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Term to describe view of older people as different and not having the same desires, needs, and concerns as normal people?
Normal cardiovascular changes in older adult
Lowered cardiac output, impaired blood flow, reduced heart rate during exercise, decreased contractile force, increased dysrhythmias.
Better type of exercise for older adults
Less rigorous exercise w/regular breaks. Spread out the work.
Normal pulmonary changes w/age
Calcification of ribs and vertebral joints. Decreased water composition b/t birth to 70 (65-50%), elastin and collagen lose tensile strength, respiratory muscles atrophy and fatigue.
Other normal changes in pulmonary system
decrease cilia, decrease tidal volume, residual volume increase, alveoli less erlastic, fewer functioning alveoli capillaries.
Preferred drugs to give patient with GERD and diminished kidney function?
Prilosec (omeprazole) and Prevacid b/c they are metabolized in the liver, not the kidneys.
Common causes of weight loss in older adult
Ill fitting dentures, age related decreased saliva production, access to food r/t mobility issues
Causes of increased risk for osteoporosis in older adults
Decreased neurons in intestines, decreased Ca+ absorption, slower motility of GI tract
Functional incontinence (def and intervention)
Issues, such as mobiity, cognitive, communication, prevent client from getting to bathroom on time.
Intervention: Bedside commode, call light, raise toilet seat, grab bar, velcro PJs.
Leaking when coughing, laughing, sitting up.
Interventions: Kegels, pads, tricyclic antidepressants (Tofranil (imipramine))
Bladder training, briefs/pads, catheters, condom caths, anticholinergics/antispasmodics -- Ditropan (oxybutin), Detrol (tolterodine)
Common changes in musculoskeletal system w/age
Hgt decreases, ligaments stiffen, joint cartilage decreases
NSAIDS (for pain, ibuprofen, naproxen), COX-2 (Celebrex), Steroids, Glucosamine chondroitin sulfate (works?), injected artificial joint fluid
Meds Osteoporosis medications
Biphosphonates (Actonel, Foxamax): decreases rate of bone loss
Calcitonin (Miacalcin): spray hormone, decreases bone loss
Boniva: slows bone loss and increases density
Evista: increases bone density
Meds Rheumatoid arthritis
DMARDs: Enbrel, Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), leflunomide (Arava), Sulfasalzine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine))
Sinemet (levodopoa/carpidopa), Dopamine agonists (Parlodel, Permax, Requip, Mirapex) Sinement and Dopamine agonists usually prescribed at the same time but dopamine may not be administered as often.
baby aspirin, Clopidogrel (Plavix), Dipyridamole (Aggrenox), Warfarin (Coumadin), Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rtPA, Activase)
Degenerative neurological disease
Tremors, rigid muscles, impaired balance, and possibly dementia.
Involves lack of dopamine in brain.
Common sleep patterns in older adults
Shorter stage 3 and 4
Take longer to fall asleep
Easily roused by noise
Assessing older adult re sleep
dietary intake and medication schedules, key points about environment during sleep hours, sleep routines (any sleep aids?)
Biological theories of aging
Free Radical theory
Wear and tear theory
Neuroendocrine/Neurochemical theories (exposure to environmental hazards, carcinogens, uv, trauma, infection)
Socio/psychological theories of aging
Disengagement theory: "It's good to make way for the younguns"
Activity theory: Havighurst, deny limitations of age as long as possible, "I'm not THAT old!"
Continuity theory: Latter part of life is continuation of earlier. Prevailing theory today.
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