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The tremendously rapid growth of American cities in the post-Civil War decades was
a. uniquely American
b. fueled by an agricultural system of suffering from poor production level.s
c. attributed to the closing of the frontier.
d. a trend that affected Europe as well.
e. a result of natural reproduction.
The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was
a. the development of skyscraper.
b. the availability of industrial jobs.
c. the compact nature of those large communities
d. the advent of new housing structures known as dumbbell tenements.
e. the lure of cultural excitement.
One of the early symbols of the dawning era of consumerism in urban America was
a. the development of factories.
b. the Sears catalog.
c. advertising billboards.
d. public transportation systems.
e. the rise of large department stores.
Which one of the following has the least in common with the other four?
a. slums
b. dumbbell tenements.
c. bedroom communities.
d. flophouses.
e. the "Lung Block"
The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880
a. had experience with democratic governments.
b. arrived primarily from Germany, Sweden, and Norway.
c. were culturally different from previous immigrants.
d. received a warm welcome from the Old immigrants.
e. represented nonwhite racial groups.
Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape
a. political oppression.
b. famine.
c. the political disintegration of their country.
d. the military draft.
e. the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy.
A "bird of passage" was an immigrant who
a. came to the United States to live permanently.
b. only passed through America on his or her way to Canada.
c. was unmarried.
d. came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe.
e. flew from job to job.
8. Most New Immigrants
a. eventually returned to their county of origin.
b. tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America.
c. were subjected to stringent immigration restrictions.
d. quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life.
e. converted to mainstream Protestantism.
9. In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants
a. believed that a final Judgment Day was coming soon.
b. were driven out of mainstream seminaries and colleges.
c. welcomed ecumenical conversations with Roman Catholics.
d. sharply criticized American society and American government.
e. rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modem culture.
The Darwinian theory of organic evolution through natural selection affected American religion by
a. turning most scientists against religion.
b. creating a split between religious conservatives who denied evolution and "accomodationists" who supported it.
c. raising awareness of the close spiritual kinship between animals and human beings.
d. causing a revival of the doctrine of original sin.
e. sparking the rise of new denominations based on modem science.
Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following activities except
a. child care.
b. instruction in English.
c. cultural activities.
d. instruction in socialism.
e. social reform lobbying.
The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 1865-1900 was
a. the big city.
b. the West.
c. suburban communities.
d. rural America.
e. New England.
In the 1890s, positions for women as secretaries, department store clerks, and telephone operators were largely reserved for
a. Jews.
b. Irish.
c. African Americans.
d. the college-educated.
e. the native born.
Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following except
a. opposed to factory labor.
b. used as strikebreakers.
c. willing to work for lower wages.
d. difficult to unionize.
e. non-English speaking.
The American Protective Association
a. preached the social gospel that churches were obligated to protect New Immigrants.
b. was led for many years by Florence Kelley and Jane Addams.
c. supported immigration restrictions.
d. established settlement houses in several major cities in order to aid New Immigrants.
e. sought to organize mutual-aid associations.
The religious denomination that responded most favorably to the New Immigration was
a. Roman Catholics.
b. Baptists.
c. Episcopalians.
d. Christian Scientists.
e. Mormons.
The new, research-oriented modem American university tended to
a. focus primarily on theory rather than practical subjects.
b. give a new emphasis to the importance of religion and cultural tradition.
c. take the lead in movements of social and political reform.
d. challenge Charles Darwin's theory of organic evolution and natural selection.
e. de-emphasize religious and moral instruction in favor of practical subjects and professional specialization.
The "pragmatists" were a school of American philosophers who emphasized
a. the provisional and fallible nature of knowledge and value of ideas that solved problems.
b. that ideas were largely worthless and only practical experience should be pursued.
c. that the traditional Greek ideals of Plato and Aristotle should be revived.
d. that scientific experimentation provided a new and absolutely certain basis for knowledge.
e. most academic knowledge was based on "bourgeois" ideas that oppressed the working class.
Americans offered growing support for a free public education system
a. to combat the growing strength of Catholic parochial schools.
b. when the Chautauqua movement began to decline.
c. because they accepted the idea that a free government cannot function without educated citizens.
d. when private schools began to fold.
e. as a way of identifying an intellectual elite.
Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was
a. the vote.
b. rigorous academic training.
c. the rejection of accommodationist attitudes.
d. to directly challenge white supremacy.
e. economic independence.
The post-civil War era witnessed
a. an increase in compulsory school-attendance laws.
b. the collapse of the Chautauqua movement.
c. rejection of the German system of kindergartens.
d. a slow rise in the illiteracy rate.
e. an emphasis on liberal arts colleges.
As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington
a. helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
b. advocated social equality.
c. discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut.
d. promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation.
e. promoted black political activism.
That a "talented tenth" of American blacks should lead the race to full social and political equality with whites was the view of
a. George Washington Carver
b. Booker T. Washington.
c. Ida B. Wells.
d. W. E. B. Du Bois.
e. Paul Laurence Dunbar.
The Morrill Act of 1862
a. established women's colleges like Vassar.
b. required compulsory school attendance through high school.
c. established the modem American research university.
d. mandated racial integration in public schools.
e. granted public lands to states to support higher education.
Black leader Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
a. demanded complete equality for African Americans.
b. established an industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama.
c. supported the goals of Booker T. Washington.
d. was an ex-slave who rose to fame.
e. none of the above.
In the decades after the Civil War, college education for women
a. became more difficult to obtain.
b. was confined to women's colleges.
c. became much more common.
d. resulted in the passage of the Hatch Act.
e. blossomed especially in the South.
Which of the following was not among the major new research universities founded in the post-Civil War era?
a. Harvard University
b. the University of California
c. Johns Hopkins University
d. the University of Chicago

