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SHS 485: Exam 1
Terms in this set (35)
Myelin sheath provides insulation to the axon to help send signals efficiently throughout the brain.
What is myelin and what is its purpose?
Axon sends signals throughout the brain
What is the computational function of an Axon?
Dendrites receive signals and carry them to the cell body.
What is the computational function of a dendrite?
The cell body stores information.
What is the computational function of the cell body?
Consists mainly of nerves, cell bodies, and and branching dendrites
Consists mainly of myelin sheath and fatty tissue
Grooves of the brain
Folds or ridges of the brain
- The primary cortex is only involved in processing information from a single modality.
- The non-primary cortex may be involved in processing information from more than one modality.
Primary Cortex Vs. Non-Primary Cortex
The thalamus is a major relay center connected to many areas of the brain, including primary and auditory cortex and the primary visual cortex.
Why is the thalamus such a critical brain structure for many functions including language?
- Two hemispheres
- Motor control, particularly in making postural adjustments and in fine tuning movements
- Higher cognitive functions, including language
Scan that looks at the brain
Scan that looks at the brain activity
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: used to produce temporary focal lesions
Compression, stretching, shearing
Compression, disrupting blood flow, some healthy tissue may be removed with the tumor
How do brain tumors affect the brain and therefore cognitive abilities, including language?
Brain tissue degenerates
How do degenerative diseases affect the brain and therefore cognitive abilities, including language?
Rules describing how speech sounds are combined and how different combinations lead to systematic variation in articulation
Rules describing how morphemes and words can be combined to make complex words (morphology = word formation)
Rules for combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences
Culturally invented rules for how we "ought" to talk (if we want to appear educated and proper)
Rules which describe how people actually talk
- Showed that language is localizable in cortex
- Left hemisphere critical
- Frontal involvement confirmed
What did Paul Broca contribute to the field of aphasia?
- Sophisticated model of cortical function involving dynamic cortical networks
- First functional anatomic model of language and brain
- First to present conduction aphasia
- Sophisticated model of conceptual organization in cortex
What did Carl Wernicke contribute to the field of aphasia?
M = motor
- Broca's area
- Production problems, good comprehension
What is the "M" in the house model referring to?
- Wernicke's area
- Comprehension problems, empty error-filled production
What is the "A" in the house model referring to?
C= Conceptual Knowledge
- Error Filled speech, good comprehension
What is the "C" in the house model referring to?
Word is replaced by a word that is related to the target word
Word is replaced by a non-word but more than half of the intended target word is pronounced correctly
Nonfluent speech, good comprehension
Fluent disordered speech, poor comprehension
Poor speech repetition, comprehension and production are intact
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
SHS 485 Final
SHS 485 final
SHS 485 Exam 1
SHS 485 Final
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