History of the Civil Rights
Terms in this set (141)
1865- the constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
1868 - a constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
1870 - The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The New South
Not all white southerners revered the lost cause. Many looked to the future rather tha the past. They attempted to modernize the South's economy and to diversify southern agriculture. They encouraged northern investment and the building of new railroads to tie the south into national and international markets. Rather than a lost cause, these southerners looked to a new south
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
De jure segregation
Racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
De facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Plessy V. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Booker T. Washington
1856-1915 believed in economic independence 1st then comes social equality. last civil rights leader during his time to be born into slavery, founded Tuskegee institute in 1881, believed in education through economics would spark self improvement amongst Blacks as well as better relations between black and whites, believed that Blacks shouldn't expect to gain equal rights immediately, but instead should be proud that there are furthering themselves in the economic world
Atlanta Exposition Address
1895- In this address Washington encouraged blacks to "cast down their buckets", encouraged friendly race relations, criticized and called "Uncle Tom" for address and it is often called "Atlanta Compromise"
"Cast down your buckets where you are"
Washington encourages both blacks and whites to used each other to form a productive economy. Tells blacks to utilize their surroundings and the people in them to bring them selves to industrial success. Also encouraged whites to "cast down their buckets" as well and to embrace African-Americans so that both races could gain economic success together
1868-1963, first Black person to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Believed in the "talented tenth", believed that without civil rights, economic betterment was impossible. He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
" early 20th c.- term used to describe the new intellectual , elitist.Black man. The New Negro believed in many of the ideas of Marcus Garvey, especiallt black pride and black self- improvement.
Founded in 1905, a group of african Americsna that called for full civil liberties, an end to racial discrimination, an recogition of human brotherhood. laid out the plans of the NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
founded by W.E.B. DuBois in 1910, the magazine of the NAACP, published current events, poems, art, and literary works, and exposed many talent of the Harlem Renaissance as well as promoting an identity for African Americans, and spoke on injustice.
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks. Du Bois used the term to describe the likelihood of one in ten black men becoming leaders of their race in the world, through methods such as continuing their education, writing books, or becoming directly involved in social change. He believed they needed a classical liberal education to reach their true destiny as what would in the 20th century be called public intellectuals:
Charles Hamilton Houston
1895-1950, went to Amherst College, served as an officer in WWI in a segregated army, first black editor of Harvard Law Review in Harvard Law School, joined NAACP and elected to special council of NAACP, took on cases (ex: Houston and other lawyers went to court in an attempt to Black teachers' salaries, in 1940 left NAACP and challenged discrimination in public transportation, housing, utilities etc., focused on attaining civil rights through education.
-first black justice on the Supreme Court of the US (President Johnson nominated him in 1967 and he got the position)
-From 1939 to 1961, he served as director and chief counsel for the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund.
-he was the defense lawyer in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1964)
In this case he argued that the "equal protection clause" of the 14th amendment nessecitated that all citizens be treated equally, particularly in the public school system.
He won the case.
-won 6 other Supreme Court cases in the 50s regarding desegregation in parks, swimming pools, bus systems, athletic facilities.
-1930, NAACP commissioned attorney Nathan Margold to produce a plan for a legal campaign against segregation. The Margold Report proposed to attack the doctrine of separate but equal by challenging the inherent inequality of segregation in publicly funded primary and secondary schools.
Charles Hamilton Houston, however, recognized the pervasiveness of racism and believed they first needed to establish a series of legal precedents. He modified the Margold Report by beginning the NAACP's legal campaign with lawsuits for equal facilities in graduate and professional schools.
-1916, (a West Indian black nationalist) arrived in US for the first time.
-by the 1920s he had built the "largest and most influential Afro-American mass movement"
-formed the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association)
-most of his followers were black city dwellers (who had just moved to cities during WWI)
-urged American blacks to be proud of their race and preached their return to Africa, their ancestral homeland.
-To this end he founded the Black Star Line in 1919 to provide steamship transportation, and the Negro Factories Corporation to encourage black economic independence.
-By 1920s this is the Largest and broadest mass movement of blacks ever.
return of some American blacks to Africa
creation of black businesses in us
separation from whites in us
no more colonialism in Africa by Europe.
"Let the negro have a country of its own."
Does not approve of NAACP's plans.
Universal Negro Improvement Association
-established by Marcus Garvey in 1914.
1. To establish universal cofraternity among blacks.
2. promote spirit of pride and love.
3. assist the needy and develop independent negro nations and communities.
4. establish universities, colleges, schools for blacks
5. work for betterment of conditions for blacks everywhere.
6. believe in and teach pride in the black race and its purity.
Wanted blacks to return to Africa.
Also it worked to: 1) to improve local conditions in Jamaica (establish educational and industrial colleges, promotion of commerce and industry, strengthen the bonds among the different races that lived in Jamaica)
2) to promote the spirit of race pride and love in Negroes in all countries,
To establish agencies in the principal countries of the world to protect the Negro.
"Doctrine of Revitalization"
-by Marcus Garvey
-through this doctrine, Garvey "put steel in the spine of many Negroes...[and] helped to destroy their inferiority complex."
-"a deliberate, organized conscious effort by members [of the black society] to construct a more satisfying culture."
-the revival of central cultural beliefs and values and the elimination of alien influences.
-"the time has come for blacks to stop emulating heroes of other races"
-"black men, you were once great; you shall be great again!"
-be proud of who you are, black men and women and embrace it.
"We have a beautiful history and we shall create another one in the future."
Gaines v. Missouri (1938)
-Lloyd Gaines (a citizen of Missouri) wanted to go to law school at the University of Missouri. He was denied entry solely because he was black.
