37 terms

APES land, public and private

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tragedy of the commons
the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self- interest for short term gain
externality
the cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service
negative externality
the tragedy of commons is a result of this economic phenomenon
6 categories of public lands
national parks, managed resource protected areas, habitat/species management areas, strict nature reserves and wilderness areas, protected landscapes and seascapes, and national monuments
maximim sustainable yield (MSY)
the intermediate harvest, the maximum amount that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource. In other words, the MSY is the maximum harvest that will be adequately replaced by population growth.
resource conservation ethic
people should maximize resource use based on the greatest good for everyone. calls for policy makers to consider the instrumental value of nature.
multiple- use lands
some public lands are classified as MULTIPLE USE LANDS and may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction
four federal agencies
Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the United States Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), and the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS).
BLM lands
grazing, mining, timber harvesting, and recreation
USFS lands
timber harvesting, grazing, and recreation
NPS lands
recreation and conservation
FWS lands
wildlife conservation, hunting, and recreation
Rangelands
dry, open grasslands, used primarily for cattle grazing, particularly susceptible to fires and other environmental disturbances
Forests
dominated by trees and other woody vegetation
Clear-cutting
- a timber harvest practice that involves removing all, or almost all, the trees within an area. It is the easiest harvesting method and in most cases is also the most economical.
- Effects: increases wind and water erosion, adds silt and sediment to nearby streams, increases the amount of sunlight that reaches rivers and streams, affects certain aquatic species, cause of habitat alteration and destruction and forest fragmentation.
Selective cutting
removes single trees or relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest, this method creates many openings in a stand where trees can reseed or young trees can be planted, so the regenerated stand contains trees of different ages.
ecologically sustainable forestry
removes trees from forest in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other, noncommercial tree species. This approach has a goal of maintaining all species- both plants and animals- in as close to a natural state as possible.
tree plantations
large areas typically planted with a a single rapidly growing tree species
suppress fires
this strategy led to the accumulation of large quantities of dead biomass on the forest floor. Eventually, this fuel built up until a large fire became inevitable.
prescribed burn
a method for reducing the accumulation of dead biomass, a fire is deliberately set under controlled conditions, help reduce the risk of uncontrolled natural fires and provide some of the other benefits of fire as well
National wildlife refuges
the only federal public lands managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife
National wilderness areas
are set aside with the intent of preserving large tracts of intact ecosystems, are created from other public lands (usually national forests or rangelands) and are managed by the same federal agency that managed them prior to their designation as wilderness.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
1969, mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
environmental impact statement (EIS)
Before a project can begin, NEPA rules require the project developers to file an EIS. An EIS typically outlines the scope and purpose of the project, describes the environmental context, suggests alternative approaches to the project, and analyzes the environmental impact of each alternative.
endangered species act
a 1973 law designed to protect species from extinction
suburban areas
surround metropolitan centers and have low population densities compared with those urban areas
exurban areas
are similar to suburban areas, but are unconnected to any central city or densely populated area.
urban sprawl
occurs when populations shift away from rural and urban areas and into suburban and exurban areas. It is also the creation of urbanized areas that spread into rural areas and remove clear boundaries between the two. The landscape in these areas is characterized by clusters of housing, retail shops, and office parks, which are separated by miles of road.
four main causes of urban sprawl
automobiles and highway construction, living costs, urban blight, and government policies
urban blight
the degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs
Highway Trust Fund
began by the Highway Revenue Act of 1956, and funded by federal gasoline tax, pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways
induced demand
an increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow
zoning
a planning tool developed in the 1920s to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods and create quieter, safer communities. Governments that use zoning can classify land areas into "zones" in which certain land uses are restricted.
multi-use zoning
allows retail and high density residential development to coexist in the same area.
smart growth
is a way people are beginning to recognize and address the problems of urban sprawl, one way they are doing so is through the principles of smart growth. Smart growth focuses on strategies that encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.
10 basic principles of smart growth
1. Mixed land uses
2. Create a range of housing opportunities and choices
3. create walkable neighborhoods
4. encourage community and stakeholder collaboration development decisions
5. take advantage of compact building design
6. foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place
7. preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas
8. provide a variety of transportation choices
9. strengthen and direct development toward existing communities
10. make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost- effective
Eminent domain
allows a government to acquire property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it. It is frequently used to acquire land for highway projects, but also has been used recently, and controversially, in urban redevelopment.