biology 1010 exam 1

1.2. Compare discovery science and hypothesis-driven science. Provide examples of each.
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Ionic: one element loses an electron to another, attracted because one element is now positive, and one is negative. Between ions (charged elements)
Covalent: share electrons
Polar covalent: unequal sharing of electrons
Non-polar: equal sharing of electrons
Hydrogen bonds: The bond between hydrogen and oxygen because of weak charge between charged
2.5 acids and basesAcidity is measured on the pH scale, from 0-14 (0 is acidic, 14 is basic, 7 is neutral) each measure on the pH scale is ten times the last, so 6 would be ten times more acidic (ten times more H+) then 73.2. Describe the special bonding properties of carbon that allow it to form an endless variety of organic molecules.Carbon has four valence electrons so it has four bonding sites, allowing for infinite carbon skeletons.3.3. Compare a dehydration reaction to a hydrolysis reaction.Dehydration: Fuses molecules together, lose water molecule Hydrolysis: Breaks molecules down, gains water molecule3.4. Compare the structures and roles of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides in living organisms. Give examples of each.Monosaccharides: single carbohydrate (like glucose-energy storage) Disaccharides: two carbohydrates linked together (sucrose-energy storage) Polysaccharides: chains of carbohydrates (glycogen-energy in animals, starch-energy in plants, cellulose-structure)3.5. Describe the unique properties of lipids.Non polar-they don't bond with water hydrophobic Fats: Glycerol head with three tails of fatty acids Phospholipids: Phospho head with two tails (polar head, nonpolar tail) Steroids: carbon rings (steroids are lipid hormones) Long term energy storage.3.6. Compare the structure and properties of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.Unsaturated- liquid at room temp.missing hydrogens because the carbons double bond with each other. (oil) Saturated- usually solid at room temp. Has all the hydrogens it can hold. (butter)3.8. Describe the structure of proteins, and explain how the structure of a protein relates to its function.Constitute most enzymes Structure: made of amino acids (with an amino group, carboxyl group, hydrogen and R group bonded to central carbon) Primary structure: peptide sequence. Secondary structure: alpha helix and beta pleated sheet. Tertiary structure: all bonds after hydrogen bonds (hydrophilic and phobic, positive or negative charge) Quaternary structure: multiple proteins combined together.3.9. Describe and compare the structures of DNA and RNA. Which base pairs pair with each other?DNA: double helix, deoxyribose for sugar, ATGC (nitrogenous bases) A to T, C to G. RNA: single helix, ribose for sugar, AUGC for nitrogenous bases. A to U, C to G.4.1. Explain how antibiotics specifically target bacteria while minimally harming the human host.They bind to structures found only on bacterial cells such as the bacterial ribosome or bacterial enzymes.4.2. Compare the following pairs of terms, noting similarities and differences: 1) prokaryotic cells versus eukaryotic cells and 2) plant cells versus animal cells.Prokaryotic: cell walls (peptidoglycan) circular chromosomes no membrane-bound organelles nucleoid region Eukaryotic: Membrane-bound organelles Nucleus X shaped chromosome BOTH HAVE Chromatin (DNA wrapped around histone proteins) Genetic material DNA or RNA Cytoplasm Plant Cell wall (cellulose) Chloroplast Central vacuole Animal Centriole Lysosome4.3. Describe the structure of cell membranes, and explain why the plasma membrane is called a "fluid mosaic."The proteins embedded or are just on the plasma membrane are considered the mosaic in fluid mosaic because they are the parts that can freely move around. The reason why its a "fluid" mosaic is because of the phospholipids that make up the free movement.4.3. Describe the structure of cell membranes, and explain why the plasma membrane is called a "fluid mosaic."the structure of cell membranes: phospholipids, the head is hydrophilic the tell is hydrophobic. The proteins embedded or are just on the plasma membrane are considered the mosaic in fluid mosaic because they are the parts that can freely move around. The reason why its a "fluid" mosaic is because of the phospholipids that make up the free movement.4.5. Explain how the genetic information in the nucleus is used to direct the production of proteins in the cytoplasm.DNA gets transcribed to mRNA. RNA gets read by the ribosomes, every three bases are one peptide link.4.6. Compare the structures and functions of the following components of the endomembrane system nuclear envelope, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.Nuclear envelope: a barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Rough endoplasmic reticulum: ribosomes are attached to the Rough ER. Protein molecules are synthesized and collected in the Rough ER, When enough proteins have been synthesized, they collect and are pinched off in vesicles. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: it is described as "Smooth ER" to distinguish between the Rough ER, the Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and steroid hormones. Golgi apparatus: the modifying, sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion. it can also transport lipids and make lysosomes. Lysosomes: digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. lysosomes are like the stomach of the cell. (lys means to cut) Vacuoles: very large and are extremely important in providing structural support, as well as serving functions such as storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth.4.7. Compare the structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria, and explain what structures in chloroplasts and mitochondria result in adaptive advantages.They both have separate DNA from the nucleus, they both have two membranes4.8. Describe the evidence that suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved by endosymbiosis.they carry their own DNA and have two membranes. Mitochondria came first because they are in all eukaryotic cells (plant and animal)4.9. Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton and compare the structures and functions of cilia and flagella.Cytoskeleton holds the cell shape. Cilia move other stuff. Flagella move THE cell.4.10. Explain how and why antibiotic-resistant bacteria have evolved.Surviving bacteria reproduces with the ability to resist the antibiotic drug. They all are mutant survivors.5.9. Define and distinguish between the following pairs of terms: diffusion versus osmosis, passive transport versus active transport, hypertonic versus hypotonic, and endocytosis versus exocytosis.Diffusion: passive transport of solute down concentration gradient. Osmosis: passive transport of solvent (water) down the concentration gradient. Passive transport: transport that doesn't need energy (down a concentration gradient) -osmosis -diffusion -facilitated diffusion Active transport: requires ATP (moves molecules against the concentration gradient. -endo/exocytosis -active proteins Hypertonic: a salty solution (lots of solute) Hypotonic: low or no solutes Endocytosis: enter the cell with vesicle of the cell membrane Exocytosis: exist cell with vesicle of the cell membrane8.2. Compare the functions, cellular processes, and cellular products of asexual and sexual reproduction.Sexual- cellular process is meiosis, the cellular product is you get 4 different gamete cells Asexual- the cellular process is mitosis, the cellular product is a clone of the somatic cells8.3. Describe the basic structure of a chromosome including how it is packaged into an elaborate, multilevel system of coiling and folding.DNA coils around histones to create a string of chromatin, which folds into chromosomes8.4. Describe key events of each phase of the cell cycle including when chromosomes are duplicated.Interphase [G1, S (duplication of DNA), G2], prophase(chromatin condenses into chromosomes, centrioles send out spindles), metaphase(chromosomes meet in the middle), anaphase(chromosomes separate into sister chromatids), telophase (nucleus starts forming, chromatids start unraveling).8.5. Describe key events of each phase of mitosis, explaining how cytokinesis differs in animal and plant cells.Plants just build a wall. Animals split apart.8.6. Predict consequences of errors in the cell cycle control system including how such errors cause cancer cells to be different from healthy cells, how benign and malignant tumors differ, and what is meant by the "slash, burn, and poison" approach to cancer treatment.Oncogene Tumor suppressor. Malignent moves and spreds throughout the body. Benign just gets bigger. Slash-cuts it out Burn-radiation Poison-kills it with meds (chemotherapy).8.7. Explain how you can reduce your risks of developing cancer or increase your chances of surviving it.Limit alcohol avoid tobacco. Healthiness. Don't stay in the sun for a long amount of time8.8. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms including the structure and function of each: sex chromosomes versus autosomes, somatic cells versus gametes, and diploid versus haploid cells.Sex chromosomes: X and Y structure-X chromosomes normal size, Y-smaller Somatic cells: everything in the body Gametes: sperm and egg cells/reproduction process (zygotes is a fusion of two haploid cells)8.9. Compare the processes and products of meiosis I, meiosis II, and mitosis, explaining how the independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, random fertilization, and crossing over contribute to genetic diversity in offspring.Prophase 1 (chromosomes condense, form homologous pairs. Cross over occurs) Metaphase 1 (line up as homologous pairs. Spindles attach Anaphase 1 (homologous pairs split) Telophase 1 (forms two nuclear envelopes, separated as homologous pair (sister chromatids)) Prophase 2(spindle fibers are attaching to the sister chromatids) Metaphase 2 (chromosomes line up in de middle. And de spindles attach) Anaphase 2 (sister chromatids are getting pulled apart) Tellaphase 2 (cell is creating a cleavage flow, nuclear envelopes form, complete four daughter cells)8.10. Describe the consequences of nondisjunction in autosomes and sex chromosomes.Failure of meiosis resulting in one less or one more sex chromosomes examples: Turner Syndrome x0, Down Syndrome8.12. Explain why asexual and sexual reproduction is adaptiveasexual- reproduce faster, don't find a mate, better in non-changing environments. sexual-better in changing environments, gets rid of harmful mutations.