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Most common perpetrator in elder abuse?

Adult children and spouses of older adult

Phone # to report elder abuse?


Most common type of elder abuse?


Term to describe view of older people as different and not having the same desires, needs, and concerns as normal people?


Erickson's development crisis for the older adult?

Integrity vs. despair

Freud's stage of older adult

Genital stage


Decline in ability to focus on nearby objects.


Hearing loss, especially high pitch sounds


Absence of smell


Decline in taste


Absence of taste


Advanced directive form.

Nursing intervention to help maximize pulmonary function

Elevate HOB

Suggestion to reduce cardiac workload

Space out daily activities.

Older adult's total body water composition

At birth, 65%, at 70, 50%

Normal cardiovascular changes in older adult

Lowered cardiac output, impaired blood flow, reduced heart rate during exercise, decreased contractile force, increased dysrhythmias.

Better type of exercise for older adults

Less rigorous exercise w/regular breaks. Spread out the work.

Normal pulmonary changes w/age

Calcification of ribs and vertebral joints. Decreased water composition b/t birth to 70 (65-50%), elastin and collagen lose tensile strength, respiratory muscles atrophy and fatigue.

Other normal changes in pulmonary system

decrease cilia, decrease tidal volume, residual volume increase, alveoli less erlastic, fewer functioning alveoli capillaries.

Preferred drugs to give patient with GERD and diminished kidney function?

Prilosec (omeprazole) and Prevacid b/c they are metabolized in the liver, not the kidneys.

Meds to treat constipation in older adult.

DOSS (docusate) or Senna (senekot)

Diet changes for diverticulitis

25-35 mg fiber daily and adequate fluid intake

Common causes of weight loss in older adult

Ill fitting dentures, age related decreased saliva production, access to food r/t mobility issues

Causes of increased risk for osteoporosis in older adults

Decreased neurons in intestines, decreased Ca+ absorption, slower motility of GI tract

The 4 types of urinary incontinence


Functional incontinence (def and intervention)

Issues, such as mobiity, cognitive, communication, prevent client from getting to bathroom on time.

Intervention: Bedside commode, call light, raise toilet seat, grab bar, velcro PJs.

Stress incontinence

Leaking when coughing, laughing, sitting up.

Interventions: Kegels, pads, tricyclic antidepressants (Tofranil (imipramine))

Urge incontinence

Bladder training, briefs/pads, catheters, condom caths, anticholinergics/antispasmodics -- Ditropan (oxybutin), Detrol (tolterodine)

Common changes in musculoskeletal system w/age

Hgt decreases, ligaments stiffen, joint cartilage decreases

Meds Ostearthritis

NSAIDS (for pain, ibuprofen, naproxen), COX-2 (Celebrex), Steroids, Glucosamine chondroitin sulfate (works?), injected artificial joint fluid

Meds Osteoporosis medications

Biphosphonates (Actonel, Foxamax): decreases rate of bone loss
Calcitonin (Miacalcin): spray hormone, decreases bone loss
Boniva: slows bone loss and increases density
Evista: increases bone density

Meds Rheumatoid arthritis

DMARDs: Enbrel, Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), leflunomide (Arava), Sulfasalzine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine))

Meds Parkinsons

Sinemet (levodopoa/carpidopa), Dopamine agonists (Parlodel, Permax, Requip, Mirapex) Sinement and Dopamine agonists usually prescribed at the same time but dopamine may not be administered as often.

Meds Stroke

baby aspirin, Clopidogrel (Plavix), Dipyridamole (Aggrenox), Warfarin (Coumadin), Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rtPA, Activase)


Degenerative neurological disease
Tremors, rigid muscles, impaired balance, and possibly dementia.
Involves lack of dopamine in brain.

Common sleep patterns in older adults

Shorter stage 3 and 4
Take longer to fall asleep
Easily roused by noise

Symptoms of sleep disturbances

Confusion, decreased memory, morning headaches

Assessing older adult re sleep

dietary intake and medication schedules, key points about environment during sleep hours, sleep routines (any sleep aids?)

Meds sleep aids

benadryl, ambien, restoril

Sleep stages

1: drowsy
2-4: Nrem
5: REM

Tests to assess sleep quality

Epworth sleepiness scale and ?

Biological theories of aging

Free Radical theory
Wear and tear theory
Neuroendocrine/Neurochemical theories (exposure to environmental hazards, carcinogens, uv, trauma, infection)
Programmed longevity
Immunological theory

Socio/psychological theories of aging

Disengagement theory: "It's good to make way for the younguns"
Activity theory: Havighurst, deny limitations of age as long as possible, "I'm not THAT old!"
Continuity theory: Latter part of life is continuation of earlier. Prevailing theory today.

Mild Cogntivie Impairment (MCI)

Pre dementia

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