Congress of Vienna - Revolutions of 1848

Unit 8 - Congress of Vienna, conservatism, liberalism, nationalism, Revolutions of 1848, socialism
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dual revolutions
Name referring to the Industrial Revolution and French Revolution - the two fed off of one another

economic and political revolutions reinforcing one another

lead to the birth of new ideologies, esp. liberalism and nationalism
Congress of Vienna
Russia, Prussia, Austria, GB meet as the conservative monarchical powers of Europe

Purpose: lasting peace settlement following the defeat of Napoleon, maintain balance of power

Outcomes:
Low Countries (Belgium, Holland) get Dutch monarch
Prussia gets Rhineland
France gets Bourbon monarchy (Louis XVIII)
Austria loses territory in Belgium and S Germany
Austria gains N Italy, part of Poland, other
Russia gets part of Poland

EXTREMELY SUCCESSFUL - next major war will be in 99 years

FAILURES - could not predict which areas would industrialize, did not understand power of nationalism
Klemens von Metternich
Conservative (NOT reactionary) anti-Nationalist foreign minister of Austria from COV-1848
Alexander I
Tsar of Russia during Napoleon, COV, dies 1825 during Decembrist Revolt and is replaced by Nicholas I

Proposed all Poland to Russia at COV (supported by Prussia, stopped by Austria and GB)

Wanted to create Holy Alliance at COV

Metternich converts him from almost liberal to hardcore conservative (over lunch meeting)

Supports Protocols of Troppau

Sends Russian Navy to regain Spain's loosening colonies in SA, but is blocked by GB for trade reasons
Holy Alliance
Alexander I wanted to create this at COV

Alliance between Austria, Russia, Prussia - had a common history of Enlightened Absolutism and serfdom

Separate from Congress System of GB and France
Congress System
Describes the many meetings (congresses) that European governments had after the French Revolution

Concluded that the FrRev could have been avoided through better international communication

Outcomes:

COV (Holy Alliance proposed by Alexander I, territory changes hands)

Spain and Naples get Bourbon king (not happy)

Metternich converts Alexander I from almost liberal to hardcore conservative (over lunch meeting)

Protocol of Troppau (upheld when Holy Alliance stops Ypsilanti's Greek revolt against Ottomans, Alexander I offers to regain Spain's loosening colonies - blocked by GB for trade with SA)
Protocols of Troppau
1820 and after
Holy Alliance, at one of many congresses, decides on the right to intervene in liberal revolts

Upheld when Holy Alliance crushed Ypsilanti's Greek revolt against Ottomans, when Alexander I tries to regain Spain it's SA colonies
Carlsbad Decrees
1819 required the 38 states of the German Confederation to root out liberal or radical ideas in their universities and newspapers

established permanent committee of spies and informants to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
Decembrist Revolt
1825 Alexander I dies and the throne could be left to one of two people: Nicholas or Constantine

In a revolution, the military wants CONSTANTINE AND CONSTITUTION, but as they gained followers the followers had no idea what the English word "constitution" meant, so the revolution fails

Ends when Nicholas I takes over as tsar
Greek War of Independence
1821-1832

Under rule of Nicholas I (favors power politics over conservatism), Russia invades Ottoman Empire to help Greek rebellion (Ottomans were a threat to Russia)

France and GB help Greeks too (favor liberal advances)

Greece declared independent in 1832
Nicholas I
Puts down Decembrist Revolt and takes over as Tsar of Russia after Alexander I dies

Favors power politics over conservatism

Helps Greece gain independence from Ottoman Turks

Invades Hungary and defeats Magyar army so that Hungary can rejoin Austria after 1848
multiethnic state
describes Austrian Empire

entire provinces differed in languages, customs, institutions

provided strength in large population, vast territory;
provided weakness in many potentially dissatisfied nationalities

caused Austria to be unable to accommodate ideologies of the dual revolutions (liberalism, nationalism)
corn laws of 1815
English government outlawed importation of grain unless prices in England rose to improbable levels

Importation was bad for the aristocracy economically, making this CLASS-BIASED LEGISLATION

protests and demonstrations by urban workers against laws --> right of assembly and habeas corpus taken away
Battle of Peterloo
1819
An orderly protest against Corn Laws that was savagely broken up by armed cavalry
Reform Bill of 1832
Made it so that the House of Lords could always be brought into line by threatening to bring in new Whig peers (made House of Lords powerless for the rest of history)