-The local court said that Gaines had to go to one of the bordering states' black law schools if he wanted to go to law school.
-There were no black law schools in Missouri, so Gaines went to court saying that Missouri had not followed the ruling of Plessy (separate but equal facilities must be made).
-the Supreme Court decided that Missouri had in fact, not provided a separate but equal facility and made the University of Missouri pay for Gaines' education at an out-of-state law school.
-The Communist Party of the USA
-very appealing to blacks because it focused on class not race, and it let black members join and be active.
-The FBI considered most influential black civil rights leaders to be members of the CPUSA. (for example, Jack O'Dell)
-During the 50s and 60s (time of the Cold War, Red Scare), many groups, especially the NAACP has to divert its attention away from the civil rights struggle and had to spend more time and energy worrying about governmental investigations on possibly "subversive" members of their organizations
James Weldon Johnson
NAACP leader and Harlem Renaissance writer; he wrote poetry and, with his brother, the song "Lift Every Voice and Sing." NAACP Secretary
The New Deal
-FDR created the New Deal.
-because racism so ingrained in the South, the New Deal positively affected blacks less in the South than it did in the North.
-promoted economic recovery over the need for other changes (such as race-relations).
-it's programs (such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the Agricultural Adjustment Admin. (AAA), and the National Recovery Administration (NRA) were not at all aimed at helping blacks.
-The NRA required that labor received higher wages...thus, black employees were replaced with whites. There was a surplus in white labor, so no businesses felt the need to hire blacks.
-The AAA worked to raise farm prices by creating scarcity...thus tenant famers' labor no longer needed and ~3 million Southern blacks were forced off the land.
-The CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) was an all-white labor union, blacks consisted less than 3% of the first 250,000 admitted into the CCC. These number slowly increased.
-However, the relief and welfare of the New Deal did assist blacks; it allowed them to survive the depression.
-"The new Deal could neither aid Afro-Americans to the extent their privation required not vanquish Jim Crow in the South."
-When blacks were given relief, racists talked about "blacks spoiled by relief, no longer beholden to local landlords, no longer hungry and a willing source of cheap labor."
Thus, relief for blacks was lowered in the South.
-blacks were at the mercy of the white personnel in relief offices.
A. Philip Randolph
-Randolph focused on large-scale working together (power of the masses), non-violence, and was very tied to the labor movement. He was also a critic of the NAACP (he said they didn't support and work for the working class)
-Created the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (formation of a labor union for workers of the Pullman Company).
-Organized the March on Washington of 1941 (which was called off because FDR agreed to issue Executive Order 8802)
-Randolph also helped Rustin and Martin Luther King Jr. to organize the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963.
-In 1947, Randolph formed the Committee Against Jim Crow in Military Service, later renamed the League for Non-Violent Civil Disobedience. President Harry S. Truman abolished racial segregation in the armed forces through Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948.
A Philip Randolph and Chandler Owens are the publishers; it had socialist ties and it employed many Harlem writers
March on Washington, 1941
-Organized by A. Philip Randolph.
-Blacks resented their exclusion from the nation's defense industries.
-Randolph knew that no action would be taken until blacks were standing on the lawn of the White House.
-The marchers drew up a document stating their demands (which follow):
1. End Jim Crow in education, housing, transportation, and every other social, economic, political privilege. And especially an end to discrimination in D.C. in all public places and institutions.
2. Enforcement of the 5th and 14th Amendments to ensure the end of lynching.
3. All barriers in the exercise of suffrage be removed.
4. abolition of segregation in army, navy, marine/air corps (all branches of national defense)
5. End discrimination in jobs and job training and that the FEPC be made a permanent institution.
6. All federal funds be withheld from any agency which practices discrimination in the use of such funds.
7. Demand colored representation in all administrative agencies.
8. Demand colored representation in peace talks during postwar settlement.
Executive Order 8802
-Also known as the Fair Employment Act
-signed by FDR on June 25, 1941
-outlawed discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries (NOT the armed forces themselves) and in government.
-FDR issued it because A. Phillip Randolph threatened to hold the March on Washington.
-Fair Employment Practices Committee
-created on June 25, 1941 by President Roosevelt when he signed Exec. Order 8802 to investigate alleged breaches of Exec. Order 8802.
-Consisted of a chairman and 4 appointees of the president.
-Committee is to receive and investigate complaints of discrimination in violation of order 8802.
Executive Order 9981
-issued July 26, 1948 by Harry S. Truman.
-extended Exec. Order 8802 to include the armed forces (that is,"opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.")
Southern Regional Council
-Formed out of the NAACP at the Raleigh Convention.
However, many members of the SRC also joined organizations like SNCC
-The SRC was born from the failure of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation (1919-1943).
-SRC emerged from an exchange of written statements between black and white Southerners.
-It "became one of the foremost interracial organizations in the South."
-Urged 4 things:
1. the formation of a new declaration of American Principles
(equal opportunity for all)
2. "wisdom and maturity through which methods, procedures, and rates of change may be worked out in the spirit of, and in conformity with, the principles of our American democracy"
3. "that there will be actual realistic accomplishments, rather than mere words."
4. that "the crisis is not only southern, but national, not only for whites, but for Negroes and other races as well."
-The central purpose of the council was "cooperation and the active building of good will."
-The SRC's monthly journal.
-Served as a forum by which the SRC sought to shape the opinion of Southern leaders and moderate whites.
-SRC sponsored fact-finding missions and statistical surveys which were published in New South.
-SRC leaders believed that, when presented with the "facts" of Southern life, white Southerners would conclude segregation was wrong.