e. Stanford University
During the industrial revolution, life expectancy
a. decreased.
b. changed very little.
c. was much higher in Europe than in the United States.
d. measurably increased.
e. rose for women more than men.
The public library movement across America was greatly aided by the generous financial support from
a. the federal government's Morrill Act.
b. Andrew Carnegie.
c. John D. Rockefeller.
d. local "friends of the library."
e. women's organizations.
American newspapers expanded their circulation and public attention by
a. printing hard-hitting editorials.
b. crusading for social reform.
c. repudiating the tactics of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
d. focusing on coverage of the local community and avoiding syndicated material.
e. printing sensationalist stories of sex and scandal.
Henry George believed that the root of social inequality and social injustice lay in
a. stock speculators and financiers who manipulated the price of real goods and services.
b. labor unions that artificially drove up the prices of wages and therefore goods.
c. landowners who gained unearned wealth from rising land values.
d. businesspeople who gained excessive profits by exploiting workers.
e. patriarchal ideologies that regarded women as inferior domestic beings.
Henry George argued that the windfall real estate profits caused by rising land prices should be
a. taxed at a 100 percent rate by the government.
b. used to provide low-rent housing for the poor.
c. saved and invested for the benefit of the community.
d. looked on as the inevitable consequence of "the survival of the fittest."
e. prevented through communal land ownership.
General Lewis Wallace's book Ben Hur
a. achieved success only after his death.
b. was based on a popular early movie.
c. emphasized that virtue, honesty, and hard work were rewarded by success.
d. detailed Wallace's experiences in the Civil War.
e. defended Christianity against Darwinism.
Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of his work.

A. Lewis Wallace 1. success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work
B. Horatio Alger 2. anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures
C. Henry James 3. contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes and socialism
D. William Dean Howells 4. psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women.

a. A-4, B-2, C-3, D-l
b. A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
c. A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3
d. A-3, B-4, C-I, D-2
e. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-l
American novelists' turn from romanticism and transcendentalism to rugged social realism reflected the
a. influence of Latin American literature.
b. heightened awareness of racial problems.
c. higher educational level of their readers.
d. materialism and conflicts of the new industrial society.
e. growing prominence of women writers.
Which of the following prominent post-Civil War writers did not reflect the increased attention to social problems by those from less affluent backgrounds?
a. Mark Twain.
b. William Dean Howells.
c. Stephen Crane.
d. Kate Chopin.
e. Henry Adams.
In the decades after the Civil War, changes in sexual attitudes and practices were reflected in all of the following except
a. soaring divorce rates.
b. the spreading practice of birth control.
c. more children being born out of wedlock.
d. increasingly frank discussion of sexual topics.
e. more women working outside the home.
In the course of the late nineteenth century,
a. the birthrate increased.
b. the divorce rate fell.
c. family size gradually declined.
d. people tended to marry at an earlier age.
e. children were seen as a greater economic asset.
By 1900, advocates of women's suffrage
a. acknowledged that women were biologically weaker than men but claimed that they deserved the vote anyway.
b. temporarily abandoned the movement for the vote.
c. formed strong alliances with African Americans seeking voting rights.

d. argued that the vote would enable women to extend their roles as mothers and homemakers to the public world.
e. insisted on the inherent political and moral equality of men and women.
One of the most important factors leading to an increased divorce rate in the late nineteenth century was the
a. decline in farm income.
b. stresses of urban life.
c. emerging feminist movement.
d. passage of more liberal divorce laws.
e. decline of religious organizations.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association
a. achieved its central political goal in 1898.
b. conducted an integrated campaign for equal rights.
c. abandoned the goals of Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
d. elected Ida B. Wells as its president.
e. limited its membership to whites.
The growing prohibition movement especially reflected the concerns of
a. the new immigrants.
b. big business.
c. the poor and working classes.
d. middle class women.
e. industrial labor unions.
The term Richardsonian in the late nineteenth century pertained to
a. sculpture.
b. novels.
c. painting.
d. music.
e. architecture.
During industrialization, Americans increasingly
a. had less free time.
b. outlawed cruel and violent sports like boxing.
c. became less involved in physical sports and games.
d. shared a common and standardized popular culture.
e. fragmented into diverse consumer markets.
Which of the following sports was not developed in the decades following the Civil War?
a. basketball
b. bicycling
c. croquet
d. college football
e. baseball