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Chapter 1 Vocab
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Terms in this set (27)
Statistics
A set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information
Population
The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study
Sample
a set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study
Variable
a characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals
Data (plural)
measurements or observations
Data set
a collection of measurements or observations
Datum (singular)
a single measurement or observation and is commonly called a score or raw score
Parameter
a value, usually a numerical value, that describes a population. A parameter is usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the population
Statistic
a value, usually a numerical value, that describes a sample. A statistic is usually derived from measurements of the individuals in the sample
descriptive statistics
statistical procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data
inferential statistics
consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected
Sampling error
the naturally occurring discrepancy, or error, that exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter
experimental method
one variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured. To establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables, an experiment attempts to control all other variables to prevent them from influencing the results.
Independent Variable
a variable that is manipulated by the researcher. In behavioral research, the independent variable usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions to which subjects are exposed. The independent variable consists of the antecedent conditions that were manipulated prior to observing the dependent variables
Dependent Variable
a variable (often denoted by y ) whose value depends on that of another.
Control Condition
The group that does not receive the experimental treatment. Instead, they received either no treatment or they receive a neutral, placebo treatment. The purpose of a control condition is to provide a baseline for comparison with the experimental condition
experimental condition
the group that receives the treatment
Quasi-independent variable
in a non-experimental study, the "independent variable" that is used to create the different groups of scores
Constructs
internal attributes or characteristics that cannot be directly observed but are useful for describing and explaining behavior
operational definition
identifies a measurement procedure for measuring an external behavior and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and a measurement of a hypothetical construct. Note that an operational definition has two components. First, it describes a set of operations for measuring a construct. Second, it defines the construct in terms of the resulting measurements
Discrete variable
Consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories.
Continuous variable
a quantitative variable that has an infinite number of possible values that are not countable
Real limits
the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line. The real limit separating two adjacent scores is located exactly halfway between the scores. Each score has two real limits, the upper real limit is at the top of the interval, and the lower real limit is at the bottom
Nominal Scale
consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measurements on a nominal scale label and categorize observations, but do not make any quantitative distinctions between observations
Ordinal scale
a scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuum
Interval scale
a scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in size. However, the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured
Ratio Scale
an interval scale with additional feature of an absolute zero point. With the ratio scale, ratios of numbers do reflect ratios of magnitude
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