New industrial areas of England gained representation in House of Commons

Gave more people the right to vote

Released many pressures that had built up and culminated with the Corn Laws of 1815
rotten boroughs
electoral districts that had before had few voters and skewed the representation in the House of Commons

eliminated with the Reform Bill of 1832
Chartism
English movement demanding universal male suffrage

wanted a complete democracy so the poor could rule, creating a good and just society

petitioned to parliament for suffrage (denied)
Anti-Corn League
organization lead by English liberals in 1839 to repeal Corn Laws of 1815

argued importation of grain was an economic necessity

Gained support and got the Corn Laws repealed
Ten Hours Act of 1847
limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours

passed by Tories, who by this time were passing other laws to gain support of the working class (middle class and aristocracy eventually competed for the support of lower classes)
Great Famine
Pre-famine: extensive potato cultivation, early marriage, exploitation of peasants by landlords

Potato crop fails repeatedly between 1845-1857
Economic hardship leads to MASSIVE population decline

Emigration to US, dying, going unborn, late marriage, widespread celibacy

Intensified anti-British feeling

promoted Irish nationalism
CHARLES X
Reactionary king of France after Louis XVIII

GOALS: revoke Charter of 1814, restore old order, compensate noble landowners for land taken in French Rev.

Revoked Charter of 1814 (July Ordinance), invaded Algeria as a distraction

Rule ended with Revolution of 1830
July Ordinance
Charles X revoked Constitutional Charter of 1814 and used Algeria as a distraction
Revolution of 1830
French upper middle class used the press to facilitate the collapse of the French government

Response to July Ordinance

Caused Charles X to flee

Ended when Louis Philippe was given the throne (facilitated by Marquis de Lafayette)

Since Louis Philippe adopted the Charter of 1814, the government didn't change much from the time of Louis XVIII
--> Revolution of 1830 = conservative victory
Louis Philippe
Duke of Orleans, cousin of Charles X who was seated on the throne after the Revolution of 1830

"Citizen king" because he owed his throne to the people, bourgeois king for the bourgeois

Accepted Charter of 1814, adopted Tricolor as flag of France, wore business suit to walk through streets of Paris

His government was not that different from the rule of Louis XVIII, making the Revolution of 1830 a victory for conservatism
Belgian Independence
Belgians start as part of Netherlands

DIFFERENCES:
Belgium=industry, Netherlands=shipping
Belgians=Catholic, Netherlands=Protestant
Language and ethnic differences

--> NATIONALIST REVOLT

Russia sends army to put down Belgian revolt (Troppau), but is intercepted by Polish revolt

Powers of Europe recognize Belgian independence because no one wants to get involved:
Austria wants no involvement
Russia busy with Poland
No one wants France to send troops anywhere
Prussia doing their own thing

Powers of Europe sign document saying Belgium will always be neutral, and the first country to invade Belgium gets war declared against them (this will be Germany in WWII, not France as expected)
Pre-1848 long term tensions
industrialization - economic changes, urbanization
population increase - food supply problems
ideological challenges - nationalism, socialism, liberalism, romanticism
repressive measures - Carlsbad Decrees, Protocols of Troppau
Pre-1848 short term tensions
agricultural crises
financial crises - railway, iron, coal investment bubbles burst - rapid unemployment increase
February Revolution
1848

bourgeoisie begin to hold reform banquets because Louis Philippe won't give them the vote, Charter of 1814 is outdated

Paris Banquet - working class takes part in bourgeois banquet

troops begin firing at banquet
people make barricades
troops side with the radicals

Louis Philippe abdicates in FEBRUARY

Bourgeois establish Second French Republic
Second French Republic
French government after February Revolution (replaced Louis Philippe)

10 person council rules in France as the executive power over the National Assembly (legislative power)

7/10 were liberals lead by Alfonse Lamartine
3/10 were utopian socialists lead by Louis Blanc

universal male suffrage, freed slaves in French colonies, abolished death penalty, ten hour workday in Paris
Alfonse Lamartine
poet who lead the liberal majority in the provisional government of the Second French Republic

wanted American model of government (vote, free speech, property, secular education), Enlightenment, Adam Smith
Louis Blanc
socialist who lead minority in provisional government during the Second French Republic

wanted national workshops
work as a natural right ("Right to work")
April Elections
Vote under Second French Republic that resulted in a conservative majority