-Southern activists and the national media considered the New South the best source for accurate, up-to-date information on the movement.
Congress of Racial Equality
-begun in Chicago in 1942 by James Farmer, George Houser, and Bernice Fisher.
-Set up the Journey of Reconciliation (1941) and the Freedom Rides (1961).
-was a sponsor of the 1963 March on Washington
-CORE really takes off in the 1960s.
-this is because blacks found a void in leadership. The NAACP was not involved in the sit-in movement.
-CORE produced a how-to manual on how to stage sit-ins.
-The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), a network of civil rights groups that includes CORE and SNCC, launches a massive effort to register black voters during what becomes known as the Freedom Summer
Smith v. Allwright
• bans all white primary
• This decision is important, because in the South, after 1936, the Democratic Party is the only game in town.
• If blacks cannot choose the Democratic candidate during the election, then they loose political power.
Sweatt v. Painter
• Herman Sweatt was denied admission to the University of Texas Law School because he was black
• Texas had a law school for blacks at the time, but it was inferior to the whites law school
• Thurgood Marshall and the NAACP attacked these segregated institutions saying duplicated segregated facilities were economically inefficient and could never be considered equal
• Blacks had "intangibles" here- they could not and did not have access to the best professors or the ability to work on Law Review at their segregated Law School
• NAACP argues that segregation was psychologically harmful: it reinforced feelings for inferiority
• Note on NAACP strategy - Missouri v. Gaines and Sweatt v. Painter first to build precedence and THEN attack segregation directly.
McLaurin v. Oklahoma
• George McLaurin had applied to the University of Oklahoma's PhD. program in Education in 1947.
• He was rejected on racial grounds, and sued.
• The Oklahoma Supreme Court (recognized the Gaines precedent) allowed George McLaurin to be admitted
• The University required that McLaurin sit in the hall, rather than in classrooms with other white students, and to sit in separate areas of the law library and the cafeteria by himself, and to use both facilities at different hours
• McLaurin sued again and the Supreme Court heard the case in 1950
• "must receive the same treatment at the hands of the state as students of other races." Said by Chief Justice Vinson in reference to the case
"To Secure These Rights"
• During World War II, African Americans complained that discrimination at home could not be squared with the fight against intolerance overseas.
• President Roosevelt responded to this complaint by issuing an executive order in June 1941 directing that blacks be accepted into job-training programs in defense plants, forbidding discrimination by defense contractors and establishing a Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC).
• Harry Truman, Roosevelt's successor, asked Congress to create a permanent FEPC, and in December 1946, he appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President's Commission on Civil Rights
• The Commission on Civil Rights would recommend "more adequate means and procedures for the protection of the civil rights of the people of the United States."
• The Commission issued its report, "To Secure These Rights," in October 1947
• it defined the nation's civil rights agenda for the next generation. The Commission noted the many restrictions on blacks, and urged that each person, regardless of race, color or national origin, should have access to equal opportunity in securing education, decent housing and jobs.
• the Commission suggested anti-lynching and anti-poll tax laws, a permanent FEPC, and strengthening the civil rights division of the Department of Justice.
Journey of Reconciliation
• April 1947
• Eight white passengers and eight black passengers would ride a bus from Washington D.C. to Louisville, Kentucky
• They were riding to see if the south would implement the Morgan decision
• Whites sat in the back and blacks sat in the front, or sat beside one another
• They limited this ride to the Upper South because of the danger of this action would cause in the Deep South
• The leaders were Baynard Rustin and George Houser (a white Methodist minister and co-founder of CORE
• The Journey was sponsored by CORE and the Fellowship of Reconciliation
Morgan v. Virginia
• Irene Morgan refused to give up her seat to a white couple on a bus headed to Maryland from Gloucester, Virginia
• The NAACP took on the case led by Thurgood Marshall
• NAACP lawyers made the argument that segregation in interstate travel violated the Constitution's Interstate Commerce Clause
• On June 3, 1946 the court ruled that segregation in interstate travel was unconstitutional as "an undue burden on commerce"
• Although that decision became law, the southern states refused to enforce it and Jim Crow continued in the South
• This decision does not pertain to facilities used while traveling inter-stately
• Born in Marshall, Texas
• Had a college education from Wiley College and Howard university
• Refused to serve in the segregated army during World War II
• 1942 co founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) which sought to end segregation through active nonviolence
• organized the Freedom Rides that would attack segregation in interstate travel through the Deep South
• on May 4 black and white men and women began the ride to test segregated bus terminals as well as seating on vehicles
• He served as the National Director of CORE from 1961 to 1966.
Brown v. Board
• It was argued December 1952
• It was reargued December 1953 around the question of intent and historical context of 14th Amendment
• April 1955 argue relief part of case, known as Brown II
• May 1955 the court decided unanimously that schools should be desegregated "with all deliberate speed"
• Brown v. Board was really made up of five different cases from different states lumped together to make one supreme court case
• psychologist Kenneth Clark, who had argued conclusively that segregated facilities produced a deeply ingrained sense of inferiority and limits which made any idea of equality impossible.
• The courts argued that Plessy could not be a part of this case, because Plessy dealt with transportation not education
• Member of the Freedom Rides
• Were supposed to ride the bus from Washington D.C. to New Orleans
• He was severely beaten by a white mob in Anniston when a bomb was also thrown into the bus
"With All Deliberate Speed"
• hand down May 1955
• was very controversial because with all deliberate speed was not specific or a specific time limit, so white southerns would keep the schools segregated for as long as they wanted, and maintain that they were integrating with all deliberate speed
• On February 25, 1956 Harry F. Byrd called for what became known as Massive Resistance
• This was a group of laws passed in 1958 intended to prevent integration of schools
• Tuition grants were to be provided to students who opposed integrated schools
• The most controversial point of Massive Resistance was a law that cut off state funds and closed any public school that agreed to integrate
The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.
