combination of physical and human processes.
Hyperglobalization
This theory proposes that the relevance and power of countries will reduce over time.
Cultural diffusion
Powerful civilizations have brought cultural change to other places for thousands of years.
Cultural imperialism
The practice of promoting the culture/ language of one nation in another.
Glocalization
This involves TNCs adapting their products for different markets to take account of local variations in tastes, customs and laws.
Hegemonic power
The ability of a powerful state or player to influence outcomes without reverting to 'hard power' tactics such as military force.
Cultural hybridity
When a new culture develops, whose traits combine two or more different sets of influences.
Financescape
A modern landscape of tower blocks and offices that incorporates state-of-the-art architecture, and which is usually designed to impress by reaching greater heights than the surrounding district.
Diaspora
The worldwide scattering or dispersal of a particular nation's migrant population and their descendants.
Size of the Indian diaspora
28 million (2016)
Members of the Indian diaspora who are NRIs
16 million
Civil society
Any organization or movement that works in the area between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern.
De-globalization
A reduction in the intensity of some global interactions or the introduction of new barriers to some global flows.
Nationalist
A political movement focused on national independence or the abandonment of policies that are viewed by some people as a threat to national sovereignty or national culture.
Autocratic state
A non-democratic country where political power is concentrated in the hands of one or more people who may be unelected.
The 'local sourcing' movement
The practice of buying goods and services solely from local area suppliers, thereby boycotting the use of extended global supply networks such as those favoured by most supermarkets.
Militia
An armed non-official or informal military force raised by members of civil society.
Protectionism
When state governments erect barriers to foreign trade and investment such as import taxes.
Resource nationalism
When state governments restrict exports to other countries in order to give their own domestic industries and consumers priority access to the national resources found within their borders.

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