Lead to revolts, etc.
June Days
Bloody class war in France following the April Elections

conservative/liberal coalition against working class socialists

new constitution written: president elected through universal male suffrage, one-house legislature
Louis-Napoleon
won election during June Days
wanted law and order
purged government of radicals
took away 1/3 of males' right to vote (universal under June Days constitution)
regularly used force against dissenters
Ferdinand I
ruled Austria 1735-1848
Metternich as foreign minister
very conservative
severely epileptic
ruled culturally and ethnically diverse empire
social reliance on serfdom was corrupt and inefficient

Vienna revolts in response to France's February Revolution
Metternich flees, this monarch signs off on new Constituent Assembly's demands, becomes virtually powerless

NEW GOVERNMENT:
abolished serfdom
Hungary and Bohemia gain constitutional separation
other divisions in Austria begin separating
Sardinia attacks Austria (see vulnerability)
ultimately fails because of too many nationalist movements competing for different goals

Hapsburgs meet at the end of Austrian and Hungarian Revolutions of 1848 and blame it on him and Metternich
(order him to abdicate, leaving throne to nephew Franz Josef)
Frankfurt Assembly
During Austrian Revolution of 1848
Calls for an all-German congress, but Bohemia refuses to go
Austria is a major part of this group

Bohemians want an all-Slav, anti-German congress that supports an Austrian Empire in which Bohemia would have a considerable say

Czechs want an Austroslavic congress that supports an Austrian Empire in which the Austrian military could put down anti-Austria Czech nationalists

AUSTRIA PUTS DOWN Czech nationalists, Sardinia's invasion

Goes against Berlin Assembly (allied with Poland)

Asks Prussian military to invade Denmark
--> GB and Russia threatens war against Prussia (disrupting trade interests)
Prussian military signs peace agreement
Austrian king regains power
Berlin assembly deposed because of Frankfurt Assembly's actions

German Confederation re-established in 1850
Lajos Kossuth
Magyar leader of Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Magyarization of Hungary, idea that Magyars are racially superior

Hungarian Civil War arises, based on ethnicity (new Hungarian regime oppressed non-Magyar ethnicities)
Magyars v. Croats

People in "Hungary" begin to see Austrian Empire as a better alternative

Hungarian Rev ends when Nicholas I of Russia helps put down Magyar army and recapture Budapest
Franz Josef
Hapsburg monarch r. 1848-1916 after Ferdinand I was ordered to abdicate by other Hapsburgs

Bohemians (including Czechs) rejoin Austria
Nicholas I "loves getting his hands dirty" and marches from Russia to Budapest, defeating giant Magyar army, going back to Russia
Giuseppe Mazzini
1849 est. Roman Republic in Italy

Appointed Giuseppe Garibaldi to be defense leader of Roman Republic (drove out Pope Pius IX)

Insurrection ultimately failed because Louis Napoleon sent French troops to Italy and rescued the pope
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Appointed as defense leader under Giuseppe Mazzini in Roman Republic est. 1848 in Italy

Drove out Pope Pius IX because he owned Rome

Efforts failed when Louis Philippe, to show he's against revolutionary movements and to please Catholics in France, sends troops to rescue Pius IX
German dualism
term for AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA being the dominant powers of the German confederation

These two states had not had problems since Frederick and Maria Theresa had problems in the War of Austrian Succession

Holy Alliance and Protocols of Troppau are holding the two powers together

Hostile after 1848
Berlin Assembly
Created 1848 when Berlin riots in response to Vienna Revolution in Austria

lower class, Prussian, anti-Junker, socialist radicals

supported Polish extremists (Poles, too, had been ruled by Junkers)
Wanted all-European war v. Russia
OR all-German war v. Russia (Russia is the last monarchy standing strong)
Wanted united German state REPUBLIC

Berlin Assembly sides with Poland to go against FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY

Deposed when Austrian king regained power
Radicals rebel again, crushed by Prussian army

Collapses by April 1849

German Confederation re-established in 1850