• assistant secretary of the NAACP
• became the editor of Crisis magazine of the NAACP after W.E.B. Du Bois left the NAACP
• co founded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights
• 1955 became executive secretary of the NAACP and his position's name changed to executive director in 1964
• he opposed the black power movement
Emmett Till was a fourteen year old boy that was from Chicago visiting his family in Mississippi. He was murdered for whistling at a white woman. Not knowing how severe Mississippi's segregation was compared to Chicago, Emmett did not think anything would come of his actions. Emmett Till was brutally murdered by some white men that heard about his behavior towards the white woman. His horrific murder grabbed the immediate attention of local blacks and whites. Emmett's mother had the body shipped to Chicago and had an open-casket funeral because she wanted the world to see what "they did to her son." Emmett's death attracted attention nation-wide and for the first time Northern blacks saw that violence against blacks in the South could affect them in the North. The tragedy that this murder created made an immense impact on the American society as it drew the attention of the brutality of racial violence, leaving many blacks in fear of violence.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
-a voting rights bill
-first civil rights legislation enacted since Reconstruction
-proposed by Congress by President Dwight Eisenhower
- was not really a huge help to the black struggle, but was passed to keep support for the democratic party
-Strom Thurmand senator from south caroline had a filibuster for 24 hours
- Federal district judges were charged with appointing referees to enroll voters in areas where the government had noted local authorities denying voting rights
-bill required local authorities to maintain voting records for up to twenty two months, in order for federal investigators to determine if any of the law had been violated.
-The act also called for the creation of the Civil Rights Commission to investigate issues regarding race relations.
Cooper v. Aaron
• Ernest Greene was the first black to graduate from Central High School in Arkansas
• This case asked the federal court to end plans of the district to extend the time for desegregation and to proceed forthwith with integration
• the Court noted that the school board had acted in good faith, and that most of the problems stemmed from the official opposition of the Arkansas state government to racial integration in both word and deed. Nonetheless, it was constitutionally impermissible under the Equal Protection Clause to maintain law and order by depriving the black students their equal rights under the law.
Jo Ann Robinson
-Played a role in the Montgomery bus boycott
-Jo Ann Robinson and two of her students mimeographed 35,000 leaflets explaining the bus boycott and urging people to not ride the buses
-helped organize the mass meetings
-She joined the Women's Political Council
-Sat on the executive board of the Montgomery Improvement Association
Women's Political Council
-All professional women
-Largely school teachers and administrators
-Had three chapters of 100 members each in black Montgomery
-The main concern: treatment of blacks, especially black woman on the bus system
member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car porters, President of Montgomery NAACP first to get to police station after Rosa Parks is arrested.
a Baptist minister, co-organizer of the Montgomery Bus Boycott along with MLK Jr., second-in-command of the SCLC and when King was assassinated he became the chairman of the SCLC and led the Poor People's Campaign during the height of the Albany Movement, he was arrested alongside King
attended the Highlander Folk School in 1955 a civil rights worker for the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP and E.D. Nixon's secretary. Mrs. Parks' refusal to give up her seat on a city bus instigated the year-long Montgomery Bus Boycott
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church
church in Montgomery, AL where King was the Pastor in 1954
Holt Street Baptist Church
The gathering place where Dr. King spoke against segregated buses and thus began the Montgomery bus boycott.
Martin Luther King, Jr
Leader of Montgomery Improvement Association, leader of the SCLC, and leader of the march on Washington.
a teenage girl who protested her removal from a Montgomery bus and was subsequently arrested the NAACP wanted to use her case to change the bus laws but she got pregnant and had other indiscretions so hey went with Rosa Parks
one of Martin Luther King's aids though most of his involvement in the movement was kept secret because of his morals arrest and supposed homosexuality. He was very involved in the planning of the March on Washington (1963) introduced King to the ideas of Ghandi.
a sympathetic white woman who wrote a lot of letters to friends in the North (maybe the south too) about the happenings in the South during the most tumultuous years of the movement some of her letters talked about the Montgomery Bus Boycott she called the boycott the "second emancipation" and a "burst of hope"
Adam Clayton Powell
congressman representing Harlem who is claimed to be the first influential black congressman he introduced civil rights legislation to the House and was chair of the education and labor committee
Senator James Eastland
segregationist senator from Mississippi who was a fierce opponent of the implementation of the Brown decisions and to any Civil Rights legislation he was very influential and being the Senator from Mississippi he had a lot of influence he was also a proponent of McCarthyism.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In December 1955, 42,000 black residents of Montgomery began a year-long boycott of city buses to protest racially segregated seating. After 381 days of taking taxis, carpooling, and walking the hostile streets of Montgomery, African Americans eventually won their fight to desegregate seating on public buses, not only in Montgomery, but throughout the United States. Led by Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph Abernathy. began after Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat.
Montgomery Improvement Association
Organization formed by African Americans in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1956 to strengthen the bus boycott and to coordinate protest efforts of African Americans; led by Martin Luther King Jr.
Men of Montgomery
- a group of 57 white businessmen who tried to get an agreement between the bus lines and the MIA without any success they were trying to get an agreement because their businesses were suffering because blacks were not shopping downtown
Little Rock, AR
setting of the historic events of 1957. Governor Orval Faubus ordered Arkansas National Guardsmen to prevent the 9 black students from entering Central High School. This insurrectionary action and the Governor's subsequent refusals to obey the federal law set by Brown I forced President Eisenhower to send the 101st airborne into Little Rock to quell the violence and enforce the Supreme Court's decision.
-the mixing of the black and white races i.e. producing biracial children the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types
the governor of Arkansas during the Little Rock 9 events...see Little Rock
the NAACP leader in Little Rock who became the advocate and spokeswoman for the 9 black students trying to desegregate Little Rock Public Schools. She and her husband also ran the only black newspaper in Little Rock. The newspaper helped publicize the events. She used every opportunity possible to put the daces of the children in the news including her Thanksgiving meal in 1957.
White Citizens' Council
Whites-only, pro-segregation groups formed in many Southern towns in response to federal court decisions promoting desegregation. Such groups were the antithesis of groups like SNCC, CORE, and the NAACP; they were essentially white-collar, slightly more respectable versions of the Ku Klux Klan. The WWC had its genesis in 1954 in Mississippi in response to Brown v. Board of Education.
A rationalization of racism predicated on the idea that whites are genetically "superior" to blacks. Movements such as eugenics attempted to illustrate that white qualities were inherently superior to black qualities and the blacks were simply dumber, uglier, and lazier that whites and therefore benefited from white superiority.
Race and Reason
A popular book written by Carleton Putnam advocating segregation, scientific racism, and white supremacy
Author of Race and Reason.
An African-American woman who was instrumental in the civil rights movement. She was active in both the NAACP and SCLC, and her 1960 speech at her alma mater, Shaw University, inspired the birth of SNCC, where she also worked. She was involved in sit-ins, protests, the Freedom Rides (though not as a rider), voting recruitment, and in the formation of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
SNCC had its origins in the speeches given by Ella Baker at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in 1960. It was run by the same students who had organized, led, and participated in sit-ins and protests in the late '50s. SNCC was instrumental in the planning of the Freedom Rides and the March on Washington. SNCC's philosophy was based on nonviolence, but its many members (notably, Stokley Carmichael) began to gradually reject this strategy and turn instead to Black Power.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Founded in 1957 by Bayard Rustin with the help of Ella Baker and Joseph Lowry (among others), it participated in nonviolent civil disobedience such as sit-ins, protests, and boycotts. It was headed for a time by its most famous member, Martin Luther King, Jr. It was involved in the Albany Movement and the March on Washington.
The first chairman of SNCC and a black Southern native. He went onto a career in politics and served as mayor of Washington, D.C.
a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina in April 1960.
An African-American woman who was very involved in the civil rights movement, including the SCLC and the founding of SNCC. Nash was involved in planning the Freedom Rides and took over when CORE (who had originally organized the rides) bailed after the riders encountered severe violence, refusing to quit in the face of adversity. Nash also helped organize the voting movement in Selma, Alabama.
A Freedom Rider and a founder and one-time leader of SNCC. During a march through Alabama, he was brutally beaten in public by a white police officer.
A leader of CORE and a staunch supporter of nonviolent tactics. He conducted many nonviolent workshops in Nashville while studying at Vanderbilt University's divinity school and instructed the likes of Diane Nash and Marion Barry.Lawson was later expelled from Vanderbilt for his participation in the civil rights struggle.
Robert (Bob) Moses
Another prominent civil rights activist, involved with SNCC, CORE, and COFO, the last of which he co-directed. He was very active in voting registration drives, particularly the Freedom Summer project and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, and worked extensively in McComb, MS where he was arrested after a spat with the county registrar. Adherent to nonviolence, he quit SNCC after Stokley Carmichael's decision to advocate Black Power.
A field secretary at SNCC who was involved in many prominent civil rights demonstrations. He helped to shape SNCC's roll as a major civil rights organization in the '60s.
Home to some of the very first sit-in demonstrations, staged by students of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College. The sit-ins were staged at a chain called Woolworth's, which was eventually desegregation, and the students' efforts led to hundreds of other nonviolent sit-ins around the country
The principle adopted by many civil rights organizations that advocated immediate, physical responses to injustices (i.e., rallies, protests, sit-ins, demonstrations, riots, boycotts, Freedom Rides) rather than slow, "indirect" legal action.
Wyatt T. Walker
One of the founders of the SCLC in 1957. He served as one of SCLC's executive directors and was involved in SCLC's actions during the civil rights movement.
"Jail, no Bail"
The conscious decision made by many arrested civil rights activists to refuse to pay bail on principle and instead spend time in jail. It was adhered to by Martin Luther King and Diane Nash, among others.
Rich's Department Store
-department store in which black Atlanta residents protested in 1963
-The protests were as a result of blacks being denied service in the downtown's store's cafeterias and lunch counters and they didn't hire black salesmen and saleswomen.
-The boycott resulted in the integration of the lunch counters
African Independence Movement
struggle taking place in the 1960's against the apartheid in African colonies
-took place in Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, and South Africa
SNCC newsletter in which Julian Bond wrote for
-one of the founders of SNCC
-led student protests against segregation of public facilities in Georgia
-elected to Ga. House of Representatives
Highlander Folk School
-school located in Monteagle, TN.
-civil rights leaders such as King and Abernathy were involved with the school
-minister and civil rights activist who worked against segregation in Birmingham
-prominent figure in the bus boycott in Birmingham
-one of the founders of SCLC
-took part in the sit-in at the McCrory lunch counters
-first stop in the Deep South for the thirteen Freedom Riders
Boynton vs. Virginia
-decision by the Supreme Court in 1960 that made racial segregation in public transportation illegal
Nashville Student Movement
-movement fighting against segregation with students from Fisk, Tennessee State University and other colleges in the area participating
-first sit-ins occurred in 1961 in downtown stores
-as a result six stores opened up their lunch counters to black customers
-on Mother's Day of 1961, the bus that the Freedom Riders came down on was fire bombed then riders were beaten by a angry mob that met them in Anniston
Eugene Bull Connor
-Public Safety Commissioner in Alabama
-staunch segregationist and member of the KKK
A group of northern idealists active in the civil rights movement. Included both blacks and whites, rode buses into the South in the early 1960s in order to challenge racial segregation. They were regularly attacked by mobs of angry whites and received often belated protection from federal officers.
-One of the founders of the SNCC
-First to try the jail-no bail policy in Rock Hill, S.C.
-led many protests in Albany, Ga. along with other SNCC workers
Ruby Doris Smith
-executive secretary of SNCC
-One of the most prominent women figures in the civil rights movement
-location of the Albany Movement (1961-1962) which was prominent in the civil rights movement
-hundreds of protestors were arrested, including Martin Luther King and Abernathy
-SCLC and SNCC were involved
-participated in the Nashville branch of SNCC
-also participated in the Freedom Rides
Dr. W.G. Anderson
a. Head of the Albany Movement. After a slow year of work in Albany, Anderson called on King to come there and reinvigorate the campaign.
b. He goes to jail, along with King and Abernathy for disturbing the peace, obstructing a sidewalk, and marching without a license.
c. Significance? Maybe the fact that he felt MLK was needed to revitalize the Albany movement, and he couldn't do it alone?
a. Wife of Slater King- was assaulted while pregnant and suffered a miscarriage. (Near Albany)
b. No relation to MLK.
c. This shocking incident helped galvanize people who had previously not been involved in or in support of the civil rights movement.
d. MLK publicly spoke out about the police brutality against Marion King.
a. Music group formed in SNCC to tour and raise money for SNCC. Based on the rich traditions of African-American music.
b. Told musical stories of the movement in the Deep South.
c. Popular song: "We Shall Overcome"
d. Significance is that music was a powerful uniting force for the movement.
Robert F. Kennedy
a. Attorney general of the United States, brother of John F. Kennedy.
b. Him and JFK believed the Freedom Rides were embarrassing the U.S.
c. He and JFK had to learn many lessons about the determination of civil rights activists. Sometimes it is not clear what side they were on. They did some good things and some bad things.
i. Good things: sometimes sending federal troops to keep the peace where civil rights work was becoming chaotic.
ii. Bad things: example: R. Kennedy made a deal with Senator Eastland that the Freedom Riders could be arrested as long as they were not hurt. But they were breaking no laws. Also, R. Kennedy allowed J. Edgar Hoover to watch MLK's every move and wiretap him in exchange for curbing the press on JFK's alleged affair.
John F. Kennedy
a. United States president from 1961-1963 when he was assassinated.
b. Told King that Jack O'Dell and Stanley Levinson are deeply involved in the Communist Party.
c. Made a speech urging people to support the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which deeply moved King.
d. His martyrdom in 1963 paved the way for the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which he supported and is still heralded as the centerpiece of anti-discrimination legislation. Basically outlawed Jim Crow.
a. White police chief of Albany, GA. He kept his police force's violence toward blacks hidden, and therefore out of the media. If there was no media presence in Albany, this would not put pressure on the Kennedy administration to send federal troops down and stir up trouble.
b. Unlike Bull Connor because he was smart. He studied the movement and devised tactics to combat it. His tactics included:
i. No public police brutality of civil rights workers.
ii. Arrests of civil rights protesters were made under charges of "Disturbing the Peace" and not violating segregation laws, which had already been overruled.
iii. Making deals with surrounding counties to have room in their jails, so the jails would be much harder to fill up.
iv. Bail money could only be paid in cash, not against property. Made it harder to get people out of jail.
v. Had spies who pretend to be working in the movement.
c. Pritchett is significant because he made the civil rights workers devise new strategies of action. He also brought to light the importance of media coverage and federal support to the movement's campaigns. Without these, any campaign would be hindered.
Fannie Lou Hamer
a. Woman from Mississippi who picked cotton to survive. She took a voter registration class, and when she went with other blacks to the local courthouse to take the voter registration test, she failed. She sang freedom songs to calm everyone on the bus down. Later on she joins the SNCC staff and works for civil rights for decades.
b. She represents the type of woman in the movement who really stood up for what she believed in. She worked toward voter registration, and later became involved with the MFDP. When the party was offered only 2 nonvoting seats in the MS legislature in 1964, she saw this as a huge insult and let it be known.
"Letter from the Birmingham City Jail"
a. Letter written by Martin Luther King, Jr. while in jail in Birmingham.
b. He expresses his disappointment in the white church and white moderates, who he says are gradualists who prefer order over justice.
c. Defends direct-action and says unjust laws must be broken. Unjust laws are those that contradict moral laws or God's law. A majority inflicts them on a minority.
d. He also compares himself to history's "extremists"—Jesus, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson. His letter has very "American" rhetoric.
e. Significant because this letter describes who he is and why he does what he does. He sets himself apart as someone who stands in the middle of black opinion, because he is not a radical, but has not given up on America like some others.
a. Citizenship education program under the management of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
b. Designed to help African Americans learn to read so that they could pass the literacy tests required to become eligible voters in the South at the time.
c. Represented black self-help and determination for civil rights.
Voter registration drives
a. Really took off around 1950.
b. Grandfather clauses, literacy tests, poll taxes- at the time, all of these were hindering black political involvement.
c. Voter registration drives were organized as a way to help Blacks help themselves and pull themselves out of oppressive conditions.
d. Much violence on the part of whites to prevent black voter registration.
e. Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964 was a massive voter registration drive. Also Selma.
f. Helped drive the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which banned literacy tests, education requirements, character tests, etc.
Council of Federated Organizations
started by Wiley Branton of the NAACP to bring together black leaders for voter registration. Designed as an umbrella organization.
b. Branton said SNCC and NAACP should stay separate. He did not care for the SNCC students but he knew they would head the voter registration cause.
c. COFO helped organize and recruit for the MS Freedom Summer of 1964.
a. Recruited teachers to help in the citizenship schools with the help of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
b. Her decades of devotion to the cause of freedom have earned her the title, "the grandmother of the civil rights movement."
c. A very determined woman like Fannie Lou Hamer.
a. Late 50s/Early 60s: Black leader in Monroe, NC who was a WWII veteran.
b. Monroe had a significant KKK presence, and Williams helped Blacks arm themselves. He said blacks should not sit around and wait to be slaughtered. Not a believer in nonviolence.
c. Later on, he moves to Cuba because he is wanted for a kidnapping that did not occur. The Black Panthers hold Williams in high esteem as their hero, but he was probably not as extreme as many thought.
i. He was an integrationist, but did not agree with nonviolence.
ii. Said blacks have the right to defend themselves and their families from attack.
d. Significant because he represents an alternative to the popular nonviolence movement at the time. He was probably seen as a much larger threat to whites. King emphatically disagreed with Williams by saying immoral means should not be used to reach a moral goal. "We're better than that" type of argument.
Voter Education Program
assembled by Bob Moses as a group of only young, black Mississippians to work for voter registration in the Delta areas of MS. Only blacks because a 1963 SNCC report said it was too dangerous for whites to be involved in the Mississippi movement.
b. VEP posed as a research project, but was not well hidden.
c. Major component of VEP: Citizenship Schools
d. VEP was in response to legislation in the South that required voters to pass a literacy test and decipher sections of the U.S. Constitution
Southern Christian Educational Fund
b. A Senate committee report in 1969 "found" that SCEF was financed and run by the Communist party.
c. Significant because SCEF was called "Communist" in order derail its real purpose. No one in the civil rights movement wanted to be associated with communism, because of its negative connotation in America.
March on Washington, 1963
a. Took place on August 28, 1963 and brought together 250,000 civil rights leaders, workers, and supporters from all over the nation. Organized for the purpose of pressuring the Kennedy Administration to pass civil rights legislation.
b. Heavily covered by the media. People who hadn't been involved in the movement could see the entire length of an event on TV.
c. John Lewis prepared a controversial speech that said Negroes were in the middle of a revolution. He did not deliver this speech, but it was published in the papers.
d. MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech became a classic.
i. Says the U.S. had given Negroes "bad checks" promised to them by the Constitution and Declaration of Independence
ii. Urges Americans not to take the "tranquilizing drug of gradualism"
iii. "We will not be satisfied..."
e. The March is significant because it gave the movement the feel of unity and nonviolence. It showed the determination of blacks who would organize and make great sacrifices to get what they wanted. However, King did not really push the Kennedy civil rights act, which was the goal of many of the March's leaders.
16th Street Baptist Church
a. Black church in Birmingham that was bombed in 1963, during the Birmingham movement. Four black children were killed.
b. Blacks in Birmingham were devastated and outraged. Many begin to question nonviolence, not just do to this, but because of the bombing of King's hotel, police brutality even towards children, the bombing of King's brother's house.... And more
a. Mississippi NAACP Field Secretary- very involved in boycotting and desegregation protests. - Received many death threats because of this.
b. Assassinated in Jackson by James Beckwith, who was not convicted until three decades later.
c. His life and death left a well-known legacy of civil rights heroism.
SNCC member in college at Howard University and participated in Freedom Rides with CORE; helped organize Mississippi Freedom Summer in 1964 fighting for voting rights in the Deep South; succeeded John Lewis as SNCC leader as the group grew increasingly more militant; coined the term Black Power; became head of Black Panther Party; saw non violence as a tactic not a principle which differed him from Martin Luther King, Jr; critical of integration and the white middle class; inspired by the international freedom movements in Africa and Latin America
national spokesman for the Nation of Islam; Nation of Islam was radically reactionary, liked capitalism and emphasized economic self help but had no mass movement; its greatest effect was intellectually not politically; he eventually broke with the Nation of Islam and emphasized Black Nationalism; (his father had been an organizer in Garvey's UNIA); Malcolm X was highly critical of Martin Luther King, Jr. and the March on Washington; he felt that whites were great actors who participated in the march, but then would just go home and forget all about it; emphasized the importance of universal struggle; he believed a revolution was necessary to free the black man in America, and that although it was possible to be accomplished without bloodshed, it was unlikely that would happen; his life and rhetoric were very different, i.e. he never acted violently
first black student at Ole Miss in October 1962; his enrollment was opposed by the governor (Ross Barnett) and sparked riots throughout the Oxford campus; President Kennedy was forced to take action and sent federal troops and US Marshals to stop violence; showed struggle of state rights versus national rights (interposition)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
most important result of 1962-1963 Birmingham movement; signed into effect by Lyndon B. Johnson; (saw civil rights as a moral and put everything on the line for this bill); centerpiece of anti-discrimination legislation; composed of 11 Titles; last minute addition of gender to the bill was added by VA senator Howard Smith to halt its passage (was unsuccessful in this regard); effectively abolished Jim Crow system in the South; it also completely changes party lines in the South (as the Whit South goes completely Republican)
a. Title I- enforces constitutional right to vote, bars unequal opposition to vote, doesn't abolish literacy tests or poll taxes
b. Title II- outlaws discrimination in places of public associations such as hotels and restaurants; did not apply to private buildings, but it also didn't define 'private'
i. Injunctive relief was given to the Attorney General. This mean he could bring a suit against a place not abiding by this.
c. Title III- forces schools to desegregate
i. Attorney General is given authority to enforce it (one way in which the Department of Justice gains lots of power)
d. Title IV- makes federal facilities desegregated
i. Federal government was given the authority to 1) sue agencies within federal government buildings and 2)withhold funds from these agencies
e. Title V-extended life of the Civil Rights Commission which was created with the 1957 Civil Rights Act
f. Title VI- prevents discrimination by government agencies that receive federal funding
g. Title VII- creates EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)
i. Ex. Affirmative action
Voting Rights Act of 1965
passed three provisions as result of the Mississippi Freedom Summer; signed into law by Johnson with a life of 25 years and was recently renewed by President Bush
a. Outlaws literacy test and poll taxes
b. Provided for federal registration of voters (in areas that had less than 50% of the eligible minority voters registered)
c. Provided oversight of registration to the Department of Justice
Poor People's Campaign
MLK and SCLC's 1968 campaign to address economic justice; marks SCLC's shift toward an emphasis on economic issues; multiracial; objective was to have a march from Marks, MS to Washington, DC where the group would engage in nonviolent civil disobedience until Congress enacted a poor people's bill of rights
- large scale riots which lasted for five days in the Watts neighborhood outside LA in August 1965 (occurred 5 days after the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed); 300+ killed; represented economic disparity of urban blacks; shows that it is no longer just southern and rural; focuses on absolute poverty; results in more support of Williams
participated in MLK's movement in Selma, AL in 1965; headed the 1966 Operation Breadbasket in Chicago that focused on selective buying boycotts showing the economic focus of the SCLC in urban areas; in time he increasingly clashed with Ralph Abernathy (King's successor as head of the national SCLC)
- term coined by leader of SNCC Stokely Carmichael; was both a slogan and a doctrine; the goal of balck self-determination and black self-identity; as a slogan it represented an established black pride; as a doctrine, it showed desire for blacks to form their own party and not just follow the Democratic party in politics; revitalized the ideas of Marcus Garvey and Black Nationalism; blacks saw themselves as colonists of the whites, and likened their struggle to international struggles for civil rights (in Africa and Latin America); eventually it caused the split of SNCC; response to discontent in three areas
a. Alienation by the political process
b. White incorporation and involvement in the movement (ie. MS Freedom Summer)
c. Watts riots
Selma to Montgomery marches; occurred largely in response to Jimmie Lee Jackson's death after being shot by a trooper; 1965 focal of voting rights struggle as discrimination and intimidation prevented lots of blacks from registering; they hoped to bring notice to the violations of their rights; "Bloody Sunday"- March 7, 1965- 600 civil rights marchers headed on a march to the state capitol in Montgomery; the marchers did not get far until they reached troopers with clubs and tear gas; extreme violence ensued and whites stood on the sidelines and cheered it on; the violence was shown on national television and inspired many to go to Selma; two days later King came to Selma from Atlanta to lead a "symbolic" march to the bridge which marked the site of the previous violence; King proclaimed that federal government involvement could stop the march; inspired marches in Detroit, Boston, Chicago, NY; led to Johnson's passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 within a few months
right of states to protect their individual interests from federal violation; major theme of the class showed federal and state governments clashing; the events at Selma were one example of state's rights opposition to voting rights; Selma eventually led to overt federal action in the establishment of the Voting Rights Act of 1965; other examples of interposition include the events of the Freedom Rides in Montgomery and when James Meredith tried to attend Ole Miss.... Many others exist, this just names a few
white; helped gather white students from Yale and Stanford to go hold elections in MS during the Freedom Summer of 1964; Bob Moses' idea behind the freedom summer was to have a symbolic freedom vote in which unregistered blacks would have a mock election to be symbolic and uniting; participation of white students caused increased media and FBI attention; the students represented a counter power elite and many of them had very influential parents; children of the powerful lived with the poorest of the poor in MS; the participation of white students actually became very controversial and was part of what led to the split in SNCC
Fellowship of Reconciliation
alliance of multiple religious nonviolent organizations; George Houser, James Farmer and Bernice Fisher were leaders of FOR who later established CORE (Congress of Racial Equality); they were deeply influenced by the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign of Mahatma Gandhi; set up the Journey of Reconciliation which was the 1947 predecessor to the Freedom Rides of 1961
fervent segregationist who then reformed his thinking and renounced his former position; staunch opponent of federal encroachments on states rights; editor of Richmond News-leader
An American Dilemma
1944 study of race relations by a Swedish author; nearly 1500 pages long; had a positive outlook with the view that democracy would triumph over racism
Ku Klux Klan; fraternal organization especially strong in the Deep South which advocated white supremacy, anti-Semitism, racism, anti-Catholicism, homophobia and nativism among other things; often used terrorism and violence as means of intimidation (ex. Cross burning)
head of Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA); had close ties with King, who refused to believe he was a communist even after the Kennedy administration informed him of it; deeply investigated by J. Edgar Hoover (director of FBI) and RFK (Attorney General); stepped down before federal government could do further investigations
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
political party established to win seats at the 1964 Democratic National convention; composed of disenfranchised blacks and white sympathizers; helped passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and showed that blacks have more power than they may have believed; developed a political consciousness among blacks that wasn't perceived